Template:Endocrine terms

From Embryology
Endocrine Terms (expand to view) 
  • adenohypophysis - (anterior pituitary, pars distalis) anterior part of pituitary embryonic development from surface ectoderm adenohypophyseal placode. Placode folds inward on the roof of the pharynx forming a transient structure Rathke's pouch.
  • adrenocorticotropin - (ACTH or corticotropin) anterior pituitary, peptide hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce corticosteroid hormones — primarily cortisol — as well as small amounts of female and male sex hormones.
  • androstenedione - hormone precursor of testosterone and other steroidal androgens.
  • atrial natriuretic peptide - (ANP) heart, peptide hormone regulates blood pressure. A study suggests that its activating enzyme corin, and ANP together, have a role in placentation, by promoting trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling. (PMID 22437503)
  • basophil cell - pituitary named by histological staining (deep blue, purple) different types produce different hormones: corticotrophs (ACTH, CRH), gonadotrophs (FSH, LH, GnRH), and thyrotrophs (TSH, TRH). See acidophil and chromophore cells.
  • C cells - parafollicular cells of the thyroid.
  • calcitonin - (CT) C cells of thyroid, peptide hormone thyroid
  • corpus luteum - ovarian endocrine organ from ovulating follicle, stimulated by hCG and supports early pregnancy by secreting progesterone, 17β-progesterone, estradiol and androstenedione.
  • corticosteroid binding globulin - (CBG) binds and transports glucocorticoids in the plasma. Globin is synthesised in the liver. adrenal
  • dihydrotestosterone - (DHT) steroidal hormone made locally by 5-alpha reductase conversion of testosterone into a more active form in genital effects.
  • dehydroepiandrosterone - (DHEA, androstenolone) adrenal cortex, gonads and brain make this steroid intermediate that may also have adult hormonal functions.
  • dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate - (DHEAS, DHEA-S) fetal adrenal cortex makes this inactive precursor of a steroid hormone.
  • dydrogesterone - clinical oral retrosteroid structurally related to progesterone, with a greater bioavailability and selectivity for the progesterone receptor.
  • estrogen (oestrogen) family of female steroidal hormones - estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4) synthesised from testosterone and androstenedione, by aromatase. Also produced in male testis, and required for genital development (PMID 29438493)
  • estrone (E1) - steroid hormone with weak estrogenic activity.
  • estradiol (E2) - (oestradiol) estrogen steroid hormone with main estrogenic female activity.
  • estriol (E3) - (oestriol) steroid hormone with weak estrogenic activity.
  • estetrol (E4) (oestetrol) steroid hormone with weak estrogenic activity produced only during pregnancy.
  • follicle stimulating hormone - (FSH) pituitary glycoprotein hormone secreted by gonadotrophs (basophilic cell subgroup) acts on gametogenesis and other systems in both males and females. Females, acts on the ovary to stimulate follicle development. Negative feedback by inhibin from the developing follicle decreases FSH secretion. Males, acts on the testis Sertoli cells to increase androgen-binding protein (ABP) that binds androgens and has a role in spermatogenesis.
  • growth hormone - (GH) pituitary, peptide hormone that stimulates tissue and skeletal growth. In the ovary, growth hormone also increases granulosa cell FSH-dependent E2 production.
  • growth hormone releasing hormone - (GHRH) hypothalamus‎, protein that activates growth hormone synthesis and release from the anterior pituitary.
  • human chorionic gonadotropin - (hCG) glycoprotein hormone with 2 subunits (alpha and beta joined non covalently). Similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH), hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents (regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG). PMID 19171054
  • human chorionic somatommotropin - (hCS, CSH, placental lactogen) Placental hormone is structurally similar to both growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL} and binds strongly to PRL receptors but weakly to GH receptors. Role in stimulating maternal mammary gland development. endocrine placenta
  • interstitial cell - (Leydig cell) Male testis cell secrete the androgen testosterone, required for fetal male genital tract differentiation and masculinisation after puberty.
  • Leydig cell - (interstitial cell) Male testis cell secrete the androgen testosterone, beginning in the fetus. These cells are named after Franz von Leydig (1821 - 1908) a German scientist who histologically described these cells.
  • lutenizing hormone - (LH, gonadotropin, lutropin, Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone, ICSH) pituitary, glycoprotein hormone acts on the gonad and has a role in male and female reproduction. Female, increase in concentration during the menstrual cycle triggers ovulation. Male, stimulates testis interstital cell production of testosterone. Gonadotrophins have been used clinically in humans for the treatment of female infertility.
  • melaocyte stimulating hormone - (MSH) pituitary, peptide hormone pituitary
  • melatonin - (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) pineal amino acid amino (precursor tryptophan) hormone involved with the diurnal cycle, melatoinin levels are high in dark, low in daylight. Also acts as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and anti-inflammatory molecule.
  • prolactin - (PRL) pituitary, peptide hormone pituitary
  • parathyroid - endocrine gland through parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium and phosphate levels in conjunction with parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland (calcitonin) and Vitamin D, dietary or synthesized in the skin. Develops from pharyngeal endoderm, in this case the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches.
  • parathyroid hormone - (PTH) parathyroid, peptide hormone parathyroid
  • synthetic ACTH test = (synacthen test) A diagnostic test to both measure the amount of cortisol in the body and to determine the ability to produce cortisol.
  • testosterone - testis ovary steroidal hormone. In males is the androgen which regulates genital (gonadal and tract), secondary sex characteristics and neural development. The steroid is converted to the active metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase for the genital effects and estradiol by the enzyme aromatase for the neural effects.
  • thyroid - endocrine gland located in the neck with a developmental role in neurological development and metabolism.
  • thyroid diverticulum - the primordium of the thyroid gland, beginning as an median endodermal thickening in the floor of pharynx between the pharyngeal pouch 1 and 2.
  • thyroid hormone - (TH) thyroid amino acid derivative with two main forms (T3, T4) regulates tissue metabolic activity.
  • thyroid stimulating hormone - (TSH) pituitary protein hormone
  • ultimobranchial body - historic term for the embryonic structure that forms the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid.
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