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Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a group of procedures that involve the in vitro (outside of body) handling of human oocytes (eggs) and sperm or embryos for the purposes of establishing a pregnancy. Each ART treatment involves a number of stages and is generally referred to as an ART treatment cycle. The embryos transferred to a woman can either originate from the cycle in which they were created (fresh cycle) or be frozen (cryopreserved) and thawed before transfer (thaw cycle).

There were 84,064 ART treatment cycles reported from Australian and New Zealand fertility clinics in 2018 (76,341 and 7,723 respectively), representing an increase of 1.9% in Australia and 6.2% in New Zealand from 2017. This equates to 14.8 cycles per 1,000 women of reproductive age (15–44 years) in Australia, compared with 7.9 cycles per 1,000 women of reproductive age in New Zealand. Women used their own oocytes or embryos (autologous cycles) in 94.1% of treatments. Embryos and oocytes that had been frozen and thawed were used in 36.9% of autologous cycles.

There were 41,927 women who undertook 79,072 autologous fresh and/or thaw cycles in Australia and New Zealand in 2018. On average, 1.9 autologous fresh and/or thaw cycles per woman were undertaken in 2018, with more cycles per woman in Australia (1.9 cycles per woman) than in New Zealand (1.7 cycles per woman). The number of cycles where embryos were selected using preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) marginally decreased from 9,169 in 2017 to 9,124 in 2018.

Over the last five years the proportion of cycles where all oocytes or embryos were cryopreserved for potential future use (freeze-all cycles) has doubled from 13% of initiated fresh cycles in 2014 to 26.7% in 2018. This practice is used for a variety of reasons, including reducing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), improving endometrial - embryo synchronicity, as part of a PGT cycle or for fertility preservation.


Links: Assisted Reproductive Technology | Australian Statistics


Newman JE, Paul RC, Chambers GM 2020. Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2018. Sydney: National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit, the University of New South Wales, Sydney.

© Copyright UNSW Sydney 2020

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, February 22) Embryology Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand 2018.jpg. Retrieved from

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© Dr Mark Hill 2024, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G

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