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Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) Greek philosopher and scientist De generatione animalium

On the Generation of animals

Generation of animals, with an English translation by A.L. Peck Published 1943

De generatione animalium

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Aristotle - De generatione animalium

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With An English Translation By

A. L. Peck, M.A., Ph.D.

Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer In Classics

London, William Heinemann Ltd

Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press


JUL 5 1949


praeceptori socio amico dedicat

A. L. P.


In reviewing Karl Bitterauf's book[1] in 1914, H. Stadler[2] described the Generation of Animals as " this still inadequately appreciated work of Aristotle's," and it must be confessed that his description is not yet out of date. It has, perhaps, been more appreciated by men of science than by scholars and philosophers ; but it has a strong interest for both classes of students. Its neglect by scholars and philosophers[3] is the more surprising, since it may, I think, be justly claimed that in this treatise Aristotle's thought is to be seen integrated as it is nowhere else ; for in reproduction, as understood by Aristotle, not only the individual is concerned but the cosmos at large : it is a business in which the powers of the universe are concentrated and united ; and it is the means whereby that eternity, with which, if he could have done it, God would have filled the whole creation from one end to the other, is attained so far as is possible by the creatures that are subject to decay ; indeed, these very beings, animals and plants,[4] have in Aristotle's view the best claim to the title of " being " (ovo-lo), a much better claim than the lifeless things out of which they are composed, or the objects made by human art : and therefore they merit to an exceptional degree the attention of the student of reality.

Perhaps philosophers, like the visitors who came to call on Heracleitus and found him in the kitchen, have felt embarrassed at finding Aristotle in his laboratory, and have thought it more dignified to wait until he came out ; failing to perceive that " there too gods are present.[5] And where the gods are, there too is beauty, however mean and however small the creature may be which is the subject of study - greater beauty than is to be found in the products of human skill ; for these are the workmanship of Nature, who does nothing idly or without purpose ; and in them too is to be found the activity of Soul, working through its instrument pneuma, which is the terrestrial counterpart of the celestial " quintessence," aither, the divine constituent of the heavenly spheres and of the stars ; in them, therefore. Form at its highest and Matter at its highest are seen operating in unison. For men of science, the Generation of Animals has a special interest, in that it is the first systematic treatise on animal reproduction and embryology, containing records of observations, marking out schemes of classification, and suggesting methods of dealing with problems, much of which has proved of permanent value ; indeed, Aristotle's work was not resumed until after the lapse of nearly two thousand years, and some of his observations were not repeated until comparatively recent times. Of this I shall have more to say presently.

Aristotle's Embryology

The De generatione animalium is the culminating portion of Aristotle's zoological works, of which the scheme may be exhibited as follows :

(requires formatting of original table)

I. Record of observations. Historia animalium.

II. Theory based upon observations (including also many observational data).

(a) treating of the " matter " of animals and the way in which it is arranged to subsers^e their various purposes ; i.e., their " parts," excluding those used in reproduction.

(b) De anima treating of the " form " of animals - i.e., Soul, and its " parts " or functions.

(c) Parva naturalia treating of the functions " common

De motu animalium to body and Soul," excluding

I animalium J reproduction.

(d) De generatione treatmg of the " parts " used in animalium reproduction, and of the reproductive functions (which are common to body and Soul).

The section (b) is necessary to the completeness of the scheme, but as it has given rise to a whole department of study, it is usually treated apart from the rest. Thus the main bulk of the zoological and biological works may be taken to consist of the three great treatises H.A., P. A. and G.A.[6] It was these which, through Latin translations made from the Arabic, were restored to the West by those who revived scientific studies at the beginning of the 13th century.

It is generally held that the zoological works were written during the second period of Aristotle's residence at Athens, when he was engaged in organizing systematic observation and specialized research, which produced, among other results, the collection of 158 constitutions of states (of which the Constitution of Athens, recovered at the end of the 10th century, is one), as well as the Historia animalium.[7] The zoological works have not been subjected to such minute criticism as, for instance, the Metaphysics and Politics, but, according to Jaeger, the H.A. shows clear traces of different authors, and he suggests that the work of observation was distributed among several persons from the outset. It is probable that some collection of material was made by Aristotle himself[8] between the two periods of his residence at Athens. But the real importance of these works is that they represent the first attempt in Europe to observe and describe in a scientific way the individual living object. Aristotle's method may be described as substantially the same as that of modern scientific workers : it is inductive-deductive, as opposed on the one hand to earlier (and later) methods of pure deduction from a priori premisses, and on the other hand to the Baconian method of almost exclusive induction. Aristotle often complains that his predecessors' work was marred by insufficient observation, and the importance which he himself attached to careful and thorough observation is apparent throughout the zoological treatises. Of particular interest in this connexion are his observations of the viviparous dogfish (Mustelus laevis), observations not repeated in modern times until the seventeenth century," and his knowledge of the hectocotylization of one of the tentacles in the Octopus ; the problem involved in the latter case has not yet been solved. Other problems raised by him have found their solution only in very recent years ; among them may be mentioned the breeding of eels and the anatomy of the hyena. His discussion of the reproduction of bees is a remarkable piece of analysis ; and here, again the facts are not yet fully ascertained. It is in connexion with this problem that Aristotle makes his well-known dictum : " But the facts have not yetv been sufficiently ascertained ; and if at any future time they are ascertained, then credence must be given to the direct evidence of the senses rather than to theories - and to theories too provided that the results which they show agree with what is observed." This, indeed, is the principle upon which his work is based : and although he is often forced to rely upon bare theories, it is only because he was unable to obtain experimental data - most insects, he regretfully remarks, are too small to be observed - in other words, it is only because he lacked the necessary apparatus. For his magnificent apologia (if such it can be called - protreptic would be a better word) on the subject of the study of natural history, the reader should refer to the passage in the first Book of the De partibus (ch. 5). Nevertheless it is probable that his theories, though they sometimes led him astray, did in fact often help him to adopt a correct general outlook, even if the detailed working out of them is erroneous. As examples of this we may quote his discussions and conclusions upon preformation and epigenesis and upon the time of sex-determination in the embryo.[9]

The main contributions of Aristotle to embryology, as judged from the viewpoint of a modern embryologist,[10] may be stated as follows :

  1. Following the lead of men like the author of the Hippocratic treatise π. γονης , Aristotle greatly extended the field of careful and accurate observation, and was thereby enabled to introduce for the first time the comparative method into embryology, and so to arrange the available data in an orderly way This is expressed, e.g., by his classification of animals according to their methods of embryonic development.
  2. He stated in the clearest terms the two rival theories of preformation and epigenesis, and decided in favour of the latter. He also laid down that the sex of the embryo was determined at the very beginning of its development.
  3. He clearly stated that generic characteristics precede specific characteristics in embryonic development, and, by his theory that the various faculties of Soul developed successively in the embryo, foreshadowed the modern theory of " recapitulation." By his observation that the " upper " parts of the embryo develop more rapidly than the " lower " parts he foreshadowed the modern doctrine of " axial gradients " (see 741 b 28, n.).
  4. He correctly understood the functions of the placenta and the umbilical cord ; and
  5. He prefigured (see 772 b 13 ff.) -with wonderful insight the cell-streams or morphogenetic movements which are fundamental in embryonic development during the period when the germ-layers are taking up their definitive positions.[11] His dynamic view of the origin both of normal structures and of monstrous deviations can be fully appreciated only in the light of modern knowledge of the great part played by movement, migration of cells, etc., in early embryonic development.

On the contrary side we must range such mistakes as these :

  1. The insect larva, which Aristotle regarded as the earlier stage of an egg, " an egg laid too soon," has in fact passed the embryonic stage.
  2. Observations of newly-castrated animals led him to regard the testes as of secondary importance.

With regard to his famous doctrine that the male Theory of supplies the Form and the female the Matter of the w°™ *?*^ embryo (see 729 a 11), some misunderstanding may easily arise. And also, with regard to his insistence upon the importance of the Final Cause, we find that modern scientific opinion, following the lead of Francis Bacon, who led the attack upon Formal and Final Causes, often tends to consider Aristotle's talk about these Causes as inferior to what he has to say on other matters. It is, however, open to question whether Aristotle would in fact have reached some of his most valuable conclusions apart from his insistence upon the pre-eminence of the Final Cause (any more than Harvey might have discovered the circulation of the blood unless he had tried to discover what was the Final Cause of the valves in the veins) ; and although Aristotle was of course ignorant of the existence of spermatozoa and of the mammalian ovum,[12] and although he considered that the menstrual fluid was the " matter " out of which the embryo was formed, it is not so certain that he was quite as wrong-headed as he is often said to be.

Before coming to a conclusion, we must consider what exactly Aristotle meant by Form and Matter in this connexion. In the first place, we must realize that the Form is not bare Form, nor is the Matter bare Matter : this, indeed, is a fundamental doctrine of Aristotle. Form is not found apart from Matter (that was a Platonic view),* nor is Matter found which is not to some extent " informed " ; and Aristotle can say (end of Met. H) that Matter in its ultimate stage is identical with Form (see Introd. § 17). At any rate, the Matter with which we are concerned in the generation of animals is far from being " uninformed." Like the " residue " contributed by the male, the " residue " contributed by the female is " concocted blood " ; and, since blood is the " ultimate nourishment " which maintains the upkeep of the body and its parts, both " residues " axe potentially the body of a H\infir creature of the same kind as that which produced them. Indeed, the only important difference between them is one of the degree of " concoction " which they have undergone, for the female, whose \ital heat is weaker, cannot carry the " concoction " of blood as far as the male can. But the female's " residue " (viz., the menstrual fluid) is, potentially, all the parts of the body ; and hence, too, it is, or contains. Soul potentially (this is merely another way of saying the same thing, because just as any actual h\'ing body must possess Soul, which is its Form, actually, so a potential U\-ing body must possess Soul potentially). That the female's " residue " does in fact possess Soul potentially is shown, says Aristotle, by the occurrence of wind-eggs in birds : these possess nutritive Soul, and up to a point they grow and " are fertile." The Matter, therefore, is " informed " to a high degree : and the only part of the Form which it lacks is sentient Soul. Hence, the meaning of the statement that " the male supplies the Form " can only be that the male suppUes that part of the Form known as sentient Soul : everything else, including nutritive Soul, can be, and is, suppUed by the female.

We may now go on to consider the " residue " contributed by^he male. Aristotle, as we saw, held that Form is not normally found apart from Matter (i.e., body) of some sort,[13] and besides that, according to him, action can only be exerted, change can only be brought about, by something that can come into contact with another thing. Therefore in any case something corporeal must be supplied by the male as well as Form, and this is of course the substance which carries the (potential) Form : it is the substance with which the sort of Form known as Soul is specially and regularly connected, and in which it resides, viz., connate pneuma. This pneuma, which is thus present in the semen, is charged with the " movements " proper to Soul, including (in the case of the male) the " movements " proper to sentient Soul ; and these " movements," when given the right material to work upon (viz., material which is potentially an animal of the right kind) and the right conditions, are able to produce an animal of the same kind as that which they would have produced or maintained in the male parent even if the blood in which they were originally present had not undergone the further stage of being concocted into semen.

Hence it is clear that fundamentally the contributions of both parents in generation are identical ; both are potentially a living animal of a certain kind, and this involves that both possess the living animal's Form, viz., its Soul, potentially ; and the only difference between them is that the male's contribution possesses also sentient Soul potentially.

At the same time, this is an important difference, and makes itself apparent in the difference of bulk between the two : the female's is large in bulk, the male's is small. And this difference of bulk is accounted for by the fact that the female's is less " concocted " than the male's - it is less concentrated. Further, the only Matter that the semen need contain is a sufficient amount to transmit the " movements " to the female's residue, and once this has been done - that is to say, once the embryo or rather its heart has been " constituted," once, it has been given its " principle " and has the power to grow - then the " body " of the semen can " evaporate," for the Matter which provides the embryo with its wherewithal for growth is of course supplied by the female parent.

As a final word on the subject we may recall that, in addition to what we have already found Aristotle saying about the identity of Matter and Form in the long run, he finds no greater difficulty in identifying (^iVis with Matter than he does in identifying it mth Form or with the Motive Cause and the Final Cause (see Introd. § 14', end) ; and when all the attributes have been ascribed to Matter which Aristotle ascribes to it in spontaneous generation (see App. B § 17, additional note), there is very little more left for it to desire.

I have not thought it necessary to call attention to all Aristotle's mistakes, partly because of lack of space, but chiefly because it would serve no really useful purpose. Nor have I given an account of modern embryological theory. My main object has been to ensure that the reader shall be able to find out what Aristotle said, and to secure that Aristotle shall get neither credit nor discredit for things which he did not say. In a treatise such as G.A., this means that fairly copious footnotes are necessary,[14] and as a further help to the reader I have provided not only a full account of Aristotle's technical terms (which gives an opportunity for explaining a good deal of the framework of his thought), but also, in the Appendix, accounts of his theory of the universe and movement (without which parts of Books II and IV cannot be understood) and of the functions of (Σ……insert greek here)[15] an essential factor in his doctrine of generation. On Aristotle the principle that, for the most part, Aristotle is his own best interpreter, these accounts are compiled almost entirely from passages taken direct from Aristotle's own treatises. In reading Aristotle's scientific works, it is important not only to recognize how great were the advances which he himself made in natural history, both in - practical observation and in theory, but also to remember that his work was a continuation and an expansion of what had been begun by previous scientific workers.[16] Those to whom he most frequently refers by name are three : Anaxagoras, Empedocles, and Democritus, besides several references to theories which can be traced in the Hippocratic treatises[17]; and the fact that he often quotes them in order to disagree with them should not lead us to underrate their achievement. It is not possible here to give any adequate account of these predecessors of his, and for details about them the reader must be referred to the standard works on the early scientists and philosophers and to other works of reference.[18] Alcmeon, to whom also he refers, is an important figure, since it was he, apparently, who originated the famous doctrine of " passages " (or " pores," iropoi) in connexion with sensation, and held that the brain was the common sensorium, in which belief he was followed by Hippocrates and Plato, whereas Empedocles and Aristotle reverted to the older view that the heart is the central organ of sensation. Alcmeon also treated systematically of the special senses, in particular that of sight. Other theories of his mentioned by Aristotle may be found by reference to the Index.

Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, the last great name in the Ionian philosophic succession of Asia Minor, is well known for his theory that voi«s is responsible for the order of the universe as a whole, just as it is for the order which is to be discerned in living creatures, and for his remarkable theory of matter, which he constructed specially \\'ith a \'iew to accounting for generation and growth. I have treated fully of this elsewhere.[19]

Empedocles of Acragas, a striking figure, was a slightly younger contemporary of Anaxagoras, and was renowned as a politician, religious teacher, rhetorician, philosopher, and physician : he was the founder of the " Italian " school of medicine. Considerable portions of his poems on Nature and Purifications are extant. He adopted, perhaps formulated, the doctrine of the four E!,lements, which really means (see TT. apxaii]<i n]TpiKrj<i, chh. 13 fF.) that he selected, as especially important, four out of the many substances already recognized as fundamental in traditional Gi-eek medical theory (see Introd. § 24).

Democritus of Abdera, the follower of Leucippus, is best known for his advancement of the atomic theory originated by his master. Abdera is not far from Aristotle's birthplace, Stageira, and Aristotle seems to have been specially interested in Democritus.[20]

The following table will indicate roughly the dates of these early scientists :

Alcmeon of Crotona, probably a Pythagorean and a pupil of Pythagoras himself (he was " a young man in Pythagoras' old age "). Pythagoras is said to have gone to Italy in 529 b.c. and to have lived at Crotona for twenty years. Alcmeon was probably active, therefore, about 510-480.[21]

Anaxagoras of Clazomenae. Born about 500 b.c, died 428. Lived at Athens c. 480-450, and was a friend of Pericles. Mentioned by Socrates in a well-known passage in Plato's Phaedo.

Empedocles of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily ; c. 494-434.

Democritus of Abdera in Thrace ; c. 460-370.

