The cell in development and inheritance (1900) Glossary

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Wilson EB. The Cell in Development and Inheritance. Second edition (1900) New York, 1900.

   Cell development and inheritance (1900): Introduction | List of Figures | Chapter I General Sketch of the Cell | Chapter II Cell-division | Chapter III The Germ-cells | Chapter IV Fertilization of the Ovum | Chapter V Reduction of the Chromosomes, Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis | Chapter VI Some Problems of Cell-organization | Chapter VII Some Aspects of Cell-chemistry and Cell-physiology | Chapter VIII Cell-division and Development | Chapter IX Theories of Inheritance and Development | Glossary
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Online Editor Note this is only a historic 1900 glossary, specific to this 1900's textbook.

Students should use the Modern Glossary. Internal text links on this page will go to the relevant modern content.

Glossary

[Obsolete terms are enclosed in brackets. The name and date refer to the first use of the word ; subsequent changes of meaning are indicated in the definition.]


Achromatin (see Chromatin), the non-staining substance of the nucleus, as opposed to chromatin ; comprising the ground-substance and the linin-network. (Flemming, 1879.)

Acroaome ( axpov, apex, oxS/jo, body), the apical body situated at the anterior end of head of spermatozoon. (Lenhossek, 1897.)

[Akaryo'ta] (see Karyota), non-nucleated cells. (Flemming, 1882.)

Ale'cithal (d-priv. ; Ac'kl0o?, the yolk of an egg), having little or no yolk (applied to eggs). (Balfour, 1880.)

AUoplasma'tic (aAAo?, different). Applied to active substances formed by differentiation from the protoplasm proper, e.g. the substance of cilia, of nerve-fibrillae, and of muscle-fibrillae. Alloplasmatic organs are opposed to " protoplasmatic," which arise only by division of preexisting bodies of the same kind. (A. Meyer, 1896.)

Amitosis (see Mitosis), direct or amitotic nuclear division; mass-division of the nuclear substance without the formation of chromosomes and amphiaster. (Flemming, 1882.)

Amphiaster (dfi<^t, on both sides ; don/p, a star), the achromatic figure formed in mitotic cell-division, consisting of two asters connected by a spindle. (Fol,1877)

Amphipyrenin (see Py renin), the substance of the nuclear membrane. (SCHWARZ, 1887.)

Amyloplasts (dfivXov, starch ; irAaoro?, irAao-o-eLv, form), the colourless starchforming plastids of plant-cells. (Errera, 1882.)

An'aphase (dva, back or again), the later period of mitosis during the divergence of the daughter-chromosomes. (Strasburger, 1884.)

Anisotropy (see Isotropy), having a predetermined axis or axes (as applied to the egg) . ( Pfl'uger, 1883.)

Antherozo'id, the same as Spermatosoid.

Antipodal cone, the cone of astral rays opposite to the spindle-fibres. (Van Beneden, 1883.)

Archiamphiaster (dp\t = first, + amphiaster), the amphiaster by which the first or second polar body is formed. (Whitman, 1878.)

Ar'choplasma or Archoplasm (ap\u)v, a ruler) (sometimes written archt'plasm), the substance from which the attraction-sphere, the astral rays, and the spindlefibres are developed, and of which they consist. (Boveri, 1888.)

Arrhe'noid (apprjv, male). The sperm-aster or attraction-sphere formed during the fertilization of the ovum. (Henking, 1890.)

Aster (aoTiJp, a star). 1. The star-shaped structure surrounding the centrosome. (Fol, 1877.) [2. The star-shaped group of chromosomes during mitosis (see Karyaster). (Flemming, 1892.)]

[As'troccele] (dori;p, a star ; koIXos, hollow), a term somewhat vaguely applied to the space in which the centrosome lies. (Fol, 1891.)

As'trosphere (see Centrocphere). i. The central mass of the aster, exclusive of the rays, in which the centrosome lies. Equivalent to the -attraction-sphere" of Van Beneden. (Fou 1891 : Strasbirger. 1892.) 2. The entire aster exclusive of the centrosome. Equivalent to the - astral sphere ~ of Mark. (Boveri. 1895.)

Attraction-sphere (see Centrosphere), the central mass of the aster from which the rays proceed. Also the mass of - archoplasm." derived from the aster, by which the centrosome is surrounded in the resting cell. (Van Bexeden, 1885.)

[Au'toblast] (auroc. self), applied by Altmann to bacteria and other minute organisms, conceived as independent solitary "bioplasts." (1890.)

Axial filament, the central filament probably contractile, of the spermatozoonnagellum. (Eimer, 1874.)

Baaichro' matin (see Chromatin), the same as chromatin in the usual sense. That portion of the nuclear network stained by basic tar-colours. (Hexdexhain. 1894.)

Bi'oblast (fiios. life : /Jaooto?. a germ), a term applied by Altmann to the hypothetical ultimate vital unit (equivalent to piasome), and identified by him as the u granulum. r '

Bi'ogen (/ftb?, life ; -ycvijs, producing), equivalent to plasonu, etc ( Verworx, 1895.)

Bi'ophores (/Kbc, life ; -<t>6ptK. bearing), the ultimate supra-molecular vital units. Equivalent to the pangens of De Vries, the plasomes of Wiesner, etc (Weismaxn. 1893.)

