Lab Assessment 1
The above article has suggested that vitamin D may have an impact on human reproduction. The aim of the investigation was to see if vitamin D levels can help predict rate of implantation and clinical pregnancy in infertile women after having IVF (in vitro fertilisation).
The following method was used to perform the investigation. Vitamin D status as determined by serum 25(Oh) D levels were evaluated amongst a group of woman who went for IVF. 182 women were recruited and of that 172 were included for analysis. Woman who were aged 18-41 years, had FSH level 12 IU/L or lower and were able to provide informed consent were included in the study. Third party reproduction cycle, those with uterine abnormalities and language barriers were excluded. The participants underwent a normal IVF cycle. Standard agonist and antagonist protocols were used. Busrelin acetate was used in the agonist protocol and cetrolix acetate or ganirelix acetate was used in antagonist protocol. Controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation was achieved by recombinant or purified FSH with or without LH or human menopausal gonadotropin. The doses of the medication were determined on individual basis.
Ovarian response was examined by serial transvaginal ultrasonography as well as through serum lutenizing and estradiol assay. Serum25 (OH) D samples had been collected before oocytes were retrieved. Nuclear maturation was triggered with HcG.Oocytes were retrieved under ultrasound guidance transverginally 36-38 hours following injection of HCG. On day 3-5 after fertilisation, embryo was transferred and vaginal progesterone was used for luteal phase support.
Patients were classified into sufficient (greater than 75nmol/L of vitamin D) and insufficient levels(less than 75nmol/L). From results, those from sufficient group showed to be more likely to undergo embryo transfer on day 5( 71.8% as statistically analysed) compared to woman from insufficient group ( 58.9%). Higher clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was discovered amongst woman with sufficient level compare to woman with insufficient level. They also found higher clinical pregnancy per embryo transfer in the sufficient group of woman. Implantation rate was observed to be higher in sufficient group however this was not statistically significant. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, BMI and day 5 verses day 3 embryo transfers showed that serum level was an independent predictor of clinical pregnancy. Woman in this study with sufficient vitamin D level had a higher rate of clinical pregnancy following IVF compare with woman with insufficient level. Vitamin D supplement could provide an easy and cost effective way of improving pregnancy rate in woman undergoing IVF.
<pubmed>24834703</pubmed> Properties of Zona Pellucida are believed to be important for oocyte cytoplasmic maturation and meiotic spindle for chromosomal alignment and proper separation of maternal chromosome. This study aimed to find the possible effect of ZP birefringment properties and mitotic spindle visualisation and localisation as a predictor of IVF outcome.
This was a perspective study performed over 16 months at Medical University of Bialystok Poland where 51 patients undergoing IVF-ET (In vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were included. Of 51 couples 39 had unexplained infertility and 12 had mild male factor. Two different methods for controlled ovarian hyper stimulation were used.
1. Long protocol (n=32) – The drug used was GNRH agonist Diphereline SR. It is a recombinant form of FSH.
2. Antagonist protocol (n=19). FSH and GNRH antagonist was used.
Ovulation was induced with HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in all patients. Oocyte retrieved transvaginally under ultrasound guidance 36 hours after HCG injection. Oocyte denudation was performed using hyaluronidase. Before intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) non invasive measuring with Olympus X7 inverted microscope was performed. Through this 228 cumulus oophorus were selected to be examined. 31were excluded due to inadequate oocyte maturation. Examination was done in different ways. 1. ZP birefringence was evaluated in a scale of 0degree to 4degree, 2. ZP autoscoring was performed, 3. ZP numeral autoscoring was performed, 4.MS visualisation, 5.Spindle detection and localisation of MS in relation to polar body.
Detection was grouped as: 1. Oocyte with spindle forming at less than 30 degree 2. 30-45 degree 3. 45-120 degree and 4. More than 120 degree, to PB. Oocytes whose spindles were located to be in another position where rotated in such way that the injected needle did not penetrate it. After this, oocytes were able to be divided into 3 groups. Group1: Embryo selected for transfer and outcome- day 14 after ET positive pregnancy test. Group 2: Embryo selected-day 14 after ET negative pregnancy test, Group 3: Embryo was not selected for transfer.
