File:Pancreatic duct developing.jpg

From Embryology

Pancreatic_duct_developing.jpg(400 × 322 pixels, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

Fig. 1101. Pancreas of a human embryo of five weeks


Development (Figs. 1101, 1102). — The pancreas is developed in two parts, a dorsal and a ventral.

The dorsal arises as a diverticulum from the dorsal aspect of the duodenum a short distance above the hepatic diverticulum, and, growing upward and backward into the dorsal mesogastrium, forms a part of the head and uncinate process and the whole of the body and tail of the pancreas.

The ventral part appears in the form of a diverticulum from the primitive bile-duct and forms the remainder of the head and uncinate process of the pancreas.

The duct of the dorsal part (accessory pancreatic duct) therefore opens independently into the duodenum, while that of the ventral part (pancreatic duct) opens with the common bile-duct.

About the sixth week the two parts of the pancreas meet and fuse and a communication is established between their ducts. After this has occurred the terminal part of the accessory duct, i. e., the part between the duodenum and the point of meeting of the two ducts, undergoes little or no enlargement, while the pancreatic duct increases in size and forms the main duct of the gland. The opening of the accessory duct into the duodenum is sometimes obliterated, and even when it remains patent it is probable that the whole of the pancreatic secretion is conveyed through the pancreatic duct.

Pancreatic Duct

The initial formation of the pancreas as two separate lobes each with their own duct that fuses leads a range of anatomical variations in the adult exocrine pancreatic duct. Pancreatic duct five variation classification: common, ansa pancreatica, branch fusion, looped, and separated. Accessory pancreatic duct (APD, of Santorini) in the embryo is the main drainage duct of the dorsal pancreatic bud emptying into the minor duodenal papilla. In the adult it has been further classified as either long-type (joins main pancreatic duct at pancreas neck portion) and short-type (joins main pancreatic duct near first inferior branch).

Main Pancreatic Duct

  • (MPD or Wirsung's duct) forms within the dorsal pancreatic bud and is present in the body and tail of the pancreas.
  • Discovered by Johann Georg Wirsung (1589 - 1643) a German physician who worked as a prosector in Padua.

Accessory Pancreatic Duct

  • (APD or Santorini’s duct) is present mainly in the head of the pancreas.
  • Originally dissected and delineated by Giovanni Domenico Santorini (1681 - 1737) an Italian anatomist.

  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure which allows an injected dye to display the duct system on an x ray (pancreatograms).

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