Bi'oplasm (/ftb?, xAa?/ia). The active "living, forming germinal material,"* as opposed to 4i formed material.** Nearly equivalent to protoplasm in the wider sense. (Beale. 1870.)

Bi'oplast, equivalent to cell. (Beale, 1870.)

Bivalent, applied to chromatin-rods representing two chromosomes joined end to end. (Hacker, 1892.)

Ble pharoplast (#Ac<£apts, eye-lash or cilium). The centrosome-like bodies in plant-spermatids in connection with which the cilia of the spermatozoids are formed. (Webber, 1897.)

Cell-plate (see Mid -body), the equatorial thickening of the spindle-fibres from which the partition-wall arises during the division of plant-cells. (Strasburger, 1875.)

Cell-sap. the more liquid ground-substance of the nucleus. [Kolliker, 1865: more precisely denned by R. Hertwig, 1876.]

Central spindle, the primary spindle by which the centrosomes are connected, as opposed to the contractile mantle-fibres surrounding it. (Hermann, 1891.)

Cen'triole, a term applied by Boveri to a minute body or bodies (•' Central -korn") within the centrosome. In some cases not to be distinguished from the centrosome. (Boveri, 1895.)

Centrodes miis (jccVrpov. centre; 8e?/io?, a band), the primary connection between the centrosomes, formed by a substance from which arises the central spindle. (Heidenmain, 1894.)

Centrodeu'toplasm, the granular material of the testis-cells which may contribute to the formation of the Nebenkern or to that of the idiozome. (Erlanger, 1897.)

Centrole cithal (KcVrpov, centre ; Ac'ki0os. yolk), that type of ovum in which the deutoplasm is mainly accumulated in the centre. (Balfour, 1880.)

Cen troplasm (xcVrpov, centre ; -rrkdafjua). the protoplasm forming the attractionsphere or central region of the aster ; the substance of the centrosphere. (Erlanger, 1895.)


Centroaome (Kcvrpov, centre ; crco/ua, body), a body found at the centre of the aster or attraction-sphere, regarded by some observers as the active centre of celldivision and in this sense as the dynamic centre of the cell. Under its influence arise the asters and spindle (amphiaster) of the mitotic figure. (Boveri, 1888.)

Centroaphere, used in this work as equivalent to the " astrosphere " of Strasburger ; the central mass of the aster from which the rays proceed and within which lies the centrosome. The attraction-sphere. [Strasburger, 1892; applied by him to the " astrosphere " and centrosome taken together.]

Chloroplaatids (\\<M>p6s, green ; irAaoros, form), the green plastids or chlorophyllbodies of plant and animal cells. (Schimper, 1883.)

Chromatin (xp<o/ia, colour), the deeply staining substance of the nuclear network and of the chromosomes, consisting of nuclein. (Flemmixg, 1879.)

Chro'matophore (xpcS/ja, colour ; -<f>6p<y;, bearing), a general term applied to the coloured plastids of plant and animal cells, including chloroplastids and chromo plastids. (SCHAARSCHMIDT, l88o; SCHMITZ, 1882.)

Chro'matoplaam (xpwpa, colour ; irAaa/ia, anything formed or moulded), the substance of the chromoplastids and other plastids. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Chro'miole, the smallest chromatin-granules which by their aggregation form the larger chromomeres of which the chromosomes are composed. (Eisen, 1899.)

Chro'momere (xpw/ja, colour; fiipos, a part), one of the chromatin-granules of which the chromosomes are made up. Identified by Weismann as the *'id." See Chromiole. (Fol, 1891.)

Chromoplas'tidB (xpwpa, colour ; 7rAaoro5, form), the coloured plastids or pigmentbodies other than the chloroplasts, in plant-cells. (Schimper, 1883.)

Chro'moplaats, net-knots or chromatin-nucleoli; also used by some authors as equivalent to Chromoplaatid. (Eisen, 1899.)

Chromosomes (xpu/ia, colour; oxo/m, body), the deeply staining bodies into which the chromatic nuclear network resolves itself during mitotic cell-division. (Waldeyer, 1888.)

Cleavage-nucleus, the nucleus of the fertilized egg, resulting from the union of egg-nucleus and sperm-nucleus. (O. Hertwig, 1875.)

Cortical zone, the outer zone of the centrosphere. (Van Beneden, 1887.)

Cyano'philous (kvolvos, blue ; <^iA.ctv, to love), having an especial affinity for blue or green dyes. (Auerbach.)

Cy 'taster (mrros, hollow (a cell) ; acrrqp, star), the same as Aster, 1. See Karyaster. (Flemming, 1882.)

[Cy'toblast] (mrros, hollow (a cell); /JAaoros, germ). 1. The cell-nucleus. (Schleiden, 1838.) 2. One of the hypothetical ultimate vital units (bioblasts or "granula") of which the cell is built up. (Altmann, 1890.) 3. A naked cell or " protoblast." (Kolliker. )

fCytoblaate'ma] (see Cytoblast), the formative material from which cells were supposed to arise by "free cell-formation." (Schleiden, 1838.)

[Cytochyle'ma] (mrros, hollow (a cell) : xvAos juice), the ground-substance of the cytoplasm as opposed to that of the nucleus. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Cytode (kvtos, hollow (a cell) ; ci8o<», form), a non-nucleated cell. (Hackel, 1866.)