It is not possible to assign exact dates for all the treatises in the Hippocratic collection ; indeed they cannot all be ascribed to a single author, but one of the most important, the 77. dp;^at7/s IrjrpiKyjs, refers to Empedocles as having introduced new-fangled ideas into the long established science of medicine (ch. 20). Other treatises relevant to our subject are the tt. depoyv v6dro}v tottwv, the tt. Suii't-qs, and the ~. yoi'rjs Kal IT. (insert greek here). All of these are most interesting and will repay study. The last named in particular is the work of a most active and enterprising man, always ready to experiment and to record his results and to make use of them.

It should of course be remembered that although Aristotle introduced much new technical terminology and sometimes gave new content to what already existed, many of the terms which he uses were the common property of scientific writers, among them being such important ones as the following : Srva/zis, Kpaa-fi, (TvvT'i^yiJ.a, a-vfj.iJ.€Tpiu, €?8os, Trver/xa and the like. I have attempted to trace the development of one such term in my account of Si'm/xts (Introd. §§ 23 if.).

It is not possible here to say much about Aristotle's successors, but it is necessary to say enough to emphasize the important influence which they have had in the history of science. Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1537-1619) knew and admired Aristotle's work on embryology, and what is more, himself carried out further important observations on the same subject. His brilliant successor, William Harvey (1578-1657), was a student of Aristotle, and much of his inspiration came from Aristotle's works. Harvey was indeed the first to make any substantial advance in embryology since Aristotle himself. In other departments of study, however, during the 17th century, the authority of Aristotle and the scholastic doctrine with which he was identified were being combated in the name of " freedom," and so it came about that the zoological works too, which had been brought to light by the " dark " ages, were allowed to pass back into oblivion by the age of enlightenment. It was not until the end of the 18th century that they were rediscovered for the second time by Cuvier (1769-1832) and members of the Saint-Hilaire family.

Early Translators

Early Lack of space forbids reprinting here the account translators, Which I gave in the Introduction to P. A. of the fascinating history of the early translators of Aristotle's zoological works, and I must be allowed to • refer the reader to that volume (pp. 39 ff.) for details and other references. A mere list of the four most important translations must here suffice :

(1) The physician Ibn al-Batriq translated the H.A., P. A. and G.A. into Arabic at Bagdad during the time of the Caliphate of al-Mamun (813-833), son of Harun al-Rashid. There is a MS. of an Arabic translation, probably Ibn al-Batriq's, in the British Museum[22] ; and there can be little doubt that this is the translation from which Michael Scot made his Latin version.

(2) Michael Scot translated H.A., P. A. and G.A. into Latin from the Arabic at Toledo. This translation was finished before 1217.

(3) William of Moerbeke translated the zoological works into Latin from the Greek, at Thebes, in or before 1260.

(4) Theodore of Gaza began at Rome in 1450 to make translations of Aristotle and other Greek authors. His translation of the zoological works of Aristotle is dedicated to Pope Sixtus IV, and this soon became the standard Latin version. It is printed in the Berlin edition of Aristotle.

The Text

It soon became clear that for the purpose of translation it was necessary to make a working version of the Greek text, and to this end I made my first draft with the Berlin edition, Aubert and Wimmer's edition, and Platt's translation and textual emendations before me. Next, I transcribed suspected passages with their contexts from the mss. of Scot's version, in order to give them fuller consideration. Then, having incorporated a large number of changes into the text, some of them my own, I took into consideration the work of Bitterauf and others. In some cases I found that the same emendation had been proposed by two or more scholars independently, and also that some of these emendations were confirmed by Scot. Finally, I found it necessary to transcribe further portions of Scot's version.

I do not wish to claim more for the text here offered than that it is a better text than any hitherto available. I have done my best with the data at my disposal, but I am well aware that many passages yet remain to which I have not been able to offer any satisfactory solution. When I have accepted the reading of Bekker's criticus. gfji^^JQf,, I have not normally given the in^ss. variants. These will be found in Bekker's apparatus. Corrected reports of mss. readings as given by Susemihl and Bitterauf I have distinguished by an asterisk ; the other readings are as reported by Bekker[23] (sometimes confirmed by Bitterauf). Every departure from Bekker's text is recorded. The text has been reparagraphed throughout, and ™™ â– in many places the punctuation has been corrected. The following manuscripts[24] are cited for the Greek text :

Z Oxoniensis Collegii Corporis Christi W.A. 2. 7 ( = Coxe 108). Late 12th century. Presented to the College by Henry Parry, P'ellow, in 1623. It contains P. A., I. A., G.A., some of the Parva Naturalia, and De spiritu. G.A. begins f. 74^, and ends f. \QV, but this page is identical with 62^. The MS. is confusedly bound, and some passages it has lost altogether.[25]

S Laurentianus Mediceus 81, 1. Written in different hands, some of the 12th, some of the 13th century. G.A. is written in a 12th century hand.

P Vaticanus graecus 1339- Great variation of opinion upon the date of this manuscript has been expressed by various scholars. Some date it 12th century, others 15th.

Y Vaticanus graecus 261. 14th century (Btf.).

The following are cited for a few places only :

m Parisinus 1921. 1-lth century. In this ms. G.A. is accompanied by the commentary of Michael of Ephesus.

O<Michael Scot’s translation</ref> Riccardianus 13. Late 14th century. E Parisinus regius 1853. Written in various hands, from 10th to 15th century. G.A. is in a 15th century hand.

The following manuscripts of Michael Scot's transation are to be found in this country : translation.

Cambridge, University Library li. 3. 16. Cambridge, University Library Dd. 4. 30. Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College 109Oxford, Merton College 278. Oxford, Balliol College 252. London, British Museum Royal 12. C. XV. London, British Museum Harl. 4970.

All these are of the 13th or 14th century. I have seen all these mss. of Scot's translation, but chiefly owing to present conditions I have worked with the two first mentioned only.[26]

The chief mss. cited by Bekker for G.A. (namely, The text: PSYZ) are identical with four of the six cited by him for P.A.[27] Some years ago, when working on P. A. for the Loeb edition, my examination of the ms. Z at several places led me to state {P. A. Introd. p. 46) that a more reliable collation of the chief mss. than Bekker's apparahis criticus afforded was clearl)' needed. This view is amply confirmed by K. E. Bitterauf, who has in fact undertaken such a collation for G.A. (see below), and he shows that there are several errors and misleading reports on every page in Bekker's apparatus, (h) the A comparison of the text of P. A. exhibited by our "'3^i^[*P^ Greek mss. with the translation of Michael Scot showed me that the former had all suffered identical corruptions or losses (or both) in certain passages {e.g., P. A. 684 b 22 ff.), by which the Greek ms. from which Scot's Arabic original was translated had not been affected ; and I found exactly the same when I came to work oh G.A. (see, e.g., 722 a 20, 766 b 35). My conclusion about the common origin of our Greek MSS. is also supported by Bitterauf, who comes independently to the conclusion, based exclusively upon a study of the Greek mss., that they are all derived from a single archetype, Which, in his opinion, contained a number of variant readings. Modorn This brings us to a consideration of the ms. tradition X-^l)*Z of G.A. After the publication of Bekker's Berlin edition in 1831, very little work was done on the mss. of G.A. for about eighty years. Bussemaker, who edited G.A. in the Didot edition (Paris, 1854), cites many readings from the two Paris mss. E and m, and several times quotes the authority of William of Moerbeke, less frequently that of Michael Scot, and in a few cases quotes their Latin versions. Aubert and Wimmer, in their Leipzig edition published in 1860, took into account throughout the commentary of Michael of Ephesus and Gaza's Latin translation, but they too reUed upon Bekker for the mss. readings. The first to go back again direct to the mss. was F. Susemihl,[28] at whose request in 1885 By water and Vitelli inspected a number of selected places in Aristotle's zoological works in the mss. Z and S respectively, and of these fourteen are places in G.A. The majority of these, however, are of minor importance. A really serious attempt to revise the text throughout on the basis of a new collation of the mss. was made about 1913 by K. E. Bitterauf in preparation for a new Teubner edition, which however was never published.[29] In all, Bitterauf enumerates 31 mss. containing G.A., and of these he collated three in full himself from photographs (Z, Y and E), and a single selected Book (not the same Book in each case) in eight more (of which m was one). He also had at his disposal collations of seven others, of which five were apparently collated direct by Hugo Tschierschky (these include S and 0*5, and another ms. called /5 which contains only a very small part of the beginning of G.A.) and the remaining two (one of which is P) were collated by L. Dittmeyer from photographs. Five others were collated (apparently from photographs) by Bitterauf sufficiently to establish their character ; of the remaining eight he gives no report on the character of their text. The upshot of Bitterauf 's work is to show that Bekker was right in basing the text upon PSYZ, and that although the most faithful witness to the original text is Z, with P a good second, no ms. has a monopoly of the truth, since their common descent gives them all a fair chance of preserving a good reading, just as it has undoubtedly ensured, as I mentioned above, that they have all failed to preserve the text in certain passages. With regard to the defective nature of Bekker 's apparatus, the corrections which Bitterauf gives are of value primarily in determining the comparative trustworthiness of the mss. rather than in yielding substantial improvements of the text[30] ; but there are a good many places where they do make an improvement possible, and all the suggestions which Bitterauf makes for so doing I have carefully considered, and many I have adopted.[31] When the changes indicated are of a minor character, for instance those affecting merely the order of words, I have not always felt it necessary to alter Bekker's text, though it might be held that ceteris paribus Z's reading should be preferred.

Bitterauf does not appear, at any rate from what he has pubhshed, to have en\-isaged the existence of deep-seated corruptions or serious losses from the text. The furthest he ventures along this path is to suggest that alfia and a-dp^ should be ^^Titten t^\•ice instead of once at 722 b 34, and that kuI dioioy has dropped out at 74-6 a 34 ; but the latter suggestion, which is certainly right, is taken over from Bussemaker. However, that loss of phrases and corruption of the text have occurred is sometimes clear from intrinsic evidence, and loss can sometimes be proved bv the sur\-ival of the original words in M. Scot's translation.

Apart from re-examination of the mss., proposals to Conjectural improve the text by conjectural emendation have emendation. been made by the following : (1) Wimmer, who was responsible for the textual work in Aubert and Wimmer 's edition of 1860, made a number of conjectures, some of which he incorporated in the text and others he printed in the footnotes. Many of them are undoubtedly correct, and some I have found are supported by Scot (though I have no reason to think that Wimmer himself was aware of this).

(2) F. Susemihl,[32] beside the work which he did on the MSS., dealt with the question of duplicate recensions in the text, and also that of interpolations by commentators, and made a number of conjectural emendations.

(3) Arthur Platt, in his translation of G.A. in the Oxford Translations of Aristotle, published IQIO, suggests a number of emendations, many of which have been adopted in the present text ; and some of these, again, I have found to be confirmed by Scot's translation, though Platt himself was unaware of this. Platt also detected many corrupt places and misplaced passages or interpolations.

(4) Bitterauf himself puts forward about ten conjectural emendations in addition to his other suggestions for improving the text, but few of them are of major importance.

A few suggestions for emendation were made by :

(5) H. Bonitz,[33] en passant, as asides to his treatment of passages in other works of Aristotle, and by

(6) H. Richards[34] ; some of these will be found recorded in their proper places.

Single small emendations are proposed by M. Hayduck[35] and E. Zeller.[36] A few are proposed by H. Diels and one by W. Kranz.[37] J. G. Schneider, too, in his edition of H.A. (1811) made some suggestions for improving the text of G.A. based partly on the Latin versions, but most of his work is superseded by Bekker's edition. Some passages are also discussed by J. Zahlfleisch.[38]

Platt seems to have known nothing of Bonitz' or Susemihl's work, and Bitterauf seems to have known nothing of Platt's work. Bitterauf refers to and quotes Susemihl's article, but puts forward as an original conjecture one which Susemihl had already made (756 a.24).

Several emendations have been put forward by various scholars, beginning vdth Schneider, on the strength of Gaza's Latin version, others on that of WilUam of Moerbeke. As a contribution to the projected Teubner edition of G.A., Dittmeyer[39] published in 1915 the first part of William's version (up to 737 b 5). Although this version gives support to two small emendations already adopted in my present text (at 733 b 34. and 734.* b 18), and at 775 a 11 ff. (teste Schneider) preserves a passage which our Greek Mss. have lost, in general it does not yield anything that is independent of our existing Greek mss. and is, as Dittmeyer himself agreed, of little value for the restoration of the text.[40]

The case is far different with Michael Scot's version. This was made about 1217, not from a Greek text, traslation. but from an Arabic translation, itself made at the beginning of the 9th centurv, and hence the Greek text involved must have been considerably older than any of our present mss. and a priori may have represented an independent tradition of the text : indeed, my examination of Scot's version has proved this to be so. Dittmeyer quotes Schneider's opinion (IV. xxxvii) that Scot's version is of httle value for restoring the text, but it is obvious that neither he nor Bitterauf[41] had troubled to read Scot's version of G.^. beyond the tiny fr a.gmentH( frustula, Dittmeyer's own word) quoted by previous scholars. Against this we have the opinion of G. Rudberg,[42] had made a considerable study of it in connexion with H.A. and published its version ot H.A.'X. in extenso, that there is no doubt of its critical value for rectifying the text ; and this judgement I can confirm from my own experience. Naturally, the circumstances dictate that proper safeguards must be adopted in using it for correcting the Greek text ; and what these are can be learnt only by fairly wide experience of the version itself; any judgement given,[43] either for or against, without this experience as a foundation is worse than useless. My own method has involved the transcription of a large number of continuous passages from the mss. of Scot's version, containing places which some previous editor or I myself had already felt for some reason to be doubtful ; and the pertinent parts of these, where they have anything to contribute, I have given in the apparatus. Scot's version sometimes confirms conjectures previously made, sometimes it confirms the suspected corruption of the text either through glosses or otherwise, and in these cases may suggest means for remedying the trouble. Often it clearly confirms the existing text ; sometimes it gives no clear indication, and sometimes it simply omits the passage. I consider the time and trouble spent upon Scot's version as well spent.

The Greek commentary of Michael of Ephesus (formerly attributed to Johannes Philoponus), 11-12th century a.d., has been edited by Michael Hayduck (Berhn, 1903), but it is of Uttle use for textual criticism.

Apart from manuscript errors of the usual kind, and losses of words or phrases due to homoioteleuton, etc., which will be found noted in their places where they can be detected, the chief points of note in the text of G.A. may be classed as follows :

A. Paragraphs, occasionally sentences only, which obviously interrupt the line of argument or are superfluous to it. Of these, some seem to be

(a) genuine Aristotelian material, but misplaced, perhaps incorporated at the wTong place, or perhaps originally supplementary notes never intended to stand in the text ;

(b) alternative versions of matter already in the text ;

(c) extraneous matter, derived from commentators' remarks and wrongly incorporated in the text {e.g., 724. b 12-23, 726 b 25-30).

These are often found at the beginning or end of a section, which suggests that they were originally appended in the margin. There is no need to give a full list of these passages, but a list of (a) and (6) may be useful. They are : 715 b 26-30 ; 718 a 27-34. ; 726 a 16-25 ; 732 a 1223 ; 737 a 35-b 7 ; 760 a 26-27 ; 760 b 2-8 ; 760 b 33- 761 a 2 ; 781 a 21-b 6.

B. Short passages, often only a few words, derived from glosses which have either (a) supplanted the text or (b) been incorporated into it.

There are a great many short interpolations, and I have frequently omitted them from the translation.

Modern Editions

1. The Berlin edition of Aristotle, by Immanuel Bekker. Vol. I includes G.A., pages 715-789 (by the columns and lines of which the work is normally cited). Berlin, 1831.

1a. The Oxford edition (a reprint of the preceding). Vol. V includes G.A. Oxford, 1837.

2. One-volume edition of Aristotle's works, by C. H. Weise.[44] Leipzig, 1843.

3. The Didot edition. Edited by Bussemaker. Vol. III includes G.A. Paris, 1854.

4. The Leipzig edition. Vol. Ill contains G.A., edited and translated into German by H. Aubert and Fr. Wimmer. Leipzig, 1860. Contains a useful introduction, table of animals, and Greek index.

Translations Only


5. Thomas Taylor. English translation of Aristotle in ten volumes. Vol. IV contains G.A. (pp. 243 fF.). London, 1808.

6. J. Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire.[46] Introduction, French translation of G.A. and notes. In two volumes. Paris, 1887.

7. Arthur Platt. In the Oxford series of translations of Aristotle. Vol. V contains Platt's translation of G.A., >vith notes. Oxford, IQIO.

