Difference between revisions of "ANAT2341 Lab 2"

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PRACTICAL CLASS PROGRAM:
=Week 1 to 3 Development=
 
{{ANAT2341Lab2}}
 
  
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* Weekly Quiz + revision (15 minutes)
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* Practical class activities: (45 minutes)
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* Guest Lecture by [https://wch.med.unsw.edu.au/people/associate-professor-robert-gilchrist Professor Robert Gilchrist] (45 minutes)
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* Practical Class Revision (15 minutes)
  
==Oocyte Biology Research Unit==
 
[[File:Oocyte BMP15 and GDF9 effects.jpg|thumb|Oocyte BMP15 and GDF9 effects PMID 25058588]]
 
{|
 
|-bgcolor="FAF5FF"
 
! Associate Professor Robert Gilchrist
 
|-
 
| Talk - The Reproductive Technology Revolution
 
|-
 
| [[File:Rob Gilchrist.jpg|left|150px]]
 
  
Dr Gilchrist’s primary research interests are in the regulation of mammalian oocyte development and maturation, and the development of novel oocyte maturation techniques for infertility treatment.
 
|-bgcolor="FAF5FF"
 
| [https://research.unsw.edu.au/people/associate-professor-robert-bruce-gilchrist UNSW Research Gateway] - [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Gilchrist+R%5BAuthor%5D PubMed]
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
===Recent Articles===
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PRACTICAL CLASS ACTIVITIES:
<pubmed>26254468</pubmed>
 
  
:"The cyclic nucleotides, cAMP and cGMP, are the key molecules controlling mammalian oocyte meiosis. Their roles in oocyte biology have been at the forefront of oocyte research for decades and many of the long standing controversies in relation to the regulation of oocyte meiotic maturation are now resolved. It is now clear that the follicle prevents meiotic resumption through the actions of natriuretic peptides and cGMP inhibiting the hydrolysis of intra-oocyte cAMP and that the preovulatory gonadotrophin surge reverses these processes. The gonadotrophin surge also leads to a transient spike in cAMP in the somatic compartment of the follicle; research over the past 2 decades has conclusively demonstrated that this surge in cAMP is important for the subsequent developmental capacity of the oocyte. This is important, as oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) systems practiced clinically do not recapitulate this cAMP surge in vitro, possibly accounting for the lower efficiency of IVM compared to clinical IVF. This review focuses in particular on this latter aspect - the role of cAMP/cGMP in the regulation of oocyte quality. We conclude that clinical practice of IVM should reflect this new understanding of the role of cyclic nucleotides, thereby creating a new generation of ART and fertility treatment options."
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# Virtual human embryo dissections and histology
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# Embryo models and specimens of human developmental abnormalities (optional)
  
<pubmed>27248769</pubmed>
 
<pubmed>27160446</pubmed>
 
  
  
{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
! Cumulin
 
|-
 
| <pubmed>26254468</pubmed>
 
  
:"Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions, and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes. We found that the potent synergistic actions of GDF9 and BMP15 on GC can be attributed to the formation of a heterodimer, which we have termed cumulin. Structural modelling of cumulin revealed a dimerization interface identical to homodimeric GDF9 and BMP15, indicating likely formation of a stable complex. This was confirmed by generation of recombinant heterodimeric complexes of pro/mature domains (pro-cumulin) and covalent mature domains (cumulin). Both pro-cumulin and cumulin exhibited highly potent bioactivity on GC, activating both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways, and promoting proliferation and expression of a set of genes associated with oocyte-regulated GC differentiation. Cumulin was more potent than pro-cumulin, pro-GDF9, pro-BMP15 or the two combined on GC. However, on cumulus-oocyte complexes, pro-cumulin was more effective than all other growth factors at notably improving oocyte quality as assessed by subsequent day 7 embryo development. Our results support a model of activation for human GDF9 dependant on cumulin formation through heterodimerization with BMP15. Oocyte-secreted cumulin is likely to be a central regulator of fertility in mono-ovular mammals."
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* Understanding of reproductive technologies
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* Understanding of events during early ectoderm and mesoderm development
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* Understanding of the process of neurulation and neural crest formation
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* Understanding of the adult components derived from ectoderm and mesoderm
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* Understanding the process of body cavity formation
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* Brief understanding of early heart formation
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* Brief understanding of abnormalities associated with early ectoderm and mesoderm development
  
:[[OMIM References|'''OMIM''']]: [http://omim.org/entry/601918 GDF9] | [http://omim.org/entry/300247 BMP15]  | [http://omim.org/entry/601366 SMAD2]
 
  
:'''Links:''' [[Developmental Signals - TGF-beta]]
 
  
==Objectives==
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PRACTICAL CLASS NOTES:
  
[[User:Z8600021|Mark Hill]] ([[User talk:Z8600021|talk]]) 10:59, 11 August 2016 (AEST) The following remainder of the class on fertilisation may be worked through independently online. I will also be introducing the Group Project after the guest researcher presentation.
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The Practical class notes are available on [https://moodle.telt.unsw.edu.au/mod/url/view.php?id=2398854 Moodle].
 
 
 
 
# Identify the key features of fertilization.
 
# Identify the key features of week 1 development.
 
# Identify the key features of week 2 development.
 
# Complete the individual assessment 2.
 
# Group assessment project.
 
 
 
==Fertilization Reviews==
 
 
 
# [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18649281 Review of sperm penetration through cumulus mass and zona pellucida]
 
# [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22054237 Review of sperm-egg interaction]
 
# [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22217572 Review of parthenogenesis]
 
 
 
==Human development timeline==
 
 
 
[[File:Human development timeline graph 01.jpg|600px]]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
{{ANAT2341Lab2}}
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
{{2016ANAT2341}}
 

Latest revision as of 12:41, 26 September 2019

PRACTICAL CLASS PROGRAM:

  • Weekly Quiz + revision (15 minutes)
  • Practical class activities: (45 minutes)
  • Guest Lecture by Professor Robert Gilchrist (45 minutes)
  • Practical Class Revision (15 minutes)


PRACTICAL CLASS ACTIVITIES:

  1. Virtual human embryo dissections and histology
  2. Embryo models and specimens of human developmental abnormalities (optional)


LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

  • Understanding of reproductive technologies
  • Understanding of events during early ectoderm and mesoderm development
  • Understanding of the process of neurulation and neural crest formation
  • Understanding of the adult components derived from ectoderm and mesoderm
  • Understanding the process of body cavity formation
  • Brief understanding of early heart formation
  • Brief understanding of abnormalities associated with early ectoderm and mesoderm development


PRACTICAL CLASS NOTES:

The Practical class notes are available on Moodle.