Cytodie'resia (kvtos, hollow (a cell) ; (Wpccris, division), the same as Mitosis. (Henneguy, 188?.)

Cytohyaloplaama (jcvtos, hollow (a cell) ; vaAo?, glass ; 7rAao-/xa, anything formed), the substance of the cytoreticulum in which are embedded the microsomes; opposed to nucleohyaloplasma. (Strasburger, 1882.) •

Cytolymph (kvtos. hollow (a cell) ; lympha, clear water), the cytoplasmic groundsubstance. (Hackel, 1891.)


Cytomi'crosomes (see Microsome), microsomes of the cytoplasm ; opposed to nucleomicrosomes. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Cytomi'tome (kvtos. hollow (a cell) ; /u'ra>/ua, from furos, thread), the cytoplasmic as opposed to the nuclear thread-work. (Flemming, 1882.)

Cy'toplasm (kvtck, irXaxTyua). 1. The protoplasmic ground-substance as opposed to the granules. (Kolliker, 1863.) 2. Equivalent to protoplasm. (Kolliker. 1867.) 3. The substance of the cell-body as opposed to that of the nucleus. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Cytoretic'ulum, the same as Cytomitome. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Cy'tosome (kvtogj hollow (a cell) ; <ru>/xa, body). 1. The cell-body or cytoplasmic mass as opposed to the nucleus. (Hackel, 1891.) 2. A term used as parallel to chromosome to denote deeply staining definitely organized cytoplasmic filaments or other cytoplasmic structures composed of ** cytochromatin." ( Prenant, i 898. )

Der'matoplasm (Scp/xa, skin), the living protoplasm asserted to form a part of the cell-membrane in plants. (Wiesner, 1886.)

Der'matosomes (Sepfia, skin ; ow/ao, body), the plasomes which form the cell-membrane. (Wiesner, 1886.)

Determinant, a hypothetical unit formed as an aggregation of biophores, determining the development of a single cell or independently variable group of cells. (Weismann, 1 891.)

[Deuthy alosome] (8evr(cpos), second ; see Hyalosome), the nucleus remaining in the egg after formation of the first polar body. (Van Beneden, 1883.)

Deu'toplasm (8evr(cpos), second ; irkdo-fAa, anything formed), yolk, lifeless foodmatters deposited in the cytoplasm of the egg ; opposed to "protoplasm." (Van Beneden, 1870.)

Diakine'sis (81a, through), the segmented-spireme-stage, following the synapsis, in the primary oocyte or spermatocyte, during which the chromosomes persist for a considerable period in the form of double rods. (Hacker, 1897.)

Directive bodies, the polar bodies. (Fr. MCller, 1848.)

Directive sphere, the attraction-sphere. (Guignard, 1891.)

Dispermy, the entrance of two spermatozoa into the egg.

Dispi'reme (see Spireme), that stage of mitosis in which each daughter-nucleus has given rise to a spireme. (Flemming, 1882.)

Dy'aster (8vas. two; see Aster, 2), the double group of chromosomes during the anaphases of cell-division. (Flemming, 1882.)

Ectosphere (£ktos, outside), the outer or cortical zone of the attraction-sphere. (Ziegler, 1899.)

Egg-nucleus, the nucleus of the egg after formation of the polar bodies and before its union with the sperm-nucleus. Equivalent to the "female pronucleus'" of Van Beneden. (O. Hertwig, 1875.)

Enchyle'ma (cV, in ; xvAos, juice). 1 . The more fluid portion of protoplasm, consisting of " hyaloplasma." (Hanstein, 1880.) 2. The ground-substance (cytolymph) of cytoplasm as opposed to the reticulum. (Carnoy, 1883.)

Endoplast, the cell-nucleus. (Huxley, 1853.)

Ener'gid, the cell-nucleus together with the cytoplasm lying within its sphere of influence. (Sachs, 1892.)

Untosphere, (cVrds, inside), the inner or medullary zone of the attraction-sphere. (Ziegler, 1899.)

Equatorial plate, the group of chromosomes lying at the equator of the spindle during mitosis. (Van Beneden, 1875.)

Ergastic ( epyafo/uai, to work). Applied to relatively passive substances "formed anew through activity of the protoplasm. ,, Equivalent to metaplasmic. Cf* alloplasmatic. (A. Meyer, 1896.)

Ergastoplasm (cpya£o/iai, to work). Nearly equivalent to the " kinoplasm n of

Strasburger and the *' ergoplasm " of Davidoff. The more active protoplasmic

substance from which fibrillar formations arise. (Garnier, 1897.) Ergoplasm (cpyov, work). The active protoplasm of the egg (in tunicates), mainly

derived from the achromatic part of the germinal vesicle, and giving rise in part

or wholly to the polar spindle. Analogous to archoplasm and kinoplasm.