The Translation

In translating G.A. I have followed two main Principles principles, with the aim of presenting Aristotle as faithfully as possible to the English reader :

  1. I have attempted to translate G.A. into EngUsh, and therefore I have not felt obhged to write in Aristotelian, or even in Greek, idiom. Hence, for example, I have not uniformly translated yap by " for," Kat by " and," or Se by " but " : unfortunately, it is still necessary to point out, even to learned reviewers, that there is a better way than that of " stock " translations ; and a translator is not automatically a traitor if he sometimes omits (yap insert greek here) - as the most idiomatic way of translating it,
  2. Technical terms, on the other hand, must whenever possible be uniformly represented by an invariable term in the English. Sometimes this rule must be broken, either (a) because the original term has a variety of meanings (e.g., Svrapii), sometimes (6) because there is no English word which will do (e.g., crvvurTavaL). I have avoided modernizing Aristotle's terms, so as to avoid misleading any modern readers who may have but little Greek ; and on the positive side I have given a full account of many of these terms in the Introduction. In my opinion, it is essential that the Introduction be read before undertaking any study of the treatise itself.

The purpose I have had in mind, therefore, is to ensure so far as possible, that the reader shall not have the unnecessary difficulty of " translators' English " to overcome, but shall be able to give his full attention to Aristotle's thought and argument : this is especially necessary in the present case, where we are dealing primarily with a scientific treatise. My aim has not been to paraphrase Aristotle or to " improve " upon him, but to represent what he says as closely and as faithfully as possible in English. ofannot.1- Since, however, G.A. is not intelligible, even to a Greek scholar, without some familiarity with Aristotle's general thought and some of his main doctrines, I have provided an outline of these in the Introduction and in the Appendix ; and in the footnotes I have given many cross-references to other passages in G.A. and other treatises : attention is also called to points of special interest. One of these, which I think has not hitherto been noticed, may be mentioned here : the possibility that there is an allusion at 735 b 17 to an early process of oil-flotation in ore-dressing.

The Index is not intended to be exhaustive, forms a supplement to the Contents-Summary (p. Ixxi) and the Introduction. Particular attention is given to certain key-phrases and ideas. It covers the Preface, Introduction, footnotes and Appendix as well as the translation.

A glance through the Index may help a reader with special interests to find the passages most relevant to his subject : e.g., the entn' " causation, mechanical " gives a reference to the passage, specially interesting to modern readers, which compares the development of the embryo to the action of automatic puppets.

A number of books which the student of Aristotle's Additional zoological works will find useful are mentioned in the gj. footnotes throughout the volume ; to them may be added the following :

F. J. Cole. Early Theories of Sexual Generation, Oxford. 1930.

C. H. Haskins, Studies in the History of Medieval Science, ed. 2. Cambridge, Mass., 1927.

T. E. Lones, Aristotle's Researches in Natural Sderwe, London, 1912.

A. W. Mever, The Rise of Embryology, Stanford, Calif., 1939.

C. Singer, Studies in the History and Method of Science, Oxford, 1921.

C. Singer, Greek Biology and Greek Medicine, Oxford, 1922.

H. B. Torrey and F. Felin, Was Aristotle an Evolutionist ? in Qu. Rev. of Biology (Baltimore), XII (1937), 1-18.

D'Arcy W. Thompson, Essay on " Natural Science " in The Legacy of Greece, Oxford, 1924.

S. D. Wingate, The Medieval Latin Versions of the Aristotelian Scientific Corpus, London, 1931.[47]

In addition to Ross's Aristotle and Jaeger's Aristotle (English translation by R. Robinson) and Diokles von Karystos, which are of special importance, the following bear upon certain subjects dealt with in G.A. :

P. Bochert, Aristoteles' Erdkunde von Asien und Lihyen, 1908, and

H. Diller, Wander arzt und Aitiologe, 1934 (for the effects of climate, etc.).

H. Meyer, Das Fererbungsproblem bet Aristoteles, in Philologus, LXXV (1919), 323 ff.

M. Wellmann, Fragmentsammlung der sikelischen Arzte, 1901.

The following more general technical works may also be mentioned :

J. S. Huxley and G. R. de Beer, The Elements of Experimental Embryology, Cambridge, 1934.

H. G. Miiller-Hess, Die Lehre von der Menstruation vom Begitm der Neuzeit bis zur Begriindung der Zellenlehre, Abhandl. z. Gesch. d. Naturw. u. Med., 1938, no. 27.

Aute Richards, Outlive of Comparative Embryology, New York, 1931.

D'Arcy W. Thompson, Grotvth and Form, Cambridge, 1917 (new ed., 1942).

P. Weiss, Principles of Development, New York, 1939

The standard work on its subject is Geschlecht und Geschlechter im Tierreiche, by Johannes Meisenheimer (1921).

Preface Notes

  1. Der Schlitssteil der aristotelischen Biologie; see below, p. XXV.
  2. In Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift (1914), p. 833.
  3. Among the less learned, however, the outstanding achievement of Aristotle in this branch of study has been for at least the last three centuries acknowledged by the title of the popular handbook known as Aristotle's Masterpiece.
  4. Aristotle's strong interest in plants is shown by the large number of references to them in G.A. ; see Index.
  5. See P. A. I. 645 a. 20 ff.
  6. For abbreviations, see p. Ixxvi.
  7. See W. D. Ross, Aristotle, and W. W. Jaeger, Aristotle.
  8. See D. W. Thompson, prefatory note to translation of H.A., p. vii. viii
  9. For a useful general estimate of Aristotle's work, see E. S. Russell, The Interpretation of Development and Heredity (1930), pp. 11-24.
  10. See, e.g., J. Needham, A History of Embryology (1934), pp. 36 ff.
  11. See J. Needham, Biochemistry and Morphogenesis {1942), where also the most modern views on the origin of monsters will be found. On this subject, C. Dareste's Production artificielle des monstruosite's (1877) is still the classical work.
  12. Discovered by K. E. von Baer 5 there is a complete facsimile of tils fundamental memoir De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi (Leipzig, 1827) in Sarton's his, XVI (1931), 313 ff.
  13. See Introd. § 42. An exception is rational Soul, which is not the Form of any body (§ 44), but this is a separate question, and in any case affects man only. We must also except the 55 immaterial unmoved movers, which Aristotle posits in the Metaphysics (1074 a) to account for the movements of the planets.
  14. See also p. xxxiv.
  15. The doctrine of ΣΙΙ was older than Aristotle (see Jaeger ; references given Introd. § 46, n.), but in this volume I am concerned only with Aristotle's presentation of it.
  16. Aristotle calls them collectively (φ ……insert greek here) or (φe……insert greek here) " physiologers," i.e., writers on " Nature," " natural " scientists. See 741 b 10, n.
  17. There are also, of course, references to theories stated by Plato, to which attention is called in the notes ; but Plato is not mentioned bv name. See also K. Prachter, Platon Praformist? in Philologus, LXXXIII (1937), 18-30.
  18. e.g., J. Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy ; see also for Hippocrates, W. H. S. Jones (Loeb ed.) ; for Alcmeon, J. Wachtler, De Alcmaeone Crotoniata (1896) ; and M. Wellmann, Die Schrift it. Iprjs vovaov, in Archiv f. Gesch. der Med. XXII (1929), 290-31:?. For a conspectus of ancient embryology, H. Balss, Die Zeugungslehre u. Embryologie in der Antike, in Quellen u. Studien zttr Gesch, der Naturvc. u. der Med. V (1936), 193-374.
  19. C.Q. XXV (1931), 27 ff., 112 IF.; see also G.A. 723 a 7.
  20. For further details about Democritus, see C. Bailey, The Greek Atomists and Epicurus.
  21. According to W. A. Heidel, however, Hippocratic Medicine (1911), 43, and American Journal of Pliilology, LXI (1940), 3 ff., Alcmeon's floruit should be put considerably later, say at 450 b.c.
  22. B.M. Add. 7511, 13th-14th century ( = Steinschneider B.M. 437). I have seen this ms. Judging from the passages which Dr. R. Levy kindly read for me in this ms., Scot's Latin version is a close translation from the Arabic. This is confirmed by the fact that the contents-preface which is found prefixed to Scot's translation corresponds exactly with the preface which precedes the Arabic version in this ms. (see B.M. Catalogus codicum tnanuscriptorum orientalium, p. 215).
  23. A few (for m and E) are as reported by Bussemaker.
  24. For further details, see Bitterauf (below, p. xxv), Dittmeyer, H.^l. (Introd.), Jaeger, M.A. and LA. (Introd.), etc.
  25. 738 b 1 ^€Xt[Iovos ... 740 a 7 to] yevonevov ; and 760 a 13 TTcos [r) yeveais . . . 760 b 27 /x€v| cAcittco, the latter passage having been supplied by a later hand.
  26. Lists of MSS. of William of Moerbeke's translation will be found in G. Rudberg, Textstudien zur Tiergeschichte des Aristoteles (1908), and L. Dittmeyer (see below, p. xxix).
  27. Of the other two, U does not contain G.A., and in E G.A. is written in a later hand.
  28. Kritische Studien zti den zoologischen Schri/ten des Aristoteles, in Rhein. Mus. XL (1885), 563 ff., and a very convenient summary of his proposals there made in Bursian, XLII, 345 f.
  29. But he published some of his results in two preliminary pamphlets : (1) Der Schlussteil der arlstotelischen Biologie : Beitrage zur Textgeschichte und Textkritik der Schrift " De generatione animalium." (Wissenschaftliche Beilage zum Jahresbericht des kgl. humanistischen Gymnasiums Kempten fiir das Schuljahr 1912/13). Kempten im Allgau, 1913. (2) Neve Textstudien zum Schlussteil der aristotelischen Biologie. (Ibid., 1913/14.) Kempten im Allgau, 1914. These are the source of the readings recorded throughout the text where they differ from Bekker's apparatus.
  30. Examples are: 718 a 36, Bekker's app. aurais Z, actually avrats SZ ; 719 a 31, Bekker's app. evros, to 8' e'/crds Y, but actually PZ. Bitterauf had access to Bekker's own copj'^ of the Basel Aristotle (1550), and shows that some of Bekker's errors are due to his having used one set of symbols for the MSS. in his collation and another set in his apparatus.
  31. It should be remembered that Bitterauf's pamphlets are merely " foretastes " of his projected edition, and therefore the list of passages dealt with by him cannot be treated as exhaustive.
  32. Rhein. Mus. XL (1885), 563 flF.
  33. Aristot. Studien (1866), IV. 363, 378, 413.
  34. J. of Philology, XXXIV (1918), 254.
  35. Emendationes Aristoteleae, in Neue Jahrbiichfir f. Philol. u. Padagog. CXIX (1879), 111,
  36. Phil, der Gr. II. 2 569-570
  37. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (5th edn., ed. Kranz, 1934-1937).
  38. Philologus, LIII (1894), 39-44.
  39. Guilelmi Moerbekensis translatio commentation is Aristotelicae De generatione animalium. Edidit Leonardus Dittmeyer. Programm des K. humanistischen Gymnasiums Dillingen a. D. fiir das Schuljahr 1914/15.
  40. See also P. A. (Loeb ed.), p. 47.
  41. Bitterauf quotes Scot only once, and that quotation is taken from Bussemaker.
  42. Kleinere Aristotelesfragen, in Eranos, IX (1909), 92 fF. ; see also Zmn so-genannten 10. Buck der Tiergeschichte, Upsala, 1911.
  43. e.g., D. W. Thompson, C.R. LII (1938), 15 " the dubious aid of an Arabic version " ; see also ibid., p. 89.
  44. The text of this edition is the pre-Bekker vuJgata, founded on Sylburg and Casaubon.
  45. The publication of a Spanish translation of the complete works of Aristotle was begun in 1931, but I have been unable to discover whether G.A. has yet appeared in it.
  46. Saint-Hilaire argues (I. cclix ff.) that Book V of G.A. does not belong with the rest of the treatise, but goes rather with P. A. The same suggestion, unknown to him, had been made by Weise (p. xxix) in 1843. Saint-Hilaire thinks that its inclusion with G.A. dates from the time of Andronicus of Rhodes, head of the Peripatetic School at Rome, who edited Aristotle's works from the mss. belonging to Apellicon's library brought to Rome by Sulla in 84 b.c.
  47. For other works on the early translations, see my edition of P. A. (Loeb Library).


It is a great pleasure to acknowledge here the help which I have received from many friends in many ways, and above all to thank them for their continuous interest and encouragement. First I thank Dr. W. H. D. Rouse, my old teacher and present colleague, to whom I owe, among many other things, the opportunity of undertaking this translation. The whole of the translation has been read through by my colleagues Mr. H. Rackham and Dr. F. H. A. Marshall, F.R.S., and also bv Dr. Sydney Smith ; for valuable help with some difficult passages in the Greek I am indebted to Professor R. Hackforth, and to Mr. Hugh Tredennick, who has also read part of the translation ; for much assistance in biological matters I am indebted to Dr. Marshall, to Dr. Joseph Needham, F.R.S., to Dr. Smith, and to Miss M. E. Brown. Professor A. S, Pease of Harvard University has placed me under a great obligation by most courteously securing for me microfilms of Bitterauf 's two pamphlets and of Dittmeyer's edition of Moerbeke's translation, none of which I could find in this country. It is a special pleasure to acknowledge this help from America. I am indebted to the staff of Cambridge University Library for excellent arrangements made for me to read the microfilms and also the Scot manuscripts. Dr. P. J. Durrant suggested to me that the mention of oil in connexion with lead-ore (see Bk. II. 735 b 17) might indicate an early process of flotation. Finally but not least I should like to express my appreciation of the kindness of Mr. R. Elmhirst, Director of the Marine Biological Station at Millport, Great Cumbrae, who gave me a room in which to work at my translation during a visit to Millport in the summer of 1938 and also included me in an expedition to Loch Goil for collecting marine animals closely alUed to those often mentioned by Aristotle.

A. L. P.

Easter Eve, 1942


The " Causes "

The four (1) Aristotle begins and ends the G.A. with a paragraph Causes. about Causes[1]; and indeed Causes are at the foundation of all his thought, especially of his theories about animal reproduction and development.

To know, says Aristotle, is to know by means of Causes (see Anal. Post. 94 a 20). A thing is explained when you know its Causes. And a Cause is that which is responsible, in any of four modes, for a thing's existence. The four Causes are :

(1) The Final Cause, the End or Object towards which a formative process advances, and for the sake of which it advances - the logos,(See § 10 below.) the rational purpose. • (2) The Motive (or Efficient) Cause, the agent which is responsible for having set the process going ; it is that by which the thing is made.

(3) The Formal Cause, or Form, which is responsible for the character of the course which the process follows (this also is described as the logos (See § 10 below.) as, expressing ichat the thing is, or is to be).

(4) The Material Cause, or Matter, out of which the thing is made.

(2) As an illustration of the theory of Causes the following will serve. Suppose the thing to be explained is a dog. The chronological order of the Causes is different from their logical order.

(1) The Motive Cause : the male parent which supplied the " movement " that set the process of development going.

(2) The Material Cause : the menstrual fluid and the nourishment supplied by the female parent and other nourishment taken after birth.

(3) The Formal Cause. The embryo and the puppy as it grew into a dog followed a process of development which had the special character proper to dogs.

(4) The Final Cause : the end towards which the process was directed, the perfect and full-grown dog. A similar set of examples could be constructed to suit the case of artificial objects, though some adjustments would have to be made. In both cases the Formal Cause comes from the same source as the Motive Cause, but with a difference : in the case of natural objects, the parent already possesses the Form fully realized in himself ; in the case of artificial objects, the craftsman possesses the Form " in his Soul." Both the parent and the craftsman normally employ " instruments " to deal with the "material" ; these are not mentioned in the table given above, but will be dealt with in Appendix B §§ 9 ff.

(3) Very often the Final and Motive Causes tend naturally , to coalesce with the Formal Cause, in opposition to the Material Cause; and this opposition is found in G.A. {e.g.. Book II, init.), where Aristotle regards the male (which possesses the Form and which supplies the " movement " and therefore acts as a Motive Cause) as superior and more " divine " than the female (which supplies the raw material for the embryo, i.e., supplies the Material Cause). At the same time, we shall find (l^elow, §§ 6, 7) thai the Motive and Material Causes are often together contrasted with the Final Cause, just as Necessity is contrasted with the Good.