Autoscores obtained in all three groups were nearly identical and no statistically difference were found in study groups. MS localisation in relation to PB was very close ( <450) in 70.9% of oocytes. The rate of MS positive oocyte was highest in group with pregnancy but statistically not significant. Between oocyte selected and non-selected for ET, no statistically significant difference is numeral score of ZP was found. ZP manual evaluation indicated stronger bifringement when pregnancy was not achieved. The rate of MS positive oocyte was higher in group with pregnancy. None of this was statistically significant so it was concluded that polarisation microscopy imaging and rating of ZP and MS cannot be a direct predictor of IVF outcome.
--Mark Hill These articles are good for fertilisation. (5/5)
Lab Online Assessment 2-IMAGE
A)Different angle of a control embryo showing endoderm, notochord and floor plate in white. (B-H)- Adriamycin treated embryos immunostained for HNF3β demonstrating morphological abnormalities. Abnormal notochord branching is indicated with red arrow while different fore gut abnormalities are indicated with green arrow.
Copyright: © 2011 Hajduk et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
--Mark Hill You needed to have remained the image file with a name identifying what it is showing, also include the reference, copyright and student template here as well as on your student page. This is so the information is always associated with the file itself no matter where it is used. You do not need to put the student template here on your page only with the file. (3/5)
Lab Online Assessment 3
Abnormalities that can occur in GIT system during fetal development
List of research/articles:
1.<pubmed>22777173</pubmed> 2.<pubmed>3832654</pubmed> 3.
- Charles D. Bluestone M.D., Roy Kerry M.D. andWilliam K. Sieber M.D,2009,January,Congenital esophageal stenosis†‡,The Laryngoscope,volume79,issue 6,1095–1104,http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/doi/10.1288/00005537-196906000-00004/pdf}}
--Mark Hill These are appropriate references, I do not understand why you have formatted reference 3 differently? (4/5)
Lab Online Assessment 4
1. Identify a paper that uses cord stem cells therapeutically and write a brief (2-3 paragraph) description of the paper's findings.
Successful Stem Cell Therapy Using Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells for Buerger's Disease and Ischemic Limb Disease Animal Model
The study found a possibility of treating Buerger’s disease patients by using MSC ( Mesenchymal stem cells) that came from human umbilical cord blood(UCB). Results supported the theory of angiogenesis as being a therapeutic mechanism used by UCB derived MSC in patients with Buerger’s disease.
Through Angiography, it was discovered that in affected lesion, there was an increase in capillary formation and decrease vascular resistance when UCB derived MSC was transplanted to patients with Buerger’s disease. Furthermore ischemic rest pain reduced more rapidly (within 2 weeks) than the formation of new capillaries which took 120 days after the Angiography.
Buerger’s disease is not common in animals so femoral artery ligation was performed to induce limb ischemia in animals. This was followed by medium control and un-injected control. Limb salvage was not observed in either medium control or uninjected control. 1 day after femoral artery ligation, extensive forefoot necrosis was observed and this lead to spontaneous amputation in 70% (7 out of 10) in both controls. Preserved limb was observed in 3 out of 7 of uninjected control while in contrast, 5 out of 8 mice with UCB derived MSC transplant was associated with successful limb salvage. Foot necrosis was limited in only 4 of 8 with necrotic lesions being healed within a month and only 38% with UCB derived MSC transplant showed spontaneous limb amputation. So there was statistical significance between UCB derived MSC treated mice and medium and uninjected controls therefore showing that UCB derived MSC blood stem cells can have therapeutic use for Buerger’s disease.
2.There are a number of developmental vascular "shunts" present in the embryo, that are closed postnatally. Identify these shunts and their anatomical location.
Ductus Venosus: It is a temporary blood vessel (fetal vein) carrying oxygenated blood. It bypasses through the fetal liver, originating at the left umbilical vein (at the placenta) and going to the inferior vena cava to the heart of the fetus.