(Davidoff, 1889.) Erythro'philous (ipvQpos, red ; <^iyc?v, to love), having an especial affinity for red

dyes. (Auerbach.) Ga'mete (yafienj, wife ; yafierrp, husband), one of two conjugating cells. Usually

applied to the unicellular forms. Gem/mule (see Pangen), one of the ultimate supra-molecular germs of the cell

assumed by Darwin. (Darwin, 1868.) [Ge'noblasts] (yews, sex ; /ftooros, germ), a term applied by Minot to the mature

germ-cells. The female genoblast (egg or " thelyblast ") unites with the male

(spermatozoon or ** arsenoblast ") to form an hermaphrodite or indifferent cell.

(Minot, 1877.) Germinal spot, the nucleolus of the germinal vesicle. (Wagner, 1836.) Germinal vesicle, the nucleus of the egg before formation of the polar bodies.

(Purkinje, 1825.) Germ-plasm, the same as idioplasm. (Weismann.) Heterokine'sis (crcpos, different), qualitative nuclear division ; a hypothetical mode

of mitosis assumed to separate chromatins of different quality; opposed to

homookinesis or equation-division. (Weismann, 1892.) Heterole'cithal (ercpos, different; A.c'ja0O9, yolk), having unequally distributed

deutoplasm (includes telolecithal and centrolecithal) . (Mark, 1892.) Heterotyp'ical mitosis (crcpos, different ; see Mitosis), that mode of mitotic

division in which the daughter-chromosomes remain united by their ends to form

rings. (Flemming, 1887.) [Holoschi'sis] (0A09, whole ; crxt£civ, to split), direct nuclear division. Amitosis.

(Flemming, 1882.) Homole'cithal (ofxoq, the same, uniform ; Acfcttfo?, yolk), equivalent to alecithal.

Having little deutoplasm, equally distributed, or none. (Mark, 1892.) Homottkine'sis or Homasokine'sis (6/109, the same), equation-division, separating

equivalent chromatins; opposed to heterokinesis. (Weismann, 1892.) Homceotyp'ical mitosis (0/1010?, like ; see Mitosis), a form of mitosis occurring

in the secondary spermatocytes of the salamander, differing from the usual type

only in the shortness of the chromosomes and the irregular arrangement of

the daughter-chromosomes. (Flemming, 1887.) Hy'aloplasma (uoAoc, glass ; 7rAao>ui, anything formed). 1. The ground-substance

of the cell as distinguished from the granules or microsomes. [Hanstein, 1880.]

2. The achromatic substance of the nucleus in which the chromatin-particles are

embedded. (Strasburger, 1882.) 3. The ground-substance as distinguished

from the reticulum or "spongioplasm." (Leydig, 1885.) 4. The exoplasm or

peripheral protoplasmic zone in plant-cells. (Pfeffer.) Hy'alosomes (vaAos, glass ; ow/ia, body), nucleolar-like bodies but slightly stained

by either nuclear or plasma stains. (Lukjanow, 1888.) [Hy'groplasma] (vypos, wet; 7rAao>ia, something formed), the more liquid part

of protoplasm as opposed to the firmer stereoplasm. (Nageli, 1884.) Id, the hypothetical structural unit resulting from the successive aggregation of

biophores and determinants. Identified by Weismann as the chromomere, or chromatin-granule. (W t eismann. 1891.) Idant, the hypothetical unit resulting from the successive aggregation of biophores, determinants, and Ids. Identified by Weismann as the chromosome. (Weismakn, 1 89 1.)

Id'ioblasts (18109* one's own ; pXaaros, germ), the hypothetical ultimate units of the cell ; the same as biophores. (O. Hertwig, 1893.)

Idioplasm (18109, one's own ; irXatrfm, a thing formed), equivalent to the germplasm of Weismann. The substance, now generally identified with chromatin, which by its inherent organization involves the characteristics of the species. The physical basis of inheritance. (Nageli, 1884.)

Id'iosome (18109, one's own; oxu/ia, body), the same as idioblast or plasome. (Whitman, 1893.)

Idiozome (18109, specially formed ; £o>/ia, girdle) . The sphere, often called attraction-sphere and usually enclosing the centrosomes, found in the spermatids of animals. (Meves, 1897.)

Interfilar substance, the ground-substance of protoplasm as opposed to the threadwork. (Flemming, 1882.)

Interzonal fibres (" Filaments reunissants " of Van Beneden. " Verbindungsfasern" of Flemming and others). Those spindle-fibres that stretch between the two groups of daughter-chromosomes during the anaphase. Equivalent in some cases to the central spindle. (Mark, 1881.)

Iso'tropy (10-09, equal; tooth}, a turning), the absence of predetermined axes (as applied to the egg). (Pfluger, 1883.)

[Ka'ryaster] (tcapvov, nut, nucleus ; see Aster, 2), the star-shaped group of chromosomes in mitosis. Opposed to cytaster. (Flemming, 1882.)

Karyenchy'ma (tcdpvov, nut, nucleus; iv, in; \ v H^y juice), the "nuclear sap." (Flemming, 1882.)

Karyokine'sis {napvov, nut, nucleus; kivtjctls, change, movement), the same as mitosis. (Schleicher, 1878.)

[Karyoly'ma], the " karyolytic " (mitotic) figure. (Auerbach, 1876.)

Ka'ryolymph. The nuclear sap. (Hackel, 1891.)

[Karyo'lysis] (xapvov, nut, nucleus ; A.ixn9, dissolution), the supposed dissolution of the nucleus during cell-division. (Auerbach, 1874.)