(4) In modern parlance the term Cause has become generally limited to Motive (Efficient) Causes, as is shown by the common phrase " cause and effect " : and hence when Aristotle is concerned especially with the operation of Motive Causes (as e.g. at 734 b 9 ff.) his words have a more modern and familiar ring than when he is speaking of Final Causes.

(5) For Aristotle himself, however, it is the Final Cause, the " TeleoEnd, which is of paramount importance and which 'ogy-" dominates every process. This is abundantly clear in the P. A., where Aristotle endeavours throughout to provide a Final Cause which will explain the existence and structure of the various parts : and it is no less clear in the G.A., where the whole process of development of the embryo from start to finish Is subservient to the Final Cause : the course of the process is determined by the nature of the product which is to result from it, not the other way round : things yiyveTai. as they do because they are what they are." We are therefore justified in describing Aristotle's outlook as " teleological " ; but we must not read too much into this description. " Nature does nothing without a purpose " ; but if we ask what that purpose is, we may find that the answer is not quite what we had expected, that the purpose is not so grand as we had hoped. Aristotle seems to be satisfied when the reXos has been realized in each individual's full development ; and this is because for him Form is not normally independent of Matter (as it is for Plato) ; Form must be embodied in matter, that is, in individuals. Each complete and perfect embodiment and realization of Form in Matter is therefore for him the crowning achievement of the efforts of the four Causes - it is the End towards which they were directed. We might, then, describe this " teleology " in Bergson's phrase as a doctrine of " internal finality " : each individual is " complete " in itself.* Aristotle does, however, maintain that the " most natural " thing for an animal to do is to produce another one like itself, and hence the species is implicated in so far as it is the individual's business to perpetuate it (see App. A §§ 15 ff.). We must also remember that the continuity of yeVeaiy, one department of which is the continuous succession of generations of animals, is, for Aristotle, " necessary " (App. A § 14) ; and it is also part of the general purpose of " God," who always aims at " the better," and who, because he was unable to fill the whole universe from circumference to centre with eternal " being," filled up the central region of it with the next best available, viz., continuous yevems. " In another connexion, too, in the Ethics, we find that Aristotle looks further than the individual, at any rate so far as man is concerned, for there he tells us that man cannot attain his reAoj in the fullest sense - the " good life "- except in association (to avC'fjv) with other men

» Cf. quotation from Dante, Paradiso xx. 78, on p. 1, " Cf. § 16.

« For further details see App. A § 12.

in a (insert greek here). But this seems to be due exclusively to the fact that man possesses Reason : and so far as other animals are concerned, Aristotle does not appear to have envisaged any such widening of the (insert greek here)." From yet another point of view, however, when discuss- (e) subing the subject of property- and household management ordination at the beginning of the Politics {1256 b 15), Aristotle of animals says that just as Nature provides sustenance for animals from the verj' beginning of their existence in the larva, in the egg, or in the uterus, so we mu^t hold that after birth as well Xature provides plants for the sake of animals, and also that she provides animals other than man for the sake of men, for food and service. And if we are right in holding that Nature makes nothing without a purpose (dTtAeV) or pointlessly, we must of necessity say that " Nature has made all the animals for the sake of men." (6) As Aristotle says at the beginning of G.A. I, the two Grouping of Causes with which he is chiefly concerned in this treatise the Causes. are (1) the Motive (or Efficient) Cause, with which he had not dealt in P. A., and (2) the Material Cause. In zoology, of course, the Material Cause is represented by the " parts " of the body of an animal, and all of these except the generative " parts " * he had dealt with in P. A. ; hence in G.A. the Material Cause is represented chiefly by the parts concerned in generation - those, in fact, through which and upon which the Motive Cause operates. At the beginning of Books II and V and at the end of Book V we have further discussions about Causes, and here we find these two Causes identified with " that which is of necessity " (e^ dvdyiajs) ; while Necessity on the other side and contrasted with them is the Final versus the Cause (the Cause " for the sake of which "), which is Better, equated with to /SeAriov or rdyadov {rf. Met. A 983 a 33, etc.). Indeed, this contrast of Necessity- and the Better is continually confronting us throughout the G.^1. For instance (717 a 15 fl^.), whatever Nature does or makes is done or made either 8ta to dvayKmov or Sta TO PeXriov ; one or other of these will account for every phenomenon in the realm of Nature. The whole of Book V is devoted to those features - " conditions " {iTddr]) as Aristotle calls them - in animals which are in no way due to a Yinal Cause but are due purely to Necessity, i.e., to Material and Motive Causes. Necessity : (7) We must, however, distinguish two sorts of Necessity (the second of which will be the one just described) : (i) "con- (1) Thefirstisthat which elsewhere (f.(7.,P.y/. 642 a 7 ff., ditional •• ; a 32 flf. ; cf. 639 b 25 if., P/njs. 199 b 33 ff.)

  • Perhaps Aristotle would have been willing to include Bees, which possess some " di\-ine " ingredient (see 761 a 5).

  • It should be remembered that " parts " includes semen, milk, etc See §§ 18 ff.

Aristotle describes as "conditional" (e^ vnoddaews) Necessity ; that is to say, assuming that some end or purpose is to be achieved, certain means are necessary in order to achieve it. In other words, this is the sort of Necessity which is implied by the Final Cause being what it is. Thus, if a piece of wood is to be split, an axe or some such instrument is necessary, and the axe must, owing to the nature of the circumstances, be hard and sharp, hence of necessity bronze or iron must be used to make it. The same sort of Necessity is obviously involved in the construction by Nature of the living body and its various parts : certain materials must of necessity be used and certain processes gone through if this or that living body is to be produced." (ii) "ab- (2) The other sort of Necessity is that which Aristotle solute," (Phys. 199 b 33 et al. ) calls " simple " or " absolute " Necessity (airXcos). This applies in cases (a) where the presence of a material object or set of objects {i.e., a Material Cause), and the fact that their nature is what it is, entails as a necessary consequence a certain result or set of results ; (6) where the nature of the " movement " set up by an activating agent (a Motive Cause) similarly entails certain results. This " simple " or " absolute " Necessity may therefore be regarded as the sort of Necessity involved in the Material and Motive Causes - as a reassertion of themselves by these Causes against the Final Cause {G.A. 778 b 1) and against Nature as she advances towards her achievement of it. " In the field of natural objects. Necessity is what we call matter and the Kivrjaeis of matter " {Phys. 2(y2 a 3-2)."

  • Thus even this Necessity can be said to be located " in the matter " (Phvs. 200 a 15).

(8) Aristotle, however, is continually drawing our attention nsed by to the adroitness of Nature in emplojing the results of Mature to this latter .sort of Necessity in order to serse her purpose, pu^Mse ; in order to achieve her end. For example (738 a 33 ff.), the production of " residue " by females is e'^ avayicqs, simply because the female is not hot enough to etfect complete concoction ; but Nature makes use of this residue to provide the material out of which the embryo is to be formed. Other instances of things which, though occurring i^ dvay/o;?, are nevertheless employed bv Nature eveKo. tlvos, will be found at, e.g., 739 b 28, 743 a 36 ff.. 755 a 22, 776 a 15 ff., b 33. See also P.A. 642 a 31, 663 b 13, b 20 ff. On the other hand. Nature cannot always manage to do this, and what results then is a useless residue (e.g., excrements), or a " coUiquescence " (P.A. 677 a 1-2 ff.). These by-products, however, may still be regarded as " natural," because they are of general occurrence (that is one definition of what is " natural"; see G.A. 727 b 29, 770 b 10 ff., 777 a 20 ff., P.A. 663 b 28). When, however. Nature is more seriously thwarted by the indeterminateness or the unevenness of matter (G.A. 778 a 7 ; «•/. App. A § 11), we find unnatural results occurring, such as monstrosities and deformities (see G.A. IV. 766 a 18 et passim).' (9) The "simple" or "absolute" Necessity described in(iii)"abthe preceding paragraphs refers only to the limited field 8?l«te " of some particular yiyvo/ievov, l.e.l to the process by the'^u^n/verse means of which some particular natural object is pro- as a whole. duced and to the Causes therein concerned. But there is a wider and more universal meaning of " simple " or " absolute " Necessity (which we may, if we like, consider as being an extension by Aristotle of the narrower meaning of Necessity as applied to the yeVcaij of individual things, though it is really on a different plane) - a Necessity which embraces the whole field of yeveais in the universe at large, i.e., the whole process of the seasonal and cyclic transformations of the " elements," and the whole process of the cyclical generation of animals and plants (see App. A §§ 12 ff.) ; and which even further still {ibid. ; and see P. A. 639 b 24) includes those things which do not pass through a process of formation (ydvecns) at all, but persist eternal and immutable. In this context Aristotle lays down {G. 4' G337 b 35) that i^ dvdyKTjs and del coincide ; thus " eternity " - whether it be individual eternity, as of the stars, or specific eternity, as of plants and animals - and Necessity are mutuallj' interconnected (see App. A § 14) ; thus, that which always is or always yiyveraL, is, or yiyverat., of necessity ; that which is, or yCyverai, of necessity, is, or yiyverat, always. This meaning of " absolute " Necessity, however, does not enter directly into the G.A., though it is once touched upon in passing (at 770 b 12 ; cf. 742 b 26 if.), and it is incidentally implied to some extent in the passages of Books II and IV referred to and supplemented in the Appendix, A and B.«  Aoyos

  • The verb avfi^iveLv (sometimes in the phrase <rvMi3aiVti e^ at-oiyicrff ) is frequently used with reference to the results of this sort of Necessity, as being facts which merely " occur " and are not designed to forward any purpose.
  • " A " colliquescence " may be an unnatural by-product ; see G.A. 724 b 26-29 and § 67 below.
  • For further notes on " Nature," see §§ 12 fT.

(10) Frequently in the translation, rather than represent Xoyos by an inadequate or misleading word, I have transliterated it by logos. This serves the useful purpose of reminding the reader that we have here a term of wide and varied application, with which a number of correlated conceptions are associated, one or other of which may be uppermost in a particular case. The fundamental idea of Xoyos, as its connexion with Xeyeiv shows, is that of something spoken or uttered, more especially a rational utterance or rational explanation, expressing a thing's nature and the plan of it ; hence Xoyos can denote the defining formula, the definition of a thing's essence, of its essential being (as often in the phrase Xoyos rrjs ovalas), expressing the structure or character of the object to be defined. See also § 1 above.

  • Other modes of Necessity not relevant to G.A. are here omitted. * The less technical meanings are translated in the normal way.

11) For want of a better term, and in order to preserve the line of Aristotle's thought, I have usually translated ap^TJ by "principle," or "first principle." There is, -however, really but little difficulty about this term, for the context will usually indicate what its connotation is. A few examples of its use may be given. (1) Often, as at 715 a 6, it is a principle or source of " movement " {dpxf) TTjs Kimjaews). Hence, obviously, (2) the Motive Cause may be described as an dpxn, and so too may the other Causes (^.^r., 716 a 5 IF., 778 a 7), including Matter: and for the same reasons the sexes also are dpxai ; so is semen. (3) An dpxrj is something which though small in itself is of great importance and influence as being the source or starting-point upon which other things depend, and which causes great changes (Kivrjaeis) in them (<•/. 716 b 3, 763 b 23 tf., 766 a 14 fF.). An dpxT] may, of course, be of greater or less fundamental importance : and the ultimate dpxrj of an animal is its heart {e.g., 766 a 35), though there are also dpxai that are external to the animal, e.g., the sun and moon (777 b 24).

13) Tlijpwfia, dva-TTTjpia, and cognate words occur several " Deformatimes in G.A., and for convenience I have translated tion." them " deformation " or " deformitj-." Other possible renderings, none of which fully brings out the meaning of the Greek word, are given in the riote on 737 a -25. The underlying notion is that (f>vai.s has not succeeded in achieving her proper re'Ao? ; and this close connexion of TTqpcjfia with a falling short of natural completeness is clearly brought out by the reasons given at 724 b 33 why semen cannot be a irqpcufjLa, viz., because it is found in all individuals (for that which is " general " is " natural," see § 8), and because 17 <f>vai.s yiyv^Tox out of semen.

13) Perhaps the most striking instance of Aristotle's applica- The female tion of this idea is his statement (775 a 15) that female- » "<!?ness (^TjAirnj?) is " as it were a natural dvaTnjpla." Here f°°»'*y" we have two conceptions of Nature asserting themselves in Aristotle's mind u (1) that the male represents the full development of which Nature is capable ; it is hotter than the femstle, and more " able " t<5 eflFect concoction, etc. ; but at the same time (2) the female is so universal and regular an occurrence that it cannot be dismissed out of hand as " unnatural " ; besides, the female is essential for generation, which is a typically " natural " process (see § 5). Nature (14) This opposition of " Nature " to " Nature " is, however, versus not unique, for it is found elsewhere in Aristotle ; e.g., ature. ^^ G.A. 770 b 20 he can say that to napa (f>vaiv is in a way Kara (f>vaiv, viz., when rj Kara to elSos (j>vais has not mastered -q Kara ttjv vXrjv <f)vais ; and at P. A. 663 b 22 he speaks of r/ /cara top Xoyov (f>vaii making use of the products of rj dvayKaia (fyvais in order to serve a purpose {cf. also P. A. 641 a 26, 642 a 17 ; at Phys. 199 a 31 Aristotle distinguishes <f>vai,s ois vXr] and ^uaiy ws yMpifyq, the latter being a reAo? and 17 atVia 17 ov eveKa. Cf. 729 a 34, n.). Nature: (15) It is impossible and unnecessary to provide here a full as purpose ; account of what Aristotle intended by the term <f>vais, since a proper understanding of it can best be obtained by reading Aristotle's works themselves, and for this G.A. is one of the most useful, because it is pervaded bj' references to <f>vai5. A few remarks may however be made here about (j>vat.s in its highest manifestation, compsrable (16) By Aristotle, (f)vais and the products of ^vols are conto an stantlj' compared with rixvr] and the products of t€xvt] : " â– ^voLs works to produce a finished product, a reAoj, just as the artist or craftsman does " ; and (f>vais, again like the artist, uses " instruments," charged with a specific " movement," in order to bring these products to fulfilNature as ment. And the most typical of the products of <f)vais Soul. are, of course, living creatures ; indeed, Aristotle can speak of the <f>vais of each living thing as being identical with nutritive Soul (741 a 1, where see note, and cf. P. A. 641 b 9), the Soul which generates and fashions it and promotes its growth ; and again {De caelo 301 b 17), (l>vais is to be regarded as a principle of movement in the

  • is also compared (744 b 16) to a careful housekeeper, who throws away nothing that is useful ; or to a cook (743 a 31 ; cf. 767 a 17 ff.), tempering the heat of her stove so that the food she is preparing may be done to a turn. See also Su/a^erpia, § 39.

thing itself. An artist, then, at work - jes, but in each several thing ; and it is doubtful whether Aristotle had, or intended to have, any idea of Nature over and above, outside, the individual things "â– which he described as her " works." In fact, he goes so far as to say {P. A. 641 b 11) that no abstraction can be the object of study for Natural science, because Nature makes all that she makes to serve some purpose (evc/ca tov). Nature aims always at producing a reXos in the sense of a completely formed individual, and that is the Final Cause in each case, for that is what has the best claim to be called a " being " (ovoia).^ There is, says Aristotle, more beauty and purpose (to ov Ice/ca aal to koXov) to be found in the works of Nature than in those of art (P. A. 639 b ^0).

(17) Nevertheless, we must remember that Nature is not, in Xature as Aristotle's view, a term to be exclusively reserved for the matter. Final Cause, with which are associated the Formal and often the Motive Causes ; it may be applied also, as we saw just now {i 14), to the Material Cause ; and in this connexion we may recall that, for Aristotle, Matter and Form themselves pervade all the strata of existence, for even the simplest sort of Matter is to some extent " informed," and Matter in its highest phase is identical ' with Form (see 7-29 a 34, n.).

