File:Boyden1931 fig04.jpg

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Fig. 4. Cross-sections through 14 mm human embryo

(age, thirty-six to thirty seven days), illustrating what is presumably the youngest known stage in the formation of the horseshoe kidney. (a, b, c, from text figures 47, 48, 49 of embryo “Hg” of His collection (after Keibel, ’96).

a is eighteen sections (each 6.6 /4) above b, and the latter is eighteen sections above c. Note increas ingly intimate fusion of right and left kidney masses (R.7c., L.k.) in passing from superior to inferior levels, until maximum fusion is reached at point where kidneys (K) are emerging from embrace of umbilical arteries (L. and R.umb.a.). Um, ureter; 17., posterior cardinal veins; W.b., Wolflian body; W.d., Wolflian duct.


Boyden EA. Description of a horseshoe kidney associated with left inferior vena cava and disc-shaped suprarenal glands, together with a note on the occurrence of horseshoe kidneys in human embryos. (1931) Anat. Rec. 51(2): 187-211.

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, February 23) Embryology Boyden1931 fig04.jpg. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G

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