[Karyoly'tic figure] (see Karyolysis), a term applied by Auerbach to the mitotic figure in living cells. Believed by him to result from the dissolution of the nucleus. (Auerbach, 1874.)

Karyomi'crosome (see Microsome), the same as nucleo-microsome.

Karyomi'tome (xapvov, nut, nucleus ; /x/royia, from /X1Y09, a thread), the nuclear as opposed to the cytoplasmic thread-work. (Flemming, 1882.)

Karyomito'sis (xapvov, nut, nucleus; see Mitosis), mitosis. (Flemming, 1882.)

L'ryon (xapvov, nut, nucleus), the cell-nucleus. (Hackel, 1891.) L'ryoplasm (Kapvov, nut, nucleus ; 7r\d<Tfia, a thing formed), nucleoplasm. The nuclear as opposed to the cytoplasmic substance. (Flemming, 1882.) t'ryosome (tcdpvov, nut, nucleus; ctu/uta, body). 1. Nucleoli of the *• net-knot " type, staining with nuclear dyes, as opposed to plasmosomes or true nucleoli. (Ogata, 1883.) 2. The same as chromosome. (Platner, 1886.) 3. Caryosome. The cell-nucleus. (Watase, 1894.)

[Karyo'ta] (napvov, nut, nucleus), nucleated cells. (Flemming, 1882.)

Karyothe'ca (Kapvov, nut, nucleus ; Orjurj, case, box), the nuclear membrane. (Hackel, 1891.) li'noplasm (klvuv, to move* irXavpa, a thing formed), nearly equivalent to archoplasm, but used in a broader sense to denote in general the more active elements of protoplasm from which arise fibrillar the substance of cilia, and (in plants) the peripheral " Hautschicht " from which the membrane is formed; opposed to the " trophoplasm " or nutritive plasm. (Strasburger, 1892.)

[Lanthanin] (\avOdv€iv, to conceal), equivalent to oxychromatin. (Heidenhain, 1892.)

Leucoplaa'tids (acvkos, white; irAooros, form), the colourless plastids of plantcells from which arise the starch-formers (amyloplastids), chloroplastids, and chromoplastids. (Schimper, 1883.)

Li'nin (linum, a linen thread), the substance of the " achromatic " nuclear reticulum. (Schwarz, 1887.)

Lininoplast, the true nucleolus or plasmosome. (Eisen, 1899.)

Macrocentroaome, a term applied to the 4 * centrosome " in Boverfs sense, i.e. to the larger body in which lies the central granule. (Ziegler, 1898.) Probably synonymous with entosphere.

Maturation, the final stages in the development of the germ-cells. More specifically, the process by which the reduction of the number of chromosomes is effected.

Metakine'sis (see Metaphaae) (furd, beyond (/>. further) ; kiwtjctk;, movement), the middle stage of mitosis, when the chromosomes are grouped in the equatorial plate. (Flemming, 1882.)

Metanucleus, a term applied to the nucleolus after its extrusion from the germinal vesicle. (Hacker, 1892.)

Metaphase, the middle stage of mitosis during which occurs the splitting of the chromosomes in the equatorial plate. (Strasburger, 1884.)

Met'aplasm (/xera, after, beyond; irAac/Aa, a thing formed), a term collectively applied to the lifeless inclusions (deutoplasm, starch, etc.) in protoplasm as opposed to the living substance. (Hanstein, 1868.)

Micella, one of the ultimate supra-molecular units of the cell. (Nageli, 1884.)

Microcentrosome, equivalent to the central granule or centriole of Boveri. (Ziegler, 1898.)

Microcen'trum, the centrosome or group of centrosomes united by a " primary centrodesmus," forming the centre of the astral system. (Heidenhain, 1894.)

Micropyle (fwcpo^, small; wvkq, orifice), the aperture in the egg-membrane through which the spermatozoon enters. [First applied by Turpin, in 1806, to the opening through which the pollen-tube enters the ovule. /. Robert Brown.]

Microsome (juicpo?, small ; ow/ua, body), the granules as opposed to the groundsubstance of protoplasm. (Hanstein, 1880.)

Microsphere, the central region of the aster (centrosphere) at the centre of which lie the centrosomes. (Kostanecki and Siedlecki, 1896.)

Middle-piece, that portion of the spermatozoon lying behind the nucleus at the base of the flagellum. (Schweigger-Seidel, 1865.)

Mid-body ("Zwischenkbrper"), a body or group of granules, probably comparable with the cell-plate in plants, formed in the equatorial region of the spindle during the anaphases of mitosis. (Flemming, 1890.)

Mi'tome (/u'rayia, from /u'ro?, a thread), the reticulum or thread-work as opposed to the ground-substance of protoplasm. (Flemming, 1882.)

[Mitoschi'ais (/u'tos, thread ; <rxi'£civ, to split), indirect nuclear division; mitosis. (Flemming, 1882.)

mitosis (furoq, a thread), indirect nuclear division typically involving: a, the formation of an amphiaster; 6, conversion of the chromatin into a thread (spireme) ; c, segmentation of the thread into chromosomes ; d, splitting of the chromosomes. (Flemming, 1882.)