^lopiov, p-epos, "part " (18) The term " part," which occurs in the title of the treatise Meaning. De partibus animal ium, nepl ^uicdv (jLopiiov (or, as Aristotle himself calls it at G.A. 782 a -21, " the treatise Of the Causes of the Parts of Animals "), includes considerably more than is normaliy included by the English " part of the body." For instance, we should not normally call blood a " part," but Aristotle applies the term fiopiov to all the constituent substances of the body as well as to the limbs and organs. For him, blood is one of the ^dwv fjLopia (see P.A. 648 a 2 : and note on G:A. 720 b 31). Since, however, all the " parts " are either " uniform " or " non-uniform," a detailed description of them will be more appropriate in the following paragraphs.

" See however § 5 above. " See App. A § 18.

To, ofioiofxeprj fiopia, the "uniform parts" To, dvofJiOLOfieprj [lopia, the "non-uniform parts" (19) At G.A. 724 b 23 if., Aristotle classifies the substances found in the body into five divisions, one of which is Two sorts " natural parts," " and this division he subdivides into of "parts." "uniform parts" and "non-uniform parts." As examples of " uniform parts " he cites {P. A, 647 b 10 ff.) blood, serum, lard, suet, marrow, semen, bile, milk, flesh * (these are soft and " fluid " " ones) ; also bone, fish-spine, sinew, blood-vessel (these are hard and " solid " ones). And although in some cases the same name is applied to the substance out of which the whole is made and to the whole that is made out of it,"* this is not true in all cases. Examples of " non-uniform " parts are {P. A. 640 b 20) face, hand, foot. Relation (20) The relation of the " uniform " to the " non-uniform " between parts Aristotle describes as follows {P. A. 647 b 22 fF.) : them. ^^^ some of the vmiform parts are the material out of which the non-uniform are made (i.e., each instrumental part is made out of bones, sinews, flesh, etc.) ; (b) some, viz., " fluid " ones, serve as nourishment for those in class (a), since all growth is derived from fluid matter ; (c) some are " residues " ' from those in class (6), e.g., faeces, urine.

  • This must not be taken to imply the existence of MWw«<Mrai" parts."
  • Some of these are also " residues " ; see below, § 65.
  • For the meaning of " fluid " and " solid," see below, § 38.
  • e.g., we speak of " bone " and " a bone " ; Aristotle's own example Is *' blood-vessel."
  • See § 65.

Thus it is not possible to equate this division into uniform and non-imiform parts with the more modern division into tissues and organs ; for instance, blood, though a uniform part, is not a tissue. The term " organs," on the other hand, corresponds closely with Aristotle's own description of the non-uniform parts {P. A. 647 b 23) as rd dpyavi/cd (idpr), " the instrumental parts." (21) The fundamental difference between the two sorts of " parts " is that each of the uniform parts has its own definite character as a substance (in the modern sense), while each of the non-uniform parts has its own definite character as a conformation or organ. The heart is the only " part " which belongs to both classes {P. A. 647 a 25 ff.) : it is made out of one uniform part only, but at the same time it has essentially a definite configuration or shape, and thus it is a non-uniform part. (â– ??) The four stages or " degrees of composition," so far as The stages biology is concerned, are thus enumerated by Aristotle o^ com (G.A. 715 a 10 ff. ; <â– /. P.A. 646 a 13 ff.) : ' position.

(1) The four " Elements," Fire, Air, Water, Earth " ;

(2) the uniform parts ;

(3) the non-uniform parts ;

(4) the animal organism as a whole.

We thus begin from the simplest sorts of matter (Aristotle calls the four Elements " simple bodies ") and proceed upwards by stages until the most organized or most " informed " sort of matter is reached : each stage is the " material " for the stage next above it {G.A. 715 a 9 ff.).

Ai'i'ay^iS (23) This term has a number of different, though related, meanings, and it is not always easy to determine precisely which one Aristotle has uppermost in mind. Unlike some other terms, therefore, this one cannot always be represented hx the same term in English, and sometimes it is best left untranslated.

(24) (A) To begin with, we will examine the pre- Aristotelian Dynameis meaning of bwafus, as found for instance in the Hippo- ^^ elementcratic corpus and in Plato's Thnaeus. Awa^s was the oPniaUer old technical term for the simplest sorts of matter, i.e., for what came later to be called cnoixela (" elements "). Auva/us was however applied exclusively to substances of a particular class, viz., to vypov, to ^pov, to QepfjAv, to ijtVXpOV, TO TTlKpOV, TO yXvKV, TO SpifJiV, etC, CtC. lu thC Hippocratic treatise irepl dpxcurjs IrjTpiicqs (The Ancient and Genuine Art of Medicine) these substances are regarded as being the constituents both of the body and " In the P.A. passage Aristotle says it might be better to substitute for these " the iuvo/icij," or rather four of them ; see below, § 24. Fire, Air, Water, Earth are of course the constituents of non-li^ing things as well ; see App. A § 2.


ARISTOTLE of its foods. The Swa/A€ij are referred to by Aristotle at the beginning of P.A. II (see § 23, note), where he speaks Harth, Air, of " the ' elements ' as they are called, viz.. Earth, Air, ^^resoivaWe ^^'ater, Fire, or perhaps it 'is better to say the Swa/tei?- into "ot all the Swdfieis, of course, but these four, vypov, dyiMineis. ^jpov, 0€pfj,6v, i^upf/wv." The explanation of this is that although Aristotle held that in a sense Earth, Air, Water, and Fire were " elements," i.e., that they were the simplest states of matter actually found in the world as we know it, yet theoretically each of them could be resolved into a pair of bwdfieis : thus Fire is Oepixov and ^â– qpov. Air Oepfiov and vypov. Water tfwxpov and vypov. Earth i^vxpov and $r]pov (G. 4- C. 330 a 30 if.), each of them l)eing characterized by one constituent ])ar excellence. Fire by depftov. Air by vypov, \A'ater by ijwxpov. Earth by ir/pov. According to Aristotle, all other physical " differences " are consequent upon these four fundamental ones. Origin of (25) The meaning implied in this use of Swafus seems to have this usage. been " substance of a specific character '" (perhaps the adjective " strong " should be prefixed : this would of course be very appropriate to Swifieis such as -o Spi/xv, TO iTiKpov, etc.). But originally, no doubt, the term was an item in the Pythagorean political metaphor terminology, as would appear for instance from the theory held by Alcmeon " that bodily health was maintained by the laovofiia tu>v Swdfxecov, and that the " monarchy " of any one of them produced disease. It is important to notice that there is no notion here of the substance having power in the sense of power to produce a specific effect * upon a body, though this was a meaning " See Aetius v. 30. 1 (Dials, Doxographi Graeci 442).

>> e.g., causing stomach-ache. In Plato's Timaeus we find this extended meaning of Jura/m? {i.e., power to produce a specific effect) side by side with the old meaning of specific substance ; and it is frequent* in ir. 6iaiVj)s. Clearly, this marlis a change over from the medical theory originally associated with the political metaphor terminology ; and we find that, as Svfofii? takes on the meaning of " power to produce a specific effect," the term " humour " comes in to denote the specific substances to which iivvatm was originally appUed. Thus Diodes {apud Galen vi. 455) can argue against doctors who hold that aU things which possess similar " humours " also possess the same iui-ofici? (powers of producing specific effects on the body), e.g., are laxative, diuretic, etc. There is no space to say more here on this development, wliich I dealt with fully in my thesis Pseudo- Hippocrates PhUosophm (1928). Studies 1 '

GENERATION OF ANIMALS which developed later. A hwafus is rather a substance which is a power, which can assert itself, and by the simple act of asserting itself, by being too strong, stronger than the others, can cause trouble. The remedy in such a case is to deprive it of some of its strength, until it again takes its proper place among its peers, or, in the language of medicine, to " concoct " it or otherwise bring it into a harmless condition by " blending " " it with the other substances.

(26) (B) As each of the substances known as Swdfieis had its Dynunieis as own specific and peculiar character, sharply marked off sutetances from the others, it was easy for the meaning " peculiar tive char^' and distinctive character " to become closely associated acter. with the term Svva^s, quite apart from any reference to these particular substances. In fact, it almost comes to mean any " substance of a distinctive qualitj- " ; and in this sense it is found in G'..i., for instance at 720 b 32 (oAAtj Tis SuVa/xts) and 736 a 21 (Aphrodite was called after " this hwafjus," sc. d<f>p6s, foam). From this it is an easy step to " distinctive physical quality," or simply " distinctive character " (as, e.g., at 731 b 19, where it is Joined with Xoyos rijs ovalas ; at 751 a 33, where it refers to the distinctive character of the yolk and white of an egg respectively * ; and cf. 733 b 15 l^et bvvafuv (hov - it has the distinctive character of an egg, it is equivalent to an egg ; and 780 b 8, 784 b 15) : or " characteristic " (applied to the sexes at 756 a 1, 763 b 23 ; cf. 760 a 19).

(27) In the sense of " (substance of) distinctive character " it can be used practically as an alternative to <f>vai.s, or in conjunction with ^u'ai? (as indeed it often is in Hippocrates and Plato), and this seems to be the use of it in P. A. 655 b 12 i^ avayKTis 8e raura navra y€U)8T] Kal arepeav !;(« ttjv (f>vaiv ottXov yap avrt] 8vvafjLis {cf. P..1. 651 b 21).

(28) (C) From this usage it is not far to the idiomatic, pleo- Idiomatic nastic usage, e.g., 17 twv evripwv Su'va/iij (almost=Ta usage. evrepa P. A. 678 a 13) ; ij tuiv Trrepajv ( = Ta Trrepd, 682 b 15); and this is -paralleled by the similar usage ou some of the uses of Sxivani^ have been made by J. Souilhe, £tude sur le terme Suvo/iis drins les dialogues de Platon, Paris, 1910, and A. Keus, Vber philosophisehe Begriffe u. Theorien in den hippokrati^chen Schriften, Coin, 1914, pp. 46 flF. " See § 40. <^iiiTiv is used in a similar context at 753 a 35.

ARISTOTLE of </>UCTi?, e.g., Tj Tcor oarpaKobepficDV <f>VGis ((r.A. 761 b 24), ri Tov alboiov (t>vais (717 b 18 ; cf. also 755 a 20), 17 twv TTTfpcbv <j)vais (749 b 7, a striking instance, because <l>vais is used in an entirely different sense, " Nature," in the very next line) ; and even avaraais is sometimes used in a similarly weakened sense, e.g., 1; tcov opxecov avaraais {G.A. 717 a 15), ij tmv Karafn/jviajv avaraais {G.A. 727 b 33) : and avoTaais appears in two manuscripts as a variant for <f)vais at G.A. 717 b 20. Dunamis in (29) (D) In the passages dealing with the role of the male generation. parent in generation we find phrases such as " the %vva^i,i,s in the semen," " the Swa^iis in the male " {e.g., 726 b 19," 727 b 14, 729 b 27, 730 a 3, a 14, 736 a 27, etc.). The meaning of 8wa/xiy here would appear to be fundamentallj' the same as that dealt with in § 26 above, i.e., bvvafxis here is the physical substance by means of which impregnation is effected ; and the distinctive physical characteristic with which we find this SvvaftLs closely associated by Aristotle is " vital heat " or " Soulheat." * The most distinctive characteristic, however, of this substance is that it is charged with a specific AsBociated " movement," capable of constituting and developing ,, with an embryo out of the matter supplied by the female ; j^°^^n and hence we also find a close association of Bwa/iis with Kivrjais." This is the most important extension of bvvaptis in its ancient sense made by Aristotle, for it links up the old sense of the term with the typically and peculiarly Aristotelian sense of Swa/xts=" potentiality " (see §§ 34 ff. below). (30) (E) Under the same category comes the use of Sura/nis and dSwafua as applied to male and female respectively {G.A. 765 b 9 ff., 766 a 32 ff.), for these are explained by Aristotle as the ability and inability respectively to effect " concoction " of the ultimate nourishment (blood) into semen, and this is directly dependent upon the possession of sufficient " natural heat." " An interesting example, because dvvaixei. ( = potetUially) occiu« in the previous line.

  • Not to be confused with the ordinary ivvatm " etptLov " ; see App. B §§ 13, 18.

<^ References for Svva^jLK; associated with "vital heat" and kiitjo-cs, e.g., 726 b 19 ff., 729 b 6 ff., 738 b 12, 739 b 24, 740 b 30 ff., 767 b 17 ff. (cf. 755 a 20 " the </)uo-is of the Soul-heat "). See also xiVijcris, § 50.


GENERATION OF ANIMALS (31) (F) Under the same category too must be placed the use of the term Swa/xts in the remarkable discussion on heredity in Book IV. This is admittedly a particularized use of the term," and Aristotle carefully explains its meaning when he first introduces it (767 b 2S if., q.v.). But here too it is applied to special and distinctive characteristics, be it those of genus, species, or individual, and therefore this use of it stands in the same line of succession as the meaning already described in §§ 24 fF. As for the way in which Aristotle conceived these Swa/i«? to operate, it is clear that, as they were present both in the semen and in the menstrual fluid (see lor. cit.) and gave rise to /fivTywet? (767 b 36), they must have been closely associated with Soul and inherent in its instrument pneuma.

(32) It may be noted here that the physical substance con- Pneuma. cerned throughout the theory of generation is pneuma (a substance " analogous to aitker," the " fifth element," the " element of the stars "), with which Soul is " associated " ; and it is this pneuma which Soul charges with a specific " movement " and uses as its " instrument " in generation just as it does in locomotion, and as an artist uses his instruments, to which he imparts " movement," in order to create his works of art. (For fuller details about pneuma, see App. B, and cf. % 45.) (33) Thus Swofu^, even at its most glorified, still retains the Continnity marks of its descent from the historic Swa/xty of the '"l meaning early medicine, for, although Soul-heat is something ° yncimxs. different from the old depfiov and superior to it, nevertheless it is still depftov. And there is another respect in which its descent is still to be seen, though this time it may be fortuitous and perhaps no more than a verbal coincidence. This physical substance is the vehicle for the activity of Form (eiSos) ; and in the Hippocratic treatise tt. apxairjs iTp-pucrj^ each of the innumerable physical substances known as 8wa/ici? had also been called an eJSo?.

(34) (G) We now come to the last and most tv'pically Aris- Dyna»ii» as totelian of the meanings of bwafus : and although it is ".P"*^,"^' « And therefore I have felt justified in translating it " faculty " in this sense, to avoid repeated reciurence of the Greek word transliterated. It may perhaps l)e simply an extension of the meaning dealt with in the last section but one.



Association (35) of dynamis with "movement."

"Potenti- (36) ally" and ' in actu.'ility."

Erroneous (37) translations of dynamis.


usually considered independently of the ones we have already described, it is clear from Aristotle's own words that he did not so regard it himself, for he associates it very closely with Kivrjms. In Met. A 1019 a 15 ff. and 1046 a 10 f., he defines the primary and fundamental sense of Swa/xis in this connexion in the following words : Swa/xiy is apx^] Kivrjaecbs ij /ierajSoA^j eV irepo) rj â– ^ erepov : Svvafiis is a principle (or source) of Kivrjois or of change - a principle either (a) subsisting in some other thing than that which is to be affected by the Kivrjais or change, or (6) subsisting in the thing itself qua other than changeable in that respect. An example of (a) is building ; an example of (h) is the science of medicine in the case of a person who is being healed but not qva being healed (a man doctoring himself). That is the fundamental sense of this 8vVa/xis ; but Aristotle goes on at once to mention the complementary sense of it, which in fact is the sense in which he commonly uses it, viz., the Swa/Mis of being acted upon {-Tradetv), which he describes as the dpxrj in the thing acted upon of a passive change caused either by some other thing or by itself qita other {rj iv avru) tw Trdaxovri dpxr] (lerafioXfis TTadT]Ti.KTJs vtt' dXXov r/ â– ^ aAAo).