Ductus Arteriosus: is a blood vessel in the developing fetus which lies between the left pulmonary artery and the proximal descending aorta of the fetus and thus connecting them. It bypasses the lung to distribute oxygen which is received through the placenta from the mother’s blood.
Foramen Ovale: is an opening located between two atria which bypasses the lung to allow blood to be channelled in the systemic circulation. Blood enters the right atrium then through foramen ovale and into the left atrium.
--Mark Hill Your summary does not describe what "Buerger’s disease" actually is (thromboangiitis obliterans), an inflammatory vasculopathy. Structure your summaries so that they make sense to any reader/assessor. Shunts are correct. (3/5)
Lab Online Assessment 5
The larynx develops from endodermal lining and the adjacent mesenchyme of the foregut between 4th and 6th Branchial arches. The foregut is first identifiable at 20 days gestation and ventral laryngotracheal groove differentiates into primitive laryngeal sulcus by 22 days and right and left lung buds appear by 24 days.The laryngotracheal groove continues to deepen until its lateral edges fuse.
The failure of recanalisation of the laryngotracheal tube and therefore the non-development of the 6th brachial arch during embryological development causes Laryngeal atresia, a type of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome which is usually fatal. This rare anomaly occurs during the 3rd month of gestation and the larynx remains blocked by cartilage and other tissue and therefore there is complete absence of lumen in a new born baby. There have been reported of 50 reported cases of larynx atresia in world literature.
Laryngeal atresia may be associated with other genetic abnormalities such as left persistent superior vena cava, single umbilical artery, oesophageal atresia and renal agenesis.  Partial trisomy 9 and 16, chromosome 5p deletion and 22q11.2 were also suggested as associated causes of Laryngeal atresia. 
- Tewfik T.L.,Meyers A.D.,2013,July,Congenital Laryngeal Atresia, Cysts, and Lymphangioma, Medscape, [ONLINE] Available at:http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/837630-overview
--Mark Hill You have cited Medscape as a source, that is not appropriate I want to see citation from the research literature rather than an online review. Your second reference does not relate to the topic, are you checking your work? Minor, you need help with your reference formatting, you should have resolved this by now this far into the course and project work. (2/5)
Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.
The study was to investigate the role of Hes1 in thyroid development. The Hes1 expression was measured during Thyroid differentiation. Thyroid development in mice lacking in Hes1 was also studied. During normal mice thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards. The findings revealed dual role of Hes1 during Thyroid development, first-control of number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors (via p57-independent mechanism) and second-adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells. Mice with Hes1 mutation showed severe thyroid hypoplasia and also decreased production of T4 and calcitonin. Results also suggested Hes1 expression was required for the developing thyroid gland to reach its normal size and shape.
Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.
Two types of teeth develop. Deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. Teeth develop from oral ectoderm, mesenchyme and neural crest cells. The tooth enamel is derived from the ectoderm of the oral cavity while the rest of the tissues differentiate from neural crest cells and mesenchyme. Tooth development involves induction between neural crest mesenchyme and oral epithelium.
--Mark Hill Once again, explain what Hes1 actually is before going into your summary. You need to spend some more time on these assessment items, it does not seem that you are understanding the content. Tooth summary is OK. (4/5)
Lab 8 Online Assessment
1.Provide a brief time course and overview of embryonic development of either the human testis or ovary. (2-3 paragraphs)
The primitive sex cells are developed in 4th week by proliferation of endodermal cells of dorsal wall of hindgut. The primordial germ cells appear beneath the surface epithelium of genital ridge after dorsal migration from endodermal wall of hindgut. During later part of 5th week, sex cells reach genital ridge. First sex cords containing germ cells projects from surface epithelium to the medulla of the genital ridge, this forms “rete ovarii”. The medullary sex cords regresses to form vascular and replaced by vascular stroma. When sex cells appear in cortex, medulla regresses and cortex is converted into the ovary. 