Mitosome (furos, a thread ; cra>/xa, body), a body derived from the spindle-fibres of the secondary spermatocytes, giving rise, according to Platner, to the middle-piece and the tail-envelope of the spermatozoon. Equivalent to the Ne benkern of La Valette St. George. (Platner, 1889.)

Nebenkern (Paranucleus), a name originally applied by Biitschli (1871) to an extranuclear body in the spermatid ; afterwards shown by La Valette St. George and Platner to arise from the spindle-fibres of the secondary spermatocyte. Since applied to many forms of cytoplasmic bodies (yolk-nucleus, etc.) of the most diverse nature.

Nuclear plate. 1. The equatorial plate. (Strasburger, 1875.) 2. The partition-wall which sometimes divides the nucleus in amitosis.

Nuclein, the chemical basis of chromatin ; a compound of nucleinic acid and albumin or albumin radicles. (Miescher, 1871-)

Nucleinic or nucleic acid, a complex organic acid, rich in phosphorus, and an essential constituent of chromatin.

Nucleo-albumin, a nuclein having a relatively high percentage of albumin. Distinguished from nucleo-proteids by containing paranucleinic acid which yields no xanthin-bodies.

[Nucleoohyle'ma] (xvAos, juice), the ground-substance of the nucleus as opposed to that of the cytoplasm. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Nucleohyaloplasma (see Hyaloplasm), the achromatic substance (linin) in which the chromatin-granules are suspended. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Nucleomicrosomes (see Microsome), the nuclear (chromatin) granules as opposed to those of the cytoplasm. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Nucleoplasm. 1. The reticular substance of the (egg-) nucleus. (Van Beneden, 1875.) 2. The substance of the nucleus as opposed to that of the cellbody or cytoplasm. (Strasburger, 1882.)

Nucleo-pro'teid, a nuclein having a relatively high percentage of albumin. May be split into albumin and true nucleinic acid, the latter yielding xanthin-bodies.

GSde'matin (otS^/ua, a swelling), the granules or microsomes of the nuclear groundsubstance. (Reinke, 1893.)

O'Scyte (Ovocyte) (o>ov. egg; kvtos, hollow (a cell)), the ultimate ovarian egg before formation of the polar bodies. The primary oocyte divides to form the first polar body and the secondary oocyte. The latter divides to form the second polar body and the mature egg. (Boveri, 1891.)

Oogen esis. Ovogenesis (aidy, egg ; yc'vco-is, origin), the genesis of the egg after its origin by division from the mother-cell. Often used more specifically to denote the process of reduction in the female.

Oogonium, Ovogonium (o>ov, egg ; yovrj, generation). 1 . The primordial mothercell from which arises the egg and its follicle. (Pfluger.) 2. The descendants of the primordial germ-cell which ultimately give rise to the oocytes or ovarian eggs . ( Bo veri, 1 89 1 . )

Ookinesis (a)dv, egg; ku^o-is, movement), the mitotic phenomena of the egg during maturation and fertilization. (Whitman, 1887.)

O'vocentre, the egg-centrosome during fertilization. (Fol, 1891.)

Oxychi o'matin (o£ vs, acid ; see Chromatin), that portion of the nuclear substance stained by acid tar-colours. Equivalent to " linin " in the usual sense. (Heidenhain, 1894.)

Pangen'esis (7ras (7rav-), all; •ycyecris, production), the theory of gem mules, according to which hereditary traits are carried by invisible germs thrown off by the individual cells of the body. (Darwin, 1868.)

Pangens (7ra« (7rav-), all ; -yev^s, producing), the hypothetical ultimate supra-molecular units of the idioplasm, and of the cell generally. Equivalent to gemmules, micellae, idioblasts, biophores, etc. (De Vries, 1889.)


Farachro'matin (see Chromatin), the achromatic nuclear substance (linin of Schwarz) from which the spindle-fibres arise. (Pfitzner, 1883.)

Parali'nin (see Linin), the nuclear ground-substance or nuclear sap. (Schwarz, 1887.)

Parami'tome (see Mitome), the ground-substance or interfilar substance of protoplasm, opposed to mitome. (Flemming, 1892.)

Paranu'clein (see Nuclein), the substance of true nucleoli or plasmosomes. Pyrenin of Schwarz. (O. Hertwig, 1878.) Applied by Kossel to "nucleins" derived from the cytoplasm. These are compounds of albumin and paranucleic acid which yields no xanthin-bodies.

Paranucleus (see Nebenkern).

Paraplasm (wapd, beside ; irAac/io, something formed), the less active portion of the cell-substance. Originally applied by Kupffer to the cortical region of the cell (exoplasm), but now often applied to the ground-substance. (Kupffer,

1875.) Periplast (irtpu around; ir\aor6s y form). 1. The peripheral part of the cell,

including those parts outside the nucleus or "endoplast." (Huxley, 1853.)

2. A term somewhat vaguely applied to the attraction-sphere. The term

daughter-periplast is applied to the centrosome. (Vejdovsky, 1888.)

Perisphere (ircpt, around), a term applied to the outer region of the attractionsphere in nerve-cells, and opposed to an inner " centrosphere." (Lenhoss£k, 1895.)

Plasmocytes (irXdo-fjuL, kvtos), colourless blood-corpuscles supposed to be free attraction-spheres. (Eisen, 1897.)

