From Embryology

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The section, which represents rather more than half the breadth of the blastoderm (the middle line being shewn at c), shews that the upper and central parts of the disc segment faster than those below and towards the periphery. At the periphery the segments are still very large. One of the larger segments is shewn at a. In the majority of segments a nucleus can be seen ; and it seems probable that a nucleus is present in all. Most of the segments are filled with highly refracting spherules, but these are more numerous in some cells (especially the larger cells near the yolk) than in others. In the central part of the blastoderm the upper cells have commenced to form a distinct layer.

a. large peripheral cell.

b. larger cells of the lower parts of the blastoderm,

c. middle line of blastoderm,

e. edge of the blastoderm adjoining the white yolk.

w. white yolk.

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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Foster, M., Balfour, F. M., Sedgwick, A., & Heape, W. (1883). The Elements of Embryology. (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co.

The Elements of Embryology (1883)

Volume 1 The History of the Chick: Egg structure and incubation beginning | Summary whole incubation | First day | Second day - first half | Second day - second half | Third day | Fourth day | Fifth day | Sixth day to incubation end
Volume 2 The History of the Mammalian Embryo: General Development | Embryonic Membranes and Yolk-Sac | Organs from Epiblast | Organs from Mesoblast | Alimentary Canal | Appendix

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