In the embryo, Chromosomal sex directs the development of ovaries. Initially, undifferentiated gonad contain product of WNT4 and SOX9 genes. Usually SOX9 inhibit the function of WNT4, in absence of SRY genes the function of SOx9 is withdrawn therefore uninhibited WNT4 responsible for formation of ovary from cortex of undifferentiated gonadal ridge.  The gonadal sex becomes apparent in ovaries in 8th or 9th week. The absence of Y chromosome results in the development of female phenotype, with or without formation of ovary
Each ovary is developed from the cortex of the undifferentiated genital ridge. The second generation of sex cords develops from the surface epithelium to the cortex. The sex cords are broken into different fragments and each fragmented mass forms the primary ovarian follicle and contain oogonium. Oogonium is surrounded by follicular cells which are derived from mesenchyme or sex cords. The surface epithelium of the ovary is thick and undergo proliferation and so it is known as germinal epithelium. At birth each ovary contain about 2.5 million primary follicles. Most follicles degenerate and are replaced by interstitial cells. Only few un-encapsulated sex cells undergo successive maturation in each menstrual cycle. 
The ovary develops only from the middle part of the genital ridge. The cephalic part of the genital ridge forms suspensory ligament of the ovary and the caudal part incorporates with gubernaculum. The primitive ovary lies retro-peritoneally of the dorsal abdominal wall. The gubernaculum of ovary is an intermediate attachment to developing uterus which drags the ovary into the pelvis. The proximal part of gubernaculum forms ligament ovary and distal part forms round ligament of uterus.
2. Include an image from the historic genital embryology section of the online notes in your description.
Transverse section of the ovary of a fox embryo. Primitive ova seen as the large clear cells
--Mark Hill This is much better than your previous assessment items. (5/5)
Lab 9 Online Assessment
The group has provided a well summarised introduction of the respiratory system including its main function and the main anatomical features of it (conducting zone, respiratory zone) explanation was easy to understand. They have also explained the two stages (embryonic and fetal) and explained one of the key events that occur in the fetal stage Not only that but there is further information of what happens after fetal stage as its’ development continuous postnatal. In addition there is diagram to help aid in visualising these anatomical features and how it looks as it develop, however there is no labels in the diagram and so readers are unable to understanding its significance nor visualise correctly. Some of the diagrams are randomly pasted into the site with no explanation or context.
There is good choice of subheading clearly stating what it will be talking about and the use of a table to illustrate the fetal stage in development of the respiratory system is well put. It makes it easy to understand and summarises the key fetal stage events, allowing reader to easily orientate at what time frame, a particular feature is developing into. Research findings are relevant to the topic and recent, having it in short paragraph helped in understanding what was found from the research articles however some of the findings seemed incomplete towards the end, a bit more information could be added and there is information about a proposed model under the recent research heading, this could be misleading to the reader. Historic finding is well written its clear, to the point and correct headings have been used. Good use of time dates (shows research) and historic drawings are simple and relevant to the information given besides them.
There is an adequate amount of abnormalities with main ones explaining who it affects and problems associated with it. One of the abnormality is not defined however rest shows research has been done and good use of image, shows it in real life context. Overall the project has shown research has been done especially in historic findings and abnormalities. Some of the information in the introduction has not been citied however the information that has been is correctly citied (including the pictures). To make it look neater I would suggest having reference as a 1 whole list at the bottom of the page. Good use of the table
This group has put appropriate subheadings which follow the learning aim of embryology. Introduction is not to long could cut down on the physiology of the renal system and put more in its anatomical features and its development in fetal stage, also like how they introduced abnormalities in the introduction. There is no historic finding and I would suggest the historic findings being underneath the timeline heading. There is a basic timeline which is good as it helps clearing and understanding the key event occurring at a particular time frame. Good integration of recent finding and model and image was relevant and easy to interpret. Could include a bit more recent research.