Plasmosphere, the same as Perisphere.

Plaa'mosome (7rAaoyza, something formed (i.e. protoplasmic) ; o-w/tia, body), the true nucleus, distinguished by its affinity for acid tar-colours and other " plasmastains." (Ogata, 1883.)

Pla'some (irXda-fm, a thing formed; crwfia, body), the ultimate supra-molecular vital unit. See Biophore, Pangen. (Wiesner, 1890.)

Plas'tid (irAasros, form). 1. A cell, whether nucleated or non-nucleated. (Hackel. 1866.) 2. A general term applied to permanent cell-organs (chloroplasts, etc.) other than the nucleus and centrosome. (Schimper, 1883.)

Plas'tidule, the ultimate supra-molecular vital unit. (Elssberg, 1874; Hackel, 1876.)

Plas'tin, a term of vague meaning applied to a substance related to the nucleoproteids and nucleo-albumins constituting the linin-network (Zacharias) and the cytoreticulum (Carnoy). (Reinke and Rodewald, 1881.)

Pluri'valent (p/us, more; vaUre. to be worth), applied to chromatin-rods that have the value of more than one chromosome sensu strictu. (Hacker, 1892.)

Polar bodies (Polar globules), two minute cells segmented off from the ovum before union of the germ-nuclei. (Disc, by Carus, 1824; so named by Robin, 1862.)

Polar corpuscle, the centrosome. (Van Beneden, 1876.)

Polar rays (Polradien), a term sometimes applied to all of the astral rays as opposed to the spindle-fibres, sometimes to the group of astral rays opposite to the spindle-fibres.

Pole-plates (End-plates), the achromatic spheres or masses at the poles of the spindle in the mitosis of Protozoa, probably representing the attraction-spheres. (R. Hertwig, 1877.)

Polyspermy, the entrance into the ovum of more than one spermatozoon.

[Prochro'matin] (see Chromatin), the substance of true nucleoli, or plasmosomes. Equivalent to paranuclei of O. Hertwig. (Pfitzner, 1.883.)

Pronuclei, the germ-nuclei during fertilization ; i.e. the egg-nucleus (female pronucleus) after formation of the polar bodies, and the sperm-nucleus (male pronucleus) after entrance of the spermatozoon into the egg. (Van Bexedex,

1875.)

[Prothy'alosome] (see Hyalosome), an area in the germinal vesicle (of A scans) by which the germinal spot is surrounded, and which is concerned in formation of the first polar body. (Van Beneden, 1883.)

Pro'toblast (7rpa>ros, first; /JAooros, a germ). 1. A naked cell, devoid of a membrane. (Kolliker.) 2. A blastomere of the segmenting egg which is the parent-cell of a definite part or organ. (Wilson, 1892.)

Protoplasm (7rpo>Tos, first ; irXdtrfw^ a thing formed or moulded) . The active or " living " cell-substance. By all earlier and some present writers applied only to the substance of the cell-body (equivalent to Strasburger's cytoplasm). By many later writers applied to the entire active substance of the cell (karyoplasm plus cytoplasm). (Purkinje, 1840; H. von Mohl, 1846.)

Protoplast (irpwros, first; wAixotos, formed). 1. The protoplasmic body of the cell, including nucleus and cytoplasm, regarded as a unit. Nearly equivalent to the energid of Sachs. (Hanstein, 1880.) 2. Used by some authors synonymously with plastid.

[Pseudochro'matln] (see Chromatin), the same as prochromatin. (Pfitzner, 1886.)

Pseudonu'clein (see Nuclein), the same as the paranuclein of Kossel. (Ham MARSTEN, 1894.)

Pseudo-reduction, the preliminary halving of the number of chromatin-rods as a . prelude to the formation of the tetrads and to the actual reduction in the number

of chromosomes in maturation. (Ruckert. 1894.) Pyre'nin (jrvprfv, the stone of a fruit ; i.e. relating to the nucleus), the substance of

true nucleoli. Equivalent to the paranuclein of Hertwig. (Schwarz, 1887.) Pyre'noid (wvprjv, the stone of a fruit ; like a nucleus), colourless plastids (leuco plastids). occurring in the chromatophores of lower plants, forming centres for

the formation of starch. (Schmitz, 1883.) Reduction, the halving of the number of chromosomes in the germ-nuclei during

maturation. Sarcode (<rap£, flesh). The protoplasm of unicellular animals. (Du Jardin.

1835) Sertoli-cells, the large, digitate, supporting, and nutritive cells of the mammalian

testis to which the developing spermatozoa are attached. (Equivalent to u spermatoblast " as originally used by Von Ebner, 1871.)

Spermatid (oTrc'p/uLa, seed), the final cells which are converted without further division into spermatozoa ; they arise by division of the secondary spermatocytes or " SamenmUtterzellen. ,, (La Valete St. George, 1886.)

Spermatoblasts (<nrcp/Lia, seed; yftAaoros, germ), a word of vague meaning, originally applied to the supporting cell or Sertoli-cell, from which a group of spermatozoa was supposed to arise. By various later writers used synonymously with spennatid. (Von Ebner, 1871.)

Sper'matocyst (cnrc'p/ua, seed : kvottis, bladder), originally applied to a group of sperm-producing cells ("spermatocytes ■ 1 ), arising by division from an "Ursamenzelle" or "spermatogonium.'" (La V alette St. George, 1876.)

