- Apgar test - neonatal test used in nearly all maternity clinics to assess the newborn infants well being assigned scores for each of 5 indicators: Heart Rate, Respiratory Effort, Reflex Irritability, Muscle Tone, Colour.
- Automated Auditory Brainstem Response - (AABR) neonatal hearing test that uses a trigger stimulus delivered through earphones and subsequent brain electrical activity then detected by scalp electrodes, averaging generates peaks reflecting signal passage activity through brain stem nuclei in the hearing central neural pathway.
- Babinski reflex - (plantar reflex) The up going toes or “Babinski reflex” is a normal reflex in the infant and may be present for the first year of life because at that developmental stage the incomplete myelination of the corticospinal tracts. Also found in a number of developmental and adult neural disorders. Video - plantar reflex
- birth weight - (birth-weight) the weight of the neonate measured as soon as possible after birth. The measurement can be indicative of a number of developmental abnormalities. DOHAD
- congenital hypothyroidism - (CH) Neonates born with this disorder typically have a normal appearance and no detectable physical signs. Thyroid hormone is required for normal postnatal neural (cognitive) development with newborn screening and thyroid therapy able to be begun within 2 weeks of birth. thyroid
- Maple syrup urine disease - (MSUD) metabolic disorder, clinical features include mental and physical retardation, feeding problems, and a maple syrup odour to the urine. The urine effects are due to the presence of keto acids of the branched-chain amino acids (branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme subunits). ICD-11 5C50.D0 Maple-syrup-urine disease
- Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency - (MCAD) metabolic disorder, most common inherited disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in people from northern Europe, intolerance to prolonged fasting and an inability to generate energy during periods of increased energy demand and can be severe to fatal in infants.