It is therefore clear that there is the closest possible connexion between this notion also of bvvap,is and Kivrjais : Suva/xis is in fact the capacity to set up " movement" or (more commonly) to be set in " movement " : it is a " djnamic " conception. To say that A is B Swa/xei (potentially) means that A is a Material Cause capable of being set moving with a certain Kivqais by a Motive Cause, which Klvrjms will result in A acquiring the Form of B, thus attaining the Final Cause (becoming a B itself). It is thus a conception which integrates the four Causes through the process of Kivrjais. The correlative of Swdfiei. {potentially) is evepyela (in actimlity) ; " X evepyeia " means something in which the Form X has been realized - something which already possesses the Form X, and further, in the case of animals, something which can reproduce the Form X in other matter which is so far only " Swdixei X." Of all the possible translations or mistranslations of bvvafjus, " force " is one of the most misleading ; for

GENERATION OF ANIMALS there is nothing more fundamental in Aristotle's - and in his predecessors' - idea of 8wa/ than that it is something natural ; and the associations of the term " force " run counter to this. Aristotle himself contrasts " natural " and " enforced " movement (see App. B § 22, and cf. 739 a 4, 788 b 27, Politics 1253 b 22). It is also important that any notion of a vague and indefinite urge, even (and perhaps especially) where Soul is involved, should be excluded ; for, as we haveseen, 8uva/iis is associated primarily with some material substance of a specific character or with some Kivrjais (carried in a definite substance) of a specific character. From every point of view it is best to avoid " force " altogether as a translation of Svvafus.

To vypov Kal to ^i)p6v, "Jiuid substance and solid substance " (38) These are two of the original Swdfieis (§ 24) ; and Translation, following Ogle in his translation of P. A. I use the above renderings as being more in conformity with the definitions given by Aristotle himself than " moist " and " dry " which have sometimes been used. Actually neither pair of English words quite expresses the Greek. Aristotle's definition of them (at G. 4" C. 329 h 30) is Definition, this : " vypov is that which is not bounded by any boundary of its own but can readily be bounded ; ^Tjpov is that which is readily bounded by a boundary of its own but can with difficulty be bounded " ; at the end of each definition there should of course be understood " by a boundary imposed from without." (vypov is to dopiOTov oiKeio) opat evopiarov ov, ^rjpov is to evopiarov fiev olKeiip 6p<x) hvaopiarov he.) ^i'fifi€Tpia, K/aacris (39) An idea which recurs a number of times in G.A. is that Correct proof avfifxerpia. In this treatise the majority of the refer- portion : ences " to avp.y.eTpia are concerned with the relative ^"^ ^^ .. amounts of residue contributed in generation by the two *^° * '°° ' « See list of passages in the Index.



parents, or to the heat or " movement " contributed by the male or otherwise provided (e.g., by the Sun). TiV/xnerpos KivTjais is also mentioned in connexion with the amount of fluid in the pupil of the eye (779 b 25 ; cf. 780 b 24). The meaning throughout is that the amount of substance, or of heat, must be adjusted in the correct proportion ; and this, as the context at 786 b 5 indicates, means suitably adjusted between the two extremes of too much and too little. This at once recalls to mind the famous doctrine of the " meaH " in the (h) in ethics Ethics, where goodness (or "virtue," dper^) is held to and politics; bg a mean between the two extremes of excess and deficiency ; indeed, at E.N. 1104 a 12 flF. Aristotle says that whereas the moral dperai are destroyed by excess and deficiency, they are produced and preserved by the mean, just as excessive food and drink destroy health, (c) in bodily whereas to. avmierpa produce and preserve it." Simi health. larly, at Phys. 246 b 4 he says " we posit that the dperai of Blend. the body, viz., health and fitness, lie in the Kpdms (blend) and avfinerpla of hot things and cold, either as regards each other internally, or as regards the surrounding environment ; and the same applies to the other dperai and K-a/<t'at." This reference to Kpdais and to the environment is closely parallel to the most important passage on avp-pierpia in G.A., 767 a 14 fF., where Aristotle says that the male and female need avp,fierpia as towards each other, because all things formed by Nature or by Art Adya» rtvi earw - depend upon a certain proportional relationship, or ratio. Just as in cooking, the heat must strike the due proportion, the mean, or your meat will be either overdone or underdone. So too in the mixture of male and female, ovftpLerpia is required. He then goes on to speak of the dependence of our bodily condition upon the Kpdais of the environing air (cf. 777 b 7) and of the foods we take, and especially the water. (40) This is not the place to discuss the origin of the doctrine " The importance of a-vfi/j-frpia in the growth of a State is also empliasized by comparing it with the growth of the body (Pol. 1302 b 35 ti.).

>> Cf. the phrase i^vxporepa tjjs o-u/x/xeVpou icpao-ews used of the parts around the brain (P. A. 652 b 36).

■; C/. § 16 above.


GENERATION OF ANIMALS of the mean, nor of the closely allied doctrine of Kpdms, except that it should be noted that great importance is attached in the Hippocratic treatise it. apxairj^ Irjrpiicqs to securing proper Kpdais for the ingredients of the food we take and of the constituents of our bodies (the two sets of substances being identical) ; and that in it. biai-njs the Kpdais of Fire and Water in the Soul is responsible for its health and sensitivity (c/. G.A. 744 a 30). References to the pertinent passages of the Hippocratic treatises will be found in the notes ; see also P. A. (Loeb ed.), pp. 37 f. It should also be noted that Alcmeon of Crotona (Aetius v. 30; see Dieh, JJoxographi 442) held that health was the avfifieTpos twv itoiwv Kpdais {rf. § 25). It is important to realize that some, at any rate, of Aristotle's terminology was the common property of scientific wTiters, ^vX'i], " Soul " (41) The English word Soul, as will be seen, owing to its associations is not entirely satisfactory as a rendering of ipvxT^, but it is by far the most con\-fenient one, and I have used it in preference to " life " or " vital principle " (for which Aristotle employs other terms).

(42) Animate bodies, bodies " with Soul in them " (eijjpvxa). Soul the are " concrete entities " made up of Form and Slatter, ^°™ "^ Soul being the Form and body the Matter ; indeed, ^^ySoul is the Form of the body. '{Cf. G.A. 738 b 27, n., 741 a 1.) Aristotle also describes this relationship by saying that Soul is the " realization " (oTeAe'xeta, " actuality ") of the animal body. Strictly speaking. Soul is the " first realization " of an animal body, for an animal can " have Soul in it " and yet be asleep ; its active, waking life will be its " second realization." Further, Aristotle tells us that Soul Ls the first realization of a body furnished with organs. The importance of this is clear : the body is for the sake of the Soul (because the Soul is the Final Cause as well) ; and hence {P. A. 687 a 8 ff.) Aristotle maintains that man has hands because he is the most intelligent animal, not, as some had said, the most intelligent animal because he has hands. Soul is ^' prior " to body, and the body is such as it is because that is the sort of body the Soiil


' requires in order to function. Indeed, the Soul cannot function without a body ; it cannot, we may say, exist (De anima 414 a 19).

The (43) This will be clear if we distinguish the different parts or faculties " faculties " of Soul. They can be arranged in a of Sonl. definite order, so that the possession of any one of them implies the possession of all those which precede it in the list ; and it will be seen that all except the last of them obviously require a body for their functioning.

(1) Nutritive and generative Soul," in all plants ; (2) sentient Soul, in all animals ; (3) appetitive Soul | .^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^^ (4) locomotive Soul ) (5) rational Soul, in man only. Rational (44) It is the last faculty of Soul which stands out by itself.

Soul. Aristotle feels that he cannot admit that Soul is wholly dependent upon body for its functioning ; there may, he says, be some " part " of Soul which is not the " realization " of any body, a " part " whose activities have nothing whatever to do with any physical activities {G.A. 736 b^28). This part, which is "rational Soul," comes in over and above, from without {G.A . 736 b 25 fF.), and continues to exist after the death of the body {De anima 413 a 6, b 24 ff., 430 a 22, etc.. Met. A 1070 a 26). The problems raised by this belief are, however, not fully dealt with by Aristotle even in G.A., where he has much to say about the development of Soul in the embryo ; indeed, he nowhere offers any solution of them. Soul (45) So much then for the theoretical relationship of Soul subsists in and body. What is their practical relationship ? How pnexvma. precisely does Soul function through the body ? The answer to these questions is one of the most striking parts of all Aristotle's philosophical work. Soul, says Aristotle, is not, as some have wrongly supposed. Fire or any such stuff (Swa/iiis) ; it is better to say that it " subsists in some such substance " as Fire (ev tomvtw Tivl acufiari aweardvai), viz., in " hot substance " (to depfjLov), which is the most serviceable of all substances for the activities of Soul {P. A. 652 b 8) ; and elsewhere {G.A. 736 b 30 ff. ; see App. B § 13) he is more explicit.

" See also 744 b 33, n.


GENERATION OF ANIMALS This depfiov is no ordinary depfxov, but it is pneuma, a substance " more divine " than Fire, Air, Water, or Earth, and " analogous to " the fifth element, aither, the element of the t'pper Cosmos. It is this pneuma, and the substance {<f>vai.s} in the pneuma, which is the vehicle of Soul, and it is pneuma which Soul uses as its " instrument," through which it brings about kIvtjctis, both in moving the full-grown body and in " moving " i.e., developing the embryo. Here, then, we have reached the heart of the business : pneuma is the last physical term of the series : pneuma is the immediate instrument of Soul, and it is through pneuma first of all that Soul expresses itself.

(46) It must not be supposed that this pneuma is the breath This breathed in by the animal from outside ; Aristotle is v^ is most explicit on this point, and he often describes this "connate. pneuma as " connate " (o-v^i^utov). Owing to the important place of 'Lv^i<j>vtov Iivfvp.a in Aristotle's biology, I have provided a full account of its nature and functions in Appendix B." KtV//(ris (47) KivTjffts is a term of wider range than the English " move- Meaning. , ment," though it is useful to retain " movement " as a translation in order to preserve the line of Aristotle's thought. Ki'iTjais is one department of /xcra^Aij (Change), of which there are three divisions : Two, which are changes affecting ovala : ( 1 ) yiveais, change from the non-existent to the existent ; (2) ifSopd, change from the existent to the non-existent. And one, which comprises changes affecting categories other than ovaia : (3) KivTjais, change in existing things.

(48) Ki'iTjais has three subdivisions : Varieties ot (a) as regards Quantity : Growth and diminution ; "moveit) as regards Quality : " Alteration " (dAAoicoai?) ; ment." " See also G. L. Duprat, La theorie du TrveO/no chez Aristote, Archiv f. Gesch. d. Phil. XII (1899), 305 ff., and W. \V. Jaeger. Das Pneuma im Lykeion, Hermes, XLVIII (1913), 29 ff. ; the latter also gives a history of the pnewma-doctrine. See also W. W. Jaeger, Diokles von Earystos (1938) and J. I. Beare, Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition from Alcmeon to Aristotle (1906).



"Move- (50) ment" and Form.

(c) as regards Place : Locomotion (^opa), either (i) in a circle, or (ii) in a straight line. Sometimes Aristotle includes yeWai? and <f>dopd as a fovirth subdivision of Kitn^ais, thus making KivTjais embrace every variety of change. (See also Met. A 1069 b 8 ff.) DeQnitioD. (49) The definition of Kivrfais which he gives at Phys. 201 a 1 1 ff. is this : ij tov Swafxei ovtos evreXexf'-O'i ?5 toiovtov, KLirqais ioriv : " Movement " is the realizing of that which is potentially X, qua potentially X. For example, to take the case of dAAota>ai9, Kimjais is the altering of a thing which is alterable, fpia alterable ; and so with the other modes of potentiality.

It will be seen at once that, in order to set going the Kivinaeis by which the various potentialities are to be realized. Motive Causes are required. And the thing which causes the " movement," says Aristotle {Phys. 202 a 10), will always bring with it some Form (maybe some ovala, or some quality, or some quantity), which will be a " principle " and a cause of " movement." In other words, the " movement " will be informed, determined, characterized, in such a way that it will produce a thing which has a certain ovoia, or quality, or quantity. The agent (or Motive Cause), then, will set up in the material a " movement " which will result in the material which is potentially A becoming A in actuality, that is to say, in its acquiring the same Form as that which the agent possessed. And this result is brought about, generally, by the use of an intermediary, an " instrument " (see App. B §§ 6, 15), to which the agent imparts the " movement " for transmission.

All these sorts of Kiirqais, Aristotle points out {De anima 415 b 22 ff.), are derived from Soul ; they are not found apart from Soul. This is because Soul is the Cause (atVia) and principle {apxq) of the living body : it is alike its Motive Cause, its Final Cause and its Formal Cause {ibid. 415 b 8 ff.), and it is situated in the heart. We must not forget, however, that in the long run klvt^ois, at any rate Kivrjais of inorganic things, is due to the L'nmoved Mover, from whom " movement " is mediated by the heavenly bodies to the Lower Cosmos (App. A §§ 3 ff.) ; and even in the case of living things (" things

" Move- (51 ment" derived from Soul,

and from the Unmoved Mover.


GENERATION OF ANIMALS with Soul in them "), the heavenly bodies act as a Motive Cause, for " man is begotten by man and by the Sun " (see App. A §§ 6, 9).

Veieai^, yiyi€cr6ai (52) Tevems. as we have already seen (§ 47), is a process Meaning, of change ; in fact, it is the most fundamental sort of change, viz., " coming into being " ; hence, the product resulting from a process of yeveais is some ovaia, for although some sorts of ovaia persist eternally, there are others which are " perishable," i.e., which are subject to yo-effts and iOopd (see App. A §§ 1, 1-2, 16). Indeed, the sort of ovaia produced by the yeveai? with which our present treatise is concerned - animals and plants - is the ovaia which Aristotle considers to have the best claim to the name (App. A § 18).

(53) Teveais, and its verb yiyveaSai, are terms of frequent Translation. occurrence in Aristotle, and especially in G.A. In the title of the treatise, yiveais is commonly translated " generation," and this is a Convenient rendering of it there : but we must not forget that yeveois also refers to the whole process of an animal's development until it has reached its completion ; that is to say, yeveais includes the whole subject of reproduction and embryology. In the body of the treatise " generation " is often not satisfactory as a translation ; nor is " coming-to-be" particularly neat or indeed appropriate in a biological work. I have therefore commonly used " formation," " process of formation " and the like to render yevcai?, and for yiyv€a6ai " to be formed," " to come to be formed," etc.

SwicTTarai, (rvvi(TTaucrdai (54) Another verb closely connected with yiyveaOai is the Meaning, verb owioTovoi, which might almost be regarded as the active voice of yiyveadai, though avviaravai tends rather to refer to the beginning of the process. It is specially frequent in passages describing the initial action of the semen in constituting a " fetation " out of "the menstrual fluid of the female, and it is also used by Aristotle to describe the action of rennet upon milk, a parallel Ixi

ARISTOTLE instance which he cites bj^ way of illustration (739 b 23). 'Lvvi.aTdvai therefore denotes the first impact of Form upon Matter, the first step in the process of actualizing the potentiality of Matter. The meaning of avviardvai therefore is plain enough, but there is no really conand venient English word to translate it ; and in consequence translation. makeshift devices have to be adopted. Sometimes I have used " constitute," sometimes " set," sometimes " cause to take shape " ; and for avviaraaOai, which is also very frequent, " set " (intransitive), " take shape," " arise," etc. I decided against " composit," chiefly because I found it essential to introduce the term " fetation " for Kvrjfia {<ja'.), and as the two so often occur together, the outlandish phrase " composits the fetation " would have been frequently occurring. Nevertheless, it would have represented Aristotle's thought much more precisely, and for that reason alone I am convinced that it would have been amply justified. "Organ- (55) Another possible rendering would have been " organizers." i2e " ; and indeed " organizers " is a term which has recently been introduced into embryology to denote substances which are responsible for bringing about the differentiation of the parts of the embryo. It is interesting in this connexion to note that Aristotle seems to be working on a similar theory in G.A. IV, viz., that there is a KivTjais {i.e., a specific " movement," implying a Bvvafiis or specific substance) for each part of the body, which brings about its development in the embryo. We should, however, note that the " organizers " are not found until after impregnation is effected, whereas the distinctive " movements " proper to sensitive Soul are ex hypothesi already in the semen.

" Feta- (56) This is a term which occurs very frequently in G.A. At tion": 728 b 34 we read that by KVTfiia is meant " the first (or (a) in sexual primary) mixture of male and female " ; and although gdneia ion , ^j^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^ often so used, it is also used by Aristotle to include more than this. Actually it covers all stages of the living creature's development from the time when the " matter " is first " informed " (a common phrase is Ixii

GENERATION OF ANIMALS KVTjfjLa owiaraTai ; see § 54) to the time when the creature is born or hatched. Hence we find Kvrjfia applied to the embryo or fetus of Vivipara : to the " perfect " eggs of birds and to the " imperfect " eggs " of Cephalopods, etc. (733 a 24 : they are still so* called after deposition), to the roe of fishes (741 a 37), and to larvae (758 a 12) ; indeed, the larva is compared with the earliest stage of the Kvrjfia in viviparous animals (758 a 33).