Sper'matocyte (oircp/ia, seed; kvtos, hollow (a cell)), the cells arising from the spermatogonia. The primary spermatocyte arises by growth of one of the last generation of spermatogonia. By its division are formed two secondary spermatocytes, each of which gives rise to two spermatids (ultimately spermatozoa). (La Valette St. George, 1876.)


[Sperm atogem'ma] (cnrcp/ia, seed ; gemma, bud), nearly equivalent to spermatocyst. Differs in the absence of a surrounding membrane. [In mammals, La Valette St. George, 1878.]

Spermatogenesis (cnrcppo, seed; ycrccri?, origin), the phenomena involved in the formation of the spermatozoon. Often used more specifically to denote the process of reduction in the male.

Spermatogo'nium (" Ursamenzelle ") (cnrcp/ia, seed ; yovrj, generation), the descendants of the primordial germ-cells in the male. Each ultimate spermatogonium typically gives rise to four spermatozoa. (La Valette St. George, 1876.)

Bpermatome'rites (cnrcppa, seed ; /icpos, a part), the chromatin-granules into which the sperm-nucleus resolves itself after entrance of the spermatozoon. (In Petromyzon, Bohm, 1887.)

Bper'matosome (cnrcp/ia, seed; crw/ia, body), the same as spermatozoon. (La Valette St. George, 1878.)

Spermatozo Id (see Spermatozoon), the ciliated paternal germ-cells in plants. The word was first used by von Siebold as synonymous with spermatozoon.

Spermatozoon (<r7rcppo, seed ; (<£ov, animal), the paternal germ-cell of animals. (Leeuwenhoek, 1677.)

Sperm-nucleus, the nucleus of the spermatozoon ; more especially applied to it after entrance into the egg before its union with the egg-nucleus. In this sense equivalent to the " male pronucleus " of Van Beneden. (O. Hertwig,

1875.) Bper'mocentre, the sperm-centrosome during fertilization. (Fol, 1891.) Spi'reme (cnrctpi/fia, a thing wound or coiled ; a skein), the skein or " Knauel "

stage of the nucleus in mitosis, during which the chromatin appears in the form

of a thread, continuous or segmented. (F lemming, 1882.) Spon'gioplasm (cnroyytov, a sponge ; irAacrpa, a thing formed), the cytoreticulum.

(Leydig, 1885.) Ste'reoplasm (orcpco?, solid), the more solid part of protoplasm as opposed to the

more fluid " hygroplasm." (Nageli, 1884.) Substantia hyalina, the protoplasmic ground-substance or "hyaloplasm."

(Leydig, 1885.) Substantia opaca, the protoplasmic reticulum or " spongioplasm." (Leydig,

1885.) Synap'sis (<rwa7rrci>, to fuse together). A stage in the nucleus preceding the first

maturation-division, characterized by the massing of the chromatin at one side

of the nucleus. From it the chromatin-masses emerge in the reduced number.

(Moore, 1895.) Te'loblast (tcAos, end : /JAaoros, a germ), large cells situated at the growing end

of the embryo (in annelids, etc.), which bud forth rows of smaller cells. (Whitman, Wilson, 1887.) Telole'cithal (tcXos, end ; AcVctlo?, yolk), that type of ovum in which the yolk is

mainly accumulated in one hemisphere. (Balfour, 1880.) Telophases, Telokine'sis (rcAo?, end), the closing phases of mitosis, during

which the daughter-nuclei are re-formed. (Heidenhain, 1894.) To'noplasts (rovos, tension ; wXaoros, form), plastids from which arise the vacuoles

in plant-cells. (De Vries, 1885.) Trophoplasm (rpo<t>^ nourishment; 7rAan-pa). 1. The nutritive or vegetative

substance of the cell, as distinguished from the idioplasm. (Nageli, 1884.)

2. The active substance of the cytoplasm other than the "kinoplasm " or archo plasm. (Strasburger, 1892.) Tro'phoplasts (Tpotjrrj, nourishment ; trAooros, form), a general term, nearly equiv

alent to the "plastids" of Schimper, including "anaplasts" (amyloplasts),

"autoplasts" (chloroplasts), and chromoplasts. (A. Meyer, 1882-83.) Yolk-nucleus, a word of vague meaning applied to a cytoplasmic body, single or

multiple, that appears in the ovarian egg. [Named " Dotterkern " by Carus.

1850.) Zy'gote or Zy'gospore (£vyw, a yoke), the cell produced by the fusion of two

conjugating cells or gametes in some of the lower plants.



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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
   Cell development and inheritance (1900): Introduction | List of Figures | Chapter I General Sketch of the Cell | Chapter II Cell-division | Chapter III The Germ-cells | Chapter IV Fertilization of the Ovum | Chapter V Reduction of the Chromosomes, Oogenesis and Spermatogenesis | Chapter VI Some Problems of Cell-organization | Chapter VII Some Aspects of Cell-chemistry and Cell-physiology | Chapter VIII Cell-division and Development | Chapter IX Theories of Inheritance and Development | Glossary

Wilson EB. The Cell in Development and Inheritance. Second edition (1900) New York, 1900.


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