The development of each component of the renal system is well structured. Each structure involved in the renal system is clearly shown as a heading. For kidney it is good there is a brief outline of what happens in the embryonic stage as kidney’s and then more detail explanation of development of the different parts of the kidney in the fetal stage. It helps readers to understand the basic start of kidney development to then understand how it grows form there in the fetal stage. Urethra and Bladder is well explained clear and concise, it shows research has been done while Ureter needs more work put into it, it looks incomplete and reader is left unsure of when the event are occurring.
Overall a well orientated project referencing is in correct format there is just some error with the reference under the Ureter heading which needs to be fixed ( have same format as the rest of the group project). Images used were excellent as there was a variety of historic picture, simple drawings and labelled diagrams. They were correctly referenced and labelled helping showing a good understanding of the topic and helping teach readers. For variety could possibly use a table for timeline and maybe video.
There are key points relating to the topic shown in table format and bullet points. The table is well used for the timeline of events occurring in both female and male and provides simplicity however it looks incomplete and disorganise. Majority of the table shows embryonic stage and female development looks incomplete. Under the timeline there is a paragraph introducing the genital system development, it does not fit there and does not flow with the information given in the timeline above. There is also diagram placed below it with which is not labelled however it is relevant and good as it provides an overview of how the two different genitals develop.
Current research and model heading has some relevant information such as what signalling and growth factor could affect the system in development as well as showing mouse models being used however there is some irrelevant information that doesn’t clearly show what model is being used such as that under the “Female” heading. It looks like they have just stated the event occurring in the development. There isn’t much research shown in this section.
Historic findings is well researched for male genital system. It’s clear and shows events occurring in chronological order. Appropriate information is used and it’s highly detailed for testicular descent and prostate formation however some information is not citied. A picture or video could be included in this section to make it more understandable and engaging. The female historic finding does not have a time frame into when in history theories of its formation occurred. There is also no subheading like that of male system to make it clear and distinct. Diagram of mullerian duct is good and relevant just needs clearer information about vagina formation and ovary, possibly could include a diagram of either vagina, uterus or ovary formation.
Abnormality section is well written, it is organised appropriately by first discussing male abnormality and then female abnormality and then both. It clearly defines the abnormality and there is a range of picture that relate with the information given used (hand drawn and labelled diagram).
Overall the headings in this project page are related to the objects of the assignment, some good use of drawings and diagram however they need to be better organised (such as the very first diagram) and some are not properly labelled which needs to be fixed. Group has also shown a relevant video of development of reproductive system however it looks out of place on the page needs to be placed somewhere better. The research model section has some key points relating to their topic however some section talks too much of embryonic period which not relevant to the project. More pictures could be added into this section and information could be better organised instead of having list of points where some don’t relate with the point above it. Citation and reference is correctly done however having a list throughout the page and also at the end makes it look disorganised. Having in one section would make it neater and easier for readers to navigate.
The page is well organised, key points relating to topic is clearly described in the “development overview section”. Not only do they put in dot point keeping it short and to the point there is also table and diagrams appropriately used to enhance understanding of development of skin in fetal stage. It shows they have understood the topic. Particular liked the teeth table as it showed good understanding of the phase in its development and it was clear and to the point. Hair section could be written in dot point just to have consistency with rest of information and the diagram in gland section could be placed on the opposite side, it disorganise the information when placed in the middle. Overall good overview nail section could include picture.
Recent findings although incomplete there is good research provided on skin and hair follicle. There should be 1 or 2 more research findings included for either for nail or gland however with what it written on the page it is relevant and in-depth. Could put it in dot points so that readers don’t lose interest in reading the whole thing and also so it’s easier to understand. Diagram is labelled and relates to the second recent finding information showing sufficient level of research. Although mentioned mouse model there is no other models mentioned for any of the Integumentary development, should make a subheading for it and try including 2-3 models.
In historic findings the hair section is well written shows good understanding and appropriate subheadings have been used (structure, Development). Its in chronological order and key points have been addressed, other structures doesn’t show enough research being done its basic and incomplete for example Skin. In this section some labelled diagram would make it more engaging to read.