(57) In all the foregoing cases, the " matter " for the Kvijua is (6) in sponsuppiied by the female parent : but in the case of taneous spontaneous generation there is of course no female generation ; parent, and the Kvrifj.a is formed, e.g., out of the seawater by the pneuma acting upon it (762 b 17).

(58) There are, however, some KVTjfxara which never reach the (c) infertile point of hatching (e.g., " wind-eggs ") ; thus a KVTjfxa fetations; is not necessarily fertilized. Such a Kiirqfia is, however, to some extent " informed " and can develop up to a point because it possesses nutritive Soul potentially.

(59) There is no English word which covers the wide range of the term xvrj^a, and I have therefore introduced the term " fetation," by which I invariably translate it.

(60) Aristotle holds that the seeds of plants are " as it were a (rf) fetaKvrjfjLa, because in them male and female are not separ- tions of ated : hence the seed of a plant begins with the male P^^^^ts. factor and the female factor already mixed in it : and that is why only one stalk or plant can be formed from one seed : there is no such op}x>rtunity available, as there is in the case of animals, for the male dynamis to " set " numerous fetations out of the material supplied.

Nourishment, Residues, etc.

(61) Several important terms in Aristotle's technical vocabulary are connected with the processes through which the food passes in the living body, and therefore an account of these processes will most conveniently explain the meaning of the terms.

(62) After mastication, the food passes into the stomach. Concoction, where it is " concocted " * by means of the " natural (or " See also § 77 below.

  • The Greek word for concoction is the same as that employed to denote the proceas of ripening or maturing of fruit, com and the like by means of heat - also that of baking and cooking (see


ARISTOTLE vital) heat " resident there. Any living thing (anything " with Soul in it ") possesses " natural heat," and the chief seat of the Soul and the source of the vital heat is the heart (or its analogue). But also, every part of the body as well has its own natural heat (c/. 784 b 26 ff.), derived from the heart through the blood : thus, the stomach concocts the nourishment before passing it on to the heart, and other parts may concoct it still further when the heart has sent it on to them. Beside the stomach, tlie liver and the spleen assist in the concoction of the nourishment {P.A. 670 a 20 ff.). Blood. (63) Having received its first stage of concoction in the stomach, the nourishment passes on to the heart, where as we should expect it undergoes the most important stage of its concoction, and is thereby turned into blood, the " ultimate nourishment " for the whole body {P.A. 647 b 5, rf. 666 a 8). It is probable that, in Aristotle's " Pneuma- view, an important part of this process was the " pneuma tization" of tization " of the blood (see App. B §§ 31, 32), i.e., the blood. charging of it with "EvfufivTov Ilvevfia and with the special " movement " requisite to enable it (a) to maintain the " being " of the animal and (6) to supply its growth. Two grades (64) These two functions of nourishment, and the consequent of nourish- di.stinction of two grades of nourishment, which is made inent. ^^, Aristotle at 744 b 33 ff. (where see note ; and cf. list of passages in the Index), enable us also to distinguish the different classes of residues. The first-grade nourishment (a), which is described as " nutritive " and " seminal," provides the whole animal and its parts with " being " ; the second-grade (b) is described as " growthpromoting," and causes increase of bulk. In the development of the embryo, it is the leavings of the fir-st-grade nourishment, or " nutritive residue," left over after the " supreme parts "^flesh and the other sense-organs - have been provided for, which are used to form the bones and sinews ; the second-grade, inferior, nourishment (which is taken in by way of supplement from the mother or from outside) is used to form nails, hair, horns, etc. The latter is more " earthy " 715 b 24, n.). Indeed, the processes are regarded by Aristotle as being fundamentally identical. (Cf. 743 a 31 ff.) It is also applied by him to the " maturing " of the embryo (719 a 34).


GENERATION OF ANIMALS than the former; indeed, with such residue in mind, Aristotle can say (745 b 19) that " residue is unconcocted substance, and the most unconcocted substance in the body is earthy substance " ; see also § 66 below.

(65) Generally, then, more blood Is produced than is required Residues : for the purposes mentioned at the end of § 63, and the surplus may then undergo a further stage of concoction, and Nature is often able to turn it to some useful purpose (cf. § 8 above). These are the useful " residues," and (a) useful; Nature has provided each with its proper place (G.A.

125 b 1) ; indeed, it is only in its proper place that each " residue " is formed (739 a 2). Examples of useful residues are semen, menstrual fluid, milk. Marrow, which gives the backbone coherence and elasticity, is produced when " the surplus of bloodlike nourishment is shut up in the bones " and concocted bj- their heat (P. A . 652 a 5, a 20). Sometimes, when the nourishment is particularly abimdant, the surplus blood is concocted into fat, such as lard and suet (651 a 20). Also, some of the blood, reaching the extremities of the vessels in which it is carried, makes its way out in the form of nails, claws or hair." (66) Residues may appear at various stages (725 a 13) ; they (b) ambigumay appear before, as well as after, the nourishment ous ; has been turned into blood ; and then they are residues of " nourishment at its first stage " ; thus (653 a 2, cf. 458 a 1 If.), after a meal, the nourishment rises as vapour through the vessels to the brain, where it is cooled, and then condenses into phlegma and iclior (serum). But both of these, it seems, may also be useless residues, for at 677 b 8 phlegma is mentioned in company with " the sediment- from the stomach," though perhaps it is most often a residue of the useful nourishment (725 a 14). Ichor, too, the " watery part of the blood," is sometimes unconcocted blood, sometimes corrupted blood (653 a 2 ; cf. 458 a 1 if., 651 a 15 ; no doubt et n oAAo roiovrov at O.A. 725 a 15 refers to ichor).

(67) Residues, then, are " the surplus of the nourishment " (c) useless ; " The Aristotelian doctrine of " residues " came down to Shakespeare, as is shown by the passage in Hamlet (III. rv), where the Queen saya to Hamlet : " Your bedded haire, like life in excrements, Start up, and stand an end." Ixv


(d) unnatural : Colliquescence.

(724 b 26) ; but there are useless as well as useful residues, for residue may come either from the useful or the useless nourishment (725 a 4). Useless nourishment is " that which can contribute nothing further to the natural organism, and if too much of it is consumed it causes very great injury to it " (725 a 5 ff.). Among the useless residues are the excrements ; these are natural useless residues ; but there are also some unnatural ones, as has already been hinted. Among them perhaps should be included bile, which serves no useful purpose whatever. It is a residue produced by the liver (677 b 1), it is the residue of blood in those animals which are made out of less pure blood ; it is merely a "necessary" product, an " offscouring," a " colliquescence." Colliquescence {aviTrjyfia, avvnj^is) is defined at 724 b 26 if. as that which is produced as an dnoKpLms from the material that supplies growth, as the result of decomposition proceeding contrary to Nature " (to CLTTOKpidev €K Tov av^TjfjLaros VTTO T-^s vapa <f>vat.v dvaXvaeois). Colliquescence, then, is an unnatural residue," and therefore there is no proper place set apart for it by Nature (725 a 1) ; it just runs about wherever it can in the body. (See also 726 a 1 1 ff.) Colliquescence is a very common term in the Hippocratic treatise irepi Sialrrjs, where its effect is said to be the production of an unhealthy dnoKpiais (abscession), and both there and in Aristotle dTroKpiais is specially associated with residues, useful, or useless, or even harmful ones. A great deal of it. hialrr^s is taken up with suggestions for getting rid of harmful d-noKpians. Generative (68) The most important residues so far as G.A. is concerned residues. are of course semen and menstrual fluid ;' natural and useful residues, for which Nature has set apart special places in the body. The difference between them is one of degree of concoction : semen is a residue of the final stage of useful nourishment (726 a "iQ) ; so is menstrual fluid (738 a 36), but the female has not sufficient natural heat to carry the concoction far enough to produce Source of semen. Hence, the difference between male and female " It seems however that a " colliquescence " may sometimes be a natural residue, for at P. A. 677 a 13 bile is said to be " a residue or a colliquescence," and it is classed with the sediment in the stomach and intestines. See also P. A. (Loeb ed.), pp. 38 f.


GENERATION OF ANIMALS is to be traced back to the innermost source of the sex-dififerorganism, viz., the heart : the sexual organs may serve ^nce is the as an outward expression of the difference, but the difference is not due to them. Like the blood, of which it is a more fully concocted form, semen derives its character primarily from the heart, where the blood is pneumatized and charged with the requisite specific " movements " (see § 63 and G.A. 737 a 19). Semen, therefore, like blood, is the vehicle of " Soul," and especially so in virtue of the Sv/x^vrov Ilveu/ia which it contains, for SvV<Ai""ov Ilvevfia is the physical substance with which Soul is most intimately " associated." In terms of Soul, the difference between semen and menstrual fluid is that semen possesses the principle of sentient Soul, menstrual fluid possesses only nutritive Soul (potentialh) : the fiuid has not been charged with the " movement " proper to sentient Soul owing to deficiency of heat in the female. The other " movements" in these generative residues are a most important factor in the determination of generic, specific, sexual, and even individual characteristics : see the discussion in G.A. IV. 766 a 13 ff., 767 b 15 flF. (69) It should be noted that the heat both of blood and of Heat of semen (the concocted residue of blood) is not inherent, l^'ood and but is acquired from a source other than themselves, ^o"^.*" The logos of blood, it is true, includes the term " hot," herent but but only in the same sense that the logos of " boiling "acquired.' water " (if we had one word for that as we have for blood) would include the term " hot." In other words, the permanent substratum of blood is not hot ; and thus, although in one way blood is " essentially " hot, in another way it is not " essentially " hot {P. A. 649 b 21 ff.). Similarly, the " matter " of semen is " watery " (/.(?., the substratum of it is the Element Water; cf. 736 a 1 and preceding passage) ; and its heat is a supplementary acquisition {eiriicnp-os : G.A. 747 a 18, rf. 750 a 9, 10). The explanation of these statements, as will be obvious from the preceding sections, is that blood is produced by the heat of the heart out of the fluid matter supplied by the stomach from the food (§ 63), and semen of course has to undergo still further concoction bv the vital heat in the appropriate parts (§ 62).


ARISTOTLE Two modes of difference ; Blood ; Classijicaiion of Animals (1) "The (70) Differences " by the more and less," or " of excess and more and deficiency " - differences of degree, as we should say, ®*- are minor differences such as are found as between different species of one and the same genus or of any larger group. Thus {P. A. 644 a 19, 692 b 24) the parts of birds differ in this way, some having long legs, or feathers, others short ones ; some a broad tongue, others a narrow one. Again, the male will have the same defensive or offensive organ as the female, but " to a greater degree," and this sometimes holds good of organs essential for food and nutrition " (661 b 28 ff.). Difference " by the more and less " can also be applied to skin, blood-vessel, membrane, sinew : these are substances which differ among themselves in this way {G.A. 737 b 4 ; cf. 739 b 32). (2) (71) Where the divergence is wider, as for instance between 'Counter- different groups of animals such as birds and fishes, par s. j.j^g difference is no longer ru) iiaXXov Koi â– ^ttov, but to) avaXoyov (P. A. 644 a 21) : the corresponding parts, e.g., the feathers of birds, the scales of fishes, and the scales of reptiles, differ " by analogy," i.e., they are merely the " counterparts," the " opposite numbers " of each other, as indeed the large groups of animals themselves may be (see G.A. 761 a 27 and context ; cf. also 784 b 16 ff., and 737 b 4, n.). (72) Many examples of this usage occur in G.A. ; we find mention of to avaAoyov of the heart ; of the blood, and of the menstrual fluid, in bloodless creatures ; of teeth ; of flesh ; of fat ; of hair ; of sinew. Menstrual fluid in females is dvdXoyov to semen in males (727 a 3) ; we might have expected this difference to be only a difference " by the more and less," but no doubt the reason why it is a wider divergence is that menstrual fluid lacks sentient Soul (see § 68). The most frequent references to TO dvdXoyov in G.A. are the counterparts of the heart and of the blood. And the most important of all the counterparts is of course " the substance in the pneuma, " Cf. the view that the female is a " deformity," § 13. Ixviii

GENERATION OF ANIMALS which is avaXoyov to the element of the stars, alther (736 b 37).

(73) It should be noted that by " blood " Aristotle means red Blood, blood only, and he makes a division of animals into " blooded " {evaifia) and " bloodless " (avaifia). These two classes do not quite coincide with vertebrates and invertebrates, for there are some invertebrates which have red blood, e.g., molluscs {Planorbis), insect larvae (Chironomvs), and worms (Arenicola). In other invertebrates the blood may be blue (Crustacea and most moUuscs) or green (Sabellid worms), or there may be no respiratory pigment at all (most Insects).

(74) The following table shows how Aristotle's division Blooded works out : ^uLai Blooded animals Bloodless animals animmls.

Man. Crustacea.

Viviparous quadrupeds. Cephalopods.

Oviparous quadrupeds and Insects, footless animals ( = rei>- Testacea.

tiles and amphibians).


Fishes. It may be convenient to give here the Greek names used by Aristotle for the four classes of Bloodless animals, together with their literal translation and the terms which I have used to translate them : TO. fiaXoKooTpaKa soft-shelled animals Crustacea. ra fuxXaKia softies Cephalopods.

ra evTOfjLa insected animals Insects.

TO. oarpoKohfptia shell-skinned animals Testacea." (75) The Testacea were a source of considerable embarrass- The ment to Aristotle, who considered them to be inter- Testacea. mediate between animals proper and plants. Nor, according to him, did they reproduce sexually, but arose from spontaneous generation. In his treatise on the Progression of Animals, he defers mention of them to â– ' In using " Testacea " to translate ri o<rTpaxoJepua (" the animals with earthenware skins ") I use it in the old-fasliioned sense, so as to include a number of shelled invertebrates, comprising Gasteropods, Lamellibranchs, and some Echinoderms. Modem zoologists apply the term Testacea to the Foraminifera, which are shelled Protozoa. The term Ostracoderms (a transliteration of Aristotle's word) is now given by zoologists to a group of primitive fossil fishes.



Claasiflcation according to method of reproduction.

' ' Perfect animals.

Distinction of ' ' perfect" and "imperfect" «gg«.

Distinction of egg and larva.

the very end and then says that strictly speaking they ought not to move about at all, yet in fact we see them moving : anyway, their movement is " contrary to nature," because they " have no right and left ." (The mechanism of their movement can be detected only by the microscope, and is known as ciliary.) (76) In G.A., however, although Aristotle adheres to his classification into Blooded and Bloodless animals, perhaps a more important classification is that which is based upon their method of reproduction. This classification will be found in the Contents-Summary, pp. Ixii ff. And in this connexion we must notice that the list is headed by the Viviparous animals, of which the first is Man : these are the " most perfect animals," and therefore they produce their offspring in the most perfected condition. And by " most perfect " (732 b 29) Aristotle means the animals which are " in their nature hotter and more fluid {vyporepa), and are not earthy " ; and, as the test of natural heat is the presence of the lung, and further, a lung well supplied with blood, no animal can be internally viviparous unless it respires. (See the whole passage 732 a 26- 733 b 16.) (77) It should be noted that Aristotle clearly distinguishes between what he calls " perfect " and " imperfect " eggs, that is to say between eggs which do not and those which do increase in size after deposition. This is the basis of the modern distinction between cleidoic and non-cleidoic eggs (see 718 b 7, n.). He also clearly distinguishes between an egg and a larva : an egg is that from part of which the young creature is formed, the remainder serving as nourishment for it ; a larva is something of which the ichole is used to form the young animal. (See 732 a 29 and note, and 758 b 10 flF.) The fact that Aristotle drew these distinctions so clearly is particularly noteworthy. He was, of course, unaware of the existence of the mammalian ovum, which cannot be detected without the aid of the microscope. It should also be noted that Aristotle compares the growth of a non-cleidoic egg with the action of yeast in fermentation ; see 755 a 18.




1. 1 The Causes. The Motive and Material Causes of animals are the main theme of G.A.

