File:AnsonKarabinMartin1939 fig18-21.jpg

From Embryology

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Figs. 18 to 21. Reconstructions of the osseous and the cartilaginous portion of the base of the stapes

tympanic aspect; X 28.

figures 18 and 19, infant 3 months old

figures 20 and 21, adult 70 years old


In these and in the succeeding figures ant. crus. indicates anterior crus of stapes; cart. or cartil., cartilage; far. c., facial canal ; fen. cart, fenestral cartilage; fiss. a. f., fissula ante fenestram; fiss. cart, fissular cartilage; foss. p. f., fossula post fenestram; hav. sp., haversian spaces; mm. membn, mucous membrane; obt. membr., obturator membrane; perich., perichondrium; post. crus, posterior crus ; pryr, pyramid; sc. tymp, scala tympani; semis. t. t. m., semicanal for tensor tympani muscle; st. lig., stapedial ligament; t. c. or tymp. cavity, tympanic cavity; t. o. foss., tympanic orifice of fossula; v. or vest, vestibule; vestib. orif. or v. o. fiss, vestibular orifice of fissula, and v. o. foss., vestibular orifice of fossula.

Age and Length Series Side Figures
17 fetal weeks (135 mm) 5 Left 60
19.5 fetal weeks (161 mm) 13 Left 61
21.5 fetal weeks (183 mm) 21 Left 62
Fetus at term Apr. 21 Right 1, 2, 13 to 15
3 mo. 2/ 1/32 Left 7, 8, 16 to 19, 63
3 yr. 6/18/29 Left 3, 4, 22, 23
18 yr. 1/17/31 Left 9, 10, 24, 25
57 yr. 1/14/33 Left 11, 12, 26 to 28
70 yr. 3/ 3/34 Left 5, 6, 20, 21, 29, 30, 64 A
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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Anson BJ. Karabin JE. and Martin J. Stapes, fissula ante fenestram and associated structures in man: II. From Fetus at Term to Adult of Seventy (1938) Arch. Otolaryng. 28: 676-697.

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