Abnormalities is well written it is clear and they are all defined with real life pictures associated with the abnormalities making it easier to visualise. Thorough research is evident in this section and it is of appropriate length. Overall the project page is well organised and quite engaging having table format, historic pictures as well as real life picture and even adding colour to the page. Could maybe include video onto the page. Reference is in the correct format and it’s good that there is list at the end of the page, maybe for consistency just have reference at the end instead of both (throughout the page and at the end). Recent findings could be simplified further while more information could be added for recent model and for historic findings for some structures.
The page is well formatted in terms with heading and choice of content such as diagrams, tables and graphs. Having the different organs as headings is good as it allows the readers to take in information in a logical manner. It is good that timeline is included under each organ heading shows understanding of the whole endocrine system by breaking it down organ by organ however each sections is not consistent with the other one. Some has development overview while others write timeline I would suggest to keep it as same heading for all. There is good description of each organ at the beginning of each section and in the timeline there is key events described showing understanding and helping to learn.
All sections are incomplete in some form or another. The diagram used are good and relevant especially the pancreas cells diagram. It is well explained and shoes evidence of research. Pineal gland timeline looks incomplete or doesn’t show evidence of enough research however the recent finding is relevant and good in this section, other sections have not included recent finding showing some lack of research. Other sections also have incomplete tables and could put diagrams or drawings to so information can be better understood for readers. A video or two could also be added on the page and a section for historic finding should be added under each headings.
Overall there is some good information that shows evidence of research in the development of the different endocrine organs however there is lack of models and research findings as well as historic findings, even abnormalities are not well explained in each headings. It is not easy to navigate as each headings are not consistent with each other however the diagrams used are relevant and properly explained and citied. There is also good use of table to enhance understanding of hormones involved and with few adjustments page will look organised and be logical to read. Reference is done correctly however it would make it more engaging and easier to follow if in text reference was done and having a list of the reference at the end. A short paragraph in the introduction would also help readers understand exactly what is involved in endocrine system.
The introduction clearly divides the system in two parts and then provides a good brief overview of the CNS, which is relating to the topic as it helps to clearly understand the anatomical component of CNS system. Good brief description of embryonic stage so that readers can understand the later fetal stage. The diagram used is relevant in the introduction section and correctly citied however it could be a bit overwhelming maybe have a brief explanation of it underneath explaining what is happening the right hand bottom corner of it. There is evidence of understanding shown through the timeline of brain development which is shown in various form (table format and diagram). Diagram is labelled correctly and is relevant to chosen topic and it’s clear and simple to understand which is good. Timeline in the table format is well organised and brief with key points provided helping understand the basic of what happens during fetal development. Spinal cord development needs work done for it as well as Meninges Development. There is just heading having a timeline would be a good start and adding a picture or two to it.
There is evidence of research done through the current findings and model headings some good relevant links are shown however a lot are not summarised (just links). For the ones that are the first current research was well summarised others could have added a bit more information about the findings into it. In this section pictures would also be good to help understand and engage readers. Abnormalities section is started off well. There is relevant information of how common it is and good definition with a variety of picture shown besides it. The pictures are correctly labelled and cited and clearly illustrate the abnormality. For the rest there is need of a short summary of the abnormality however in the section there is evidence of research done as a variety of abnormalities have been listed or explained. Referencing is done correctly throughout the page however the links in the research models section could be placed at the bottom of the page once information from them are written.
Overall there is some good use of tables and diagrams. There is a variety of pictures used ranging from simple anatomical diagrams, x-rays and molecular pictures relevant to the topic. There is evidence of research done in certain sections and it is correctly formatted and appropriately set up with relevant headings in logical order. The information is not overwhelming and quite easy to follow. All images are correctly labelled the page is just incomplete in certain section however what is shown so far is relevant shows understanding and is easy to follow.
The page is disorganised in certain aspects. The first heading is not appropriate and is not teaching at peer level. Timeline is incomplete could have phases (first trimester, second trimester etc.) and key events put into a table and shown.