The Sexes

(a) Distinction of sexes not universal. They are {a) found in mast blooded animals, and in Cephalopods and Cnistacea, but not in all Insects ; (b) not found in Testacea. 2 (6) Definition of male and female : they are the " principles " of generation, the male pro\iding the motive agent and the female the material. Hence a corresponding difference in the sexual parts, which vary in the various animals, but are always double.

1 - Sexual Parts in Blooded Animals

4 (a) Sexual parts in males. The purpose of testes.

8 (b) Sexual parts in females :

(1) Ovipara laying imperfect eggs.

(2) Ovipara laying perfect eggs.

10 (.3) OvoNipipara (Selacliia and vipers).

(4) Tivipara. 12 (c) Further remarks on position of sexual organs.

2 - Copidation of Bloodless Animals

14 (a) Crustacea.

15 (6) Cephalopods (including reference to the hectocotvlized arm of the Octopus).

16 (c) In.sects : some (1) are generated by copulation, copulate, and produce larvae ; some (2) are generated spontaneously, copulate, and produce larvae ; some (3) are generated spontaneouslv and do not copulate.

(1) includes locusts, cicadas, spiders, wasps, ants ; (2) fleas, flies, cantharides ; (3) gnats, mosquitoes, etc.

3 - Theory of Sexual Generation

17 (A) What is the nature of semen ?

(a) Theory of "pangenesis" examined and refuted bv various arguments.

(b) Definition of semen : it is that " from " which natural objects are produced. It is one of the " residues " - a residue of the useful nourishment in its final form - not a colliquescence.

19 (B) Menstrual fluid. Tliis also is a residue, similar to semen, but less concocted. It is the matter for generation. Since the male p^o^^des the form, se\-eral offspring may be originated by one semen.

21 (C) (a) Elaboration of the theory of generation.


I. 22 (b) The female cannot generate alone because it cannot provide the form (viz., sentient Soul). Semen is the " instrument " used by Nature, charged with the " movement " wliich conveys the form. 23 (c) Comparison and contrast of animals and plants. Sexes arc not separate in plants because reproduction is almost their only function.

II. 1 (D) The Final Cause of the existence of the Sexes. They sub serve generation, the perpetuation of the species, and this is the way by which " perishable " things are able to partake in eternal " being."

Classification of the various methods of Generation

Note on the difference between an egg and a larva.

The classes (Vivipara, Ovovivipara, Ovipara laying perfect egg, Ovipara laying imperfect egg, Larvipara) do not correspond to differences in the organs of locomotion, but to the degrees of " perfection " of the animals concerned, the most perfect being those which are hot, as is shown by the fact that they breathe.

(1) Animals that are hot and fluid. Viviparous. Man, (2) Animals that are cold and fluid. Ovoviviparous. Selachia and vipers.

(3) Animals that are hot and solid. Oviparous (perfect egg). Birds and scaly animals.

(4) Animals that are cold and solid. Oviparous (imperfect egg). Fishes, Crustacea, Cephalopoda.

(5) Animals that are coldest of all. Larviparous." Insects.

3 (resumed) - Theory of Sexual Generation

(a) What is the agent that fashions the embryo ? Preformation versus epigenesis. It is the male parent, or rather the semen in which the parent's " movement " is transmitted, which fashions the embryo. Thus the material (provided by the female), which is potentially a living body of a particular kind, is gradually actualized. The parts of the body - and of the Soul - are actualized successively : first the heart and nutritive Soul.

2 (b) The physical character of semen. It is a foam, a com pound of Water and pneutna.

3 (c) Does semen contain Soul ? Yes - potentially ; all the sorts of Soul which act through a body must be present first of all potentially. The problem of the entry of rational Soul.

(d) The physical substance in which Soul is carried is pneuma, a " divine " substance analogous to aither, the fifth element.

(e) Jlenstrual fluid contains all the parts of the body potentially, but it lacks sentient Soul.

a The larva represents a stage previous to that of the egg, for, according to Aristotle, the larva develops into an egg-like object.


Generation Of Animals

Generation in Blooded Animals - I. Vivipara


II. 4 Man and the " perfect " animals.

(a) The secretion of the generative residues. Semen is not produced by all male animals.

(b) The male - either by means of semen or directly - " sets " the purest portion of the female's residue and so produces a fetation.

(c) The development of the fetation. The heart is formed first, as being the seat of nutritive Soul.

(d) Theory of the action of the male factor on tin? female. Nutritive Soul ases heat and cold as " instruments."

5 (e) The female cannot generate alone because it lacks sentient Soul (in some animals, however, the sexes are not separate).

6 (f) Later development of the fetation. The upper parts develop first (but not so in Insects and C'ephalopods).

(g) The differentiation of the parts is effected by means of connate pneuma.

(h) The order of development of the parts.

(i) The bloodvessels ; the " uniform " parts ; nails, etc. ; sinews and bones. ,

(j) Heating and cooling are employed as instruments in the development of the fetation. Necessity and purpose.

{k) The brain ; the eyes.

(l) Bones, etc.

(m) Two grades of nonrishment : " nutritive " and " growthpromoting."

(n) Teeth.

7 (o) Function of the umbilicus and cotyledons.

(p) Hybrids ; sterility ; mules ; deformed animals.

Generation in Blooded Animals - II. Ovipara {laying perfect eggs)

III. 1 Birds and Quadrupeds.

(a) Greneral.

(b) Wind-eggs.

(c) Difference between yolk and white : the white is hot and is the seat of the Soul-principle.

2 ((f) Shape of the egg.

(e) Growth of the egg.

(/) Incubation by parent animal (not needed for quadrupeds'

(g) Behaviour of white and yolk during incubation. (h) Description of the umbilical cords, etc.

Generation in Blooded Animals - III. Ovovivipara (laying perfect eggs)

3 Fishes (A) Selachia.

(o) Description of the development of the embryo. (b) Differences as between Birds and Selachia (including reference to Miutelus laevis).

Generation in Blooded Animals - IV. Ovipara {laying imperfect eggs)


III. 4 Fishes (B) Fishes other than Selachia.

(a) Growtli of the egg : a process comparable with fermentation.

5 (6) Erroneous theories : ( 1 ) Fisti are not oviparous and have no sex distinction ; (2) swallowing of milt ; 6 (3) apocryphal methods of copulation in birds ; (4) stories about trochos and hyena.

7 Method of action of male birds and male fishes upon the eggs contrasted.

Generation in Bloodless Animals

8 (A) Cephalopods and Crustacea.

9 (B) Insects.

(a) The larva is comparable to the earliest stage of an egg. All Insects, whether formed as a result of copulation , or by spontaneous generation, originate from larvae.

(b) Development of the larva.

10 (c) Bees. Hornets and Wasps.

11 (C) Testacea : intermediate between animals and plants.

Various animals proper to the various Elements. Moonand Fire-animals.

(a) Side-shoot (quasi-seminal) propagation, etc.

(b) Spontaneous generation : the action of pneuma. The theory expounded. Traditional view of the origin of animals. The process of development resembles that of larvae. Examples of spontaneous generation.

Origin of Sex-differentiation in the Individual and Inheritance

IV. 1 (a) Various theories : Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Democritus, Leophanes. (b) The fundamental distinction between male and female is that the male can concoct and discharge semetf ; the female cannot concoct or discharge semen, but can receive it : the difference of the sex-organs is consequent upon this distinction, and therefore the sex of the developing embryo is so too. Thus the ultimate source of sex-distinction is the heart, which provides the vital heat necessary for concoction. Further statement on the difference of formation of the sexual organs.

2 (c) Facts cited to support theory.

(d) Impprtance of (TvntL^Tpia, both internally and ext€mally (" blend " of climate).

3 («) Resemblance to parents. Theory of inheritance. (Jf) Fallings away from type : Male changes over to female. Father changes over to mother.

IV. 3 Relapses : Father to grandfather, then to greatgrandfather, etc. Mother to grandmother, then to greatgrandmother, etc. This is applicable to the parts as well as to the whole tiody. (g) Furthet departures : unevenly developed individuals. (A) Earlier theories of resemblances examined. (»■) Monstrosities : (1) fancied resemblance to animals ; 4 (2) with redundant parts ; (3) deficient in parts. (j) Connexion of this with the number of young produced. (k) Reason for the redundance of parts. (0 Other irregular formations.


5 Superfetation.

6 Degree of perfection of the young at birth.

In human beings, more males bom deformed than females. The female itself is a deformity, though a natural deformity.

7 The mola uteri.

8 Milk. The heart controls the production of milk, a.s it does the production of the voice. >Iilk is concocted blood.

9 Animals are bom head first.

10 Length of gestation-period. The periods of animals are governed by cosmic periods.

Secondary Characteristics

V. 1 Introductory. This part of the work is concerned with characteristics which are due entirely to Necessity (i.«., the Motive and Material Causes), and in no way to the Final Cause.

(a) Embr>-os are mostly asleep.

(6) Colour of eyes.

(e) Keenness of sight, due (1) to the amount of fluid in the eyes ; (2) to the condition of the skin on the pupil. There are two senses of " keenness " : ability to see at a distance ; ability to distinguish colours.

2 (d) Keenness of smell and hearing.

Digression on the inner mechanism of the senses.

3 (e) Hair : thickness, curliness, rigidity, baldness and moulting.

4 (/) Colour of hair, in man, and in other animals.

6 (g) Coloration of animals. Colour of tongue. Seasonal colour-changes. General remarks on colour.

7 (A) Voice.

8 (t) Teeth : order of growth, etc.

(j) The relation of the Material and Motive Causes (Necessity) to the Final Cause.

Abbreviations Used in this Volume

Works of Aristotle

H.A. Historia animalium

Phys. Physica

P. A.

De partibus anima







De generatione ani





Ethica Nicomachea


De incessu anima




De an.

De anima


De motu animalium

De resp.

. De respiratione

G. 4f C. De generatione et corruptione

Other Works

L. & S. Liddell and Scott's Oreek-Engliah Lexicon (1925-1940)

Diels, Vorsokr. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, by Hermann Diels, fifth ed., edited by W. Kranz, 1934-1937

C.Q. Classical Quarterly

C.Ii. Classical Review

Other abbreviations are self-explanatory.


  • Preface
    • Aristotle's Embryology
    • Early Translations
    • The Text
    • Modern Editions
    • The Translation
    • Acknowledgements
  • Contents-Summary of De Geseratione animalium
  • Abbreviations
  • Text axd Translation
  • Table of Birds
    • Diagram of Embryonic Membranes
  • Additional Notes on the Text
  • Additional Notes on the Subject-Matter
  • Appendix A
  • Appendix B
  • Index

Z Oxoniensis Collegii Corporis Christi W.A. 2. 7.

S Laurentianus Mediceus 81, 1.

P Vaticanus graecus 1339.

Y Vaticanus graecus 261.

Manvscripts occasionally cited m Parisinus 1921.

O*' Riccardianus 13.

E Parisinus 1853.

All Mss. readings are as reported by Bekker (by Bussemaker for E at 723 b 5 and 769 b 34, and for m at 723 b 5 and 768 b 36)' except that

  • denotes corrected or additional reports of readings as

given by Bitterauf (and twice only, for Z at 768 b 36 and 786 a 3, as given by Susemihl).

Readings and emendations Z Michael Scot's Latin translation (either its actual words, or the original Greek reading clearly implied), from my own transcription.

Gul. William of Moerbeke's Latin translation.

Aldvis The Aldine editio princeps, Venice, 1497.

vulg. The usual reading, as in the Berlin edition.

Buss. Bussemaker, in tiie Didot edition.

A.-W. Wimmer, in Aubert and Wimmer's edition.

Sus. Susemihl.

Btf. Bitterauf.

Rackham Suggestions in private communications to me by Mr. H. Rackham.

Emendations and proposals by other scholars are attributed to them by name (for references see pp. xxvii f.).

[ ] Denote words wrongly placed or incorporated into the text.

< > Denote (a) in the Greek text, words or parts of words supplied conjecturally ; (b) in the English, either the translation of words supplied in the Greek, or words required to complete the sense.

<• Z', Z', etc. = first hand, second hand, of Z, etc. Ixxviii

Ciascuna cosa qual ella e diventa.


715 a I Errei 8e Trepl rcov dXXwv ixoplcov eiprjrai, tojv iv Tots C4^oi5 Kal Koivfj Kal Kad^ cKaarov yivos Trepl rGiv ISlcov )(copts, TLva rporrov Sta rrjv TOiavrrjv aiTiav earlv cKaoTov, Aeyot Se ravrrjv rrjv eveKO. Tov VTTOKeLvrat yap airtai rerrapes, to re ov €V€Ka (x)s reXos, Kal 6 Aoyo? ttjs ovaiag {ravra 5 jxev ovv ws €v tl a^eSov inroXa^etv Set), rpirov Se Kal rdrapTov rj vXn) Kal odev r) a.px'rj rijs klvt]aetos - TTcpl jLtev ovv rcov dWcov etprjraL (o re yap Xoyos Kal TO ov eVe/ca coj reXos ravrov, /cat vXrj 10 rots' t,wois TO. p^eprj, Travrl [xev rw oXo) rd dvojJLOtofieprj, TOt? S' dvopLOiopbepecji rd ofxocofieprj, " i.e., in the De partibus animaliurn.

" See Introd. § 18.

" i.e., the Final Cause appropriate to each part, either qua part belonging to all animals, or qua part belonging to some special group of animals. ** See Introd. §§ 1 ff.

« See Introd. § 10. f See Introd. § II.

" See Introd. §§ 19 ff. 2

ARISTOTLE GENERATION OF ANIMALS BOOK I With one exception we have now " spoken about I all the parts * that are present in animals, both gener- {fon"'^"'^' ally concerning them, and also taking them group by group and dealing separately with the parts peculiar to each, and have shown in what way each part exists on account of the Cause which is of a corresponding kind : I refer to the Cause which is " that for the sake of which " a thing exists." As we know, there are four basic Causes ** : (1) " that for the sake of which " the thing exists, considered as its " End " ; (2) the logos * of the thing's essence (really these first two should be taken as being almost one and the same) ; (3) the matter of the thing, and (4) that from which comes the principle f of the thing's movement. And with one exception I have already spoken about all of these Causes, since the logos of a thing and " that for the sake of which " it exists, considered as its End. are the same ; and, for animals, the matter of them is their parts (the non-uniform ^ parts are the matter for the animal as a whole in each case ; the uniform parts are the matter for the non-uniform 3

715 a

ARISTOTLE TOVTOL? 8e Ttt KaXovfieva aroixeia rcov aoi^drcov) , XoiTTov 8e rcov [xev fxopiiov ra vrpos" rrjv yeveaiv avvreXovvra rots l^cLois, Trept utv ovdev hiajpiarai TTporepov, TTepi airias 8e r^? Kivovarjg, ris avrrj. TO Se TTepl Tavrrjs aKorrelv /cat to Trepl TTJg 15 yeveaeois ttj? iKaarov TpoTTov tivcl tuvtov cotlv hioTtep 6 Aoyo? els €v crvvqyayi , rcov fiev Trepl to. fxopLa TcXevTala TavTa, tcov 8e Trepl yeveaecos ttjv oLpx'^v exofxevrfv tovtojv Ta^as.

Toiv hrj t,cpcov TO. fiev e/c (ruvhvaap,ov yiveTai diqXeo'S Koi appevos, ev oaois yeveai tcov l^cocov eoTi 20 TO driXv /cat to appev ov yap ev Traaiv eartv, dXX ev fiev Tols evat/xot? e^co oXiycov aTraat to p,ev dppev TO 8e drjXv TeXetcodev eoTL, tcov 8 avatpicov TO. fJiev €)(ei TO drjXv /cat to dppev, cootc tol opLoyevrj yevvdv, Ta 8e yevva /xeV, ov piivToi TCt ye ojjioyevrjTOiavra 8' eoTiv oaa yiveTai p-rj e/c ^cpcov avvSvat,o 25 [xevcov, aAA' e/c yfjs ariTTOjJLeviqs /cat TrepiTTCopdrcov} cog 8e /cttTO, vravTos" eLveXv, ocra pev Kara tottov peTa^XrjTLKd rcov l,cpcov earl^ Ta pev vevaTtKa rd ^ hue procul dubio transferenