File:Braune 1877 plate 4.jpg

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Plate 4. Transverse internal ear

THIS plate does not represent a directly transverse plane section, but an oblique one. In order to bring the relation of the ear well into view the section is taken obliquely backwards and upwards. It commenced close under the nose, and has involved in its course to the external meatus the inferior turbinated bone, the upper portion of the pharynx, the right Eustachian tube, the tympanum and the external meatus, and passing out through the pons Varolii, has divided the upper half of the cerebellum and the posterior lobe of the cerebrum above the external occipital protuberance. The preparation was made from the body of a young man, which presented nothing abnormal. As the section in the posterior half of the left side passes higher than in the right, it is nearer the roof of the left tympanum, whilst on the right it approaches its floor. I convinced myself, however, from many sections, that if there be any deviation of the saw from the proper direction, it is not possible to make a thoroughly symmetrical preparation.


In this plate the objects of chief importance are the relations of the right organ of hearing, the section of which has been so fortunate, that not only the external meatus and the tympanum, but also the first part of the Eustachian tube as well, have been divided. I was never again able to obtain the parts together to such an extent, although I made more than twelve sections in the same direction. Owing to individual variations in the base of the skull in the direction of the Eustachian tube, it is impossible to give any exact definitions for making such a section.


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Braune W. An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (1877) Trans. by Edward Bellamy. Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston.

Plates: 1. Male - Sagittal body | 2. Female - Sagittal body | 3. Obliquely transverse head | 4. Transverse internal ear | 5. Transverse head | 6. Transverse neck | 7. Transverse neck and shoulders | 8. Transverse level first dorsal vertebra | 9. Transverse thorax level of third dorsal vertebra | 10. Transverse level aortic arch and fourth dorsal vertebra | 11. Transverse level of the bulbus aortae and sixth dorsal vertebra | 12. Transverse level of mitral valve and eighth dorsal vertebra | 13. Transverse level of heart apex and ninth dorsal vertebra | 14. Transverse liver stomach spleen at level of eleventh dorsal vertebra | 15. Transverse pancreas and kidneys at level of L1 vertebra | 16. Transverse through transverse colon at level of intervertebral space between L3 L4 vertebra | 17. Transverse pelvis at level of head of thigh bone | 18. Transverse male pelvis | 19. knee and right foot | 20. Transverse thigh | 21. Transverse left thigh | 22. Transverse lower left thigh and knee | 23. Transverse upper and middle left leg | 24. Transverse lower left leg | 25. Male - Frontal thorax | 26. Elbow-joint hand and third finger | 27. Transverse left arm | 28. Transverse left fore-arm | 29. Sagittal female pregnancy | 30. Sagittal female pregnancy | 31. Sagittal female at term
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current15:37, 31 October 2012Thumbnail for version as of 15:37, 31 October 2012909 × 1,000 (246 KB)Z8600021 (talk | contribs){{Braune 1877 header}}