There’s good information about the muscle development from myofiber to tubules etc. however there is no period of time given to when the event occurs so it can get confusing maybe include the week in the information. Molecular and cellular regulation is well described but some information such as how IFG1 has found to enhance protein synthesis could be put into a different heading specific on research findings. Tendon development is much clearer and easier to understand as it to the point and tells it as a series of event. Could include when the process ends only has shown that it started in 20th Carnegie stage
Second and Third trimester information is incomplete although the summary in second Trimester heading is easy to understand it can be expanded upon. Does anything happen to limb buds in fetal stage maybe could include information of muscles in that. The one Abnormality given is relevant and well summarised. It has been defined and shows how common it is which is good to include. There should be more abnormalities added into this section and possibly picture or diagram helping to visualise how it may look.
Referencing is done in the correct format and it’s good everything is shown as a list on the bottom of the page. Overall the page needs improvement there is some evident of research done however there needs to be more headings added such as Historic findings. The recent finding heading could be placed more up on the page, before abnormality heading. Can have the different trimesters as subheading instead of separate headings. Can include a timeline in table format and also some diagrams or pictures of muscle development in head region and tendon development as well as possibly a video. Good background of embryonic development but since embryonic development is not related the project can summarise it a bit more and add more into fetal development of muscles.
--Mark Hill These are good critical assessments. Interesting that you comment on their referencing being correct, while you seem to have issues of your own with referencing. (9/10)
Online Assessment LAB 10
Specific Cre mouse line, WNT-Cre and PO-cre were selected. These expressed Cre in a manner specific to Neural crest and thus these two Cre mouse lines were used to study NC derivation in developing tongue.
Four bitransgenic mouse strains Wnt1-Cre/R26R or Wnt1-Cre/ZEG and P0-Cre/R26R or P0-Cre/ZEG were generated as two Cre mouse line was bred with two report lines R26R lacZ reporter and ZEG(lacZ/EGFP) double reporter. By using PCR the mouse litter was then genotyped and the wild type littermates were used as negative controls of staining. Embryonic and postnatal mice were used and were staged by vaginal plug detection. Tissues were then collected and the label cell distribution was then analysed. Analysis of Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre labelled cell distributions was performed using sagittal sections of tongue. LacZ gene product β-galactosidase and EGFP labels were localised at different magnification by confocal microscopy.
Taste buds were divided into 3 groups fully, partially or not labelled after X-Gal staining. A fully labelled taste bud was without obvious X-Gal negative cell. Those with any X-Gal negative cells were partially labelled. From this quantity of taste buds were calculated in different part of the tongue.Using the mouse models there was thorough examination of Wnt1-Cre, on the location of NC-derived cells with R26R and ZEG reporter cells through different stage of developing tongue.
The tongue has taste sensory end organs, 3 types of papillae (circumvallate, foliate and fungiform as well as taste buds). From the study it was found that NC derived cells distribute within lingual epithelium and mesenchyme with close association with taste papillae in Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre mice. There is new concept of the taste bud cells embryonic origin which includes NC derivation that the findings lead into. In P0-Cre/R26R mouse 95% of taste buds showed a significant contribution of NC derived cells to early taste bud development.
Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre labelled NC-derived cells were both found to be in lingual epithelium and early developing taste buds of the tongue although not in the same proportions. Most taste buds showed P0-Cre labelled cell and as these cells were double labelled by taste marker it confirmed that they were taste cells. It was therefore found that fungiform taste bud cells obtained NC during taste development. Study also found Wnt1-Cre labeled NC-derived cells when GFP labelled were seen in taste papillae and lingual epithelium and thus had strong association with embryonic and early postnatal developing taste papillae.
The results suggest the NC derivation of taste organs. The NC cells around the neural tube migrate in early embryonic stage. Migrated NC cell in the epithelium and mesenchyme of the tongue undergo proliferation and differentiation to achieve taste papillae.
--Mark Hill Once again, your article description jumps in with assumed knowledge about the technique and acronyms. Do you understand what WNT-Cre and PO-cre are used for here? The paper title usually directs you to what the major finding of the article will be. (4/5)