From Embryology

This Embryology category shows pages and media related to French embryology topics. This is mainly statistics and historic embryologists.

  • Population - 66,553,766 metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233 (July 2015 est.)
  • Birth Rate - 12.38 births/1,000 population (2015 est.)
  • Maternal mortality rate - 8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
  • Infant mortality rate - 3.28 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Total fertility rate - 2.08 children born/woman (2015 est.)
Links: Nicole Le Douarin



French regions - Ain, Brittany and Loire-Atlantique

French Ain babies Missing limb births prompt national inquiry (BBC News)

France has launched a national investigation into the number of babies being born with limb agenesis (entire missing upper limbs, missing forearms and hands, or fingers) just weeks after an initial inquiry closed. The cases were clustered in the Ain, Brittany and Loire-Atlantique regions. The cause is still unknown, but may relate to local developmental environmental abnormalies.

Links: Environmental Abnormalies | Limb Abnormalities

French Researchers

Louis Sébastien Tredern de Lézérec (1780-18?)

Beetschen JC. (1995). Louis Sébastien Tredern de Lézérec (1780-18?), a forgotten pioneer of chick embryology. Int. J. Dev. Biol. , 39, 299-308. PMID: 7669542

"Tredern's thesis on chick embryo development was submitted in Jena (Germany) in 1808 and seems to have been completely overlooked by historians of embryology during the 20th century. However, K.E. von Baer and C. Pander were much interested in that thesis in 1816-1817, when they resumed work on the chick embryo. Tredern, who was born in France in 1780, had then left Germany and abandoned his studies, but von Baer tried to find trace of him throughout his life, wanting to pay homage to his pioneer work. Von Baer published a short biographical notice (1874), which was later extended by Stieda (1901). The accuracy of Tredern's observations and the reasons that could have justified von Baer's interest are discussed. Tredern went back to Paris in 1811 to submit a second medical thesis, the value of which is also considered. It is also shown that, in the teaching of embryology, 18th century preformation concepts were still vivid, remaining in French textbooks of the period 1800-1830. This situation strongly contrasts with the new epigenetic views that were developed by the German scientists with whom Tredern had performed his studies."


Velpeau A. Embryology or human ovology: containing the descriptive and iconographic history of the human egg (Embryologie ou ovologie humaine : contenant l'histoire descriptive et iconographique de l'oeuf humain) (1833)

Balbiani EG. Recherches sur les phénomenes sexuels des Infusoires. (1864) J. de la Physiol. 4: 102-130.

Balbiani EG. Recherches sur les phénomenes sexuels des Infusoires. (1864) J. de la Physiol. 4: 194- 220.

Duval M. Atlas d'embryologie (1889) G. Masson, Libraire De L'académie De Médecine Paris, France.

Volcher R. Le systeme nerveux pe'riphe'rique cninien d'un embryon humain de 12 mm. (1959) Arch. Biol. (Liege), 70:179-215.

Media in category 'France'

The following 11 files are in this category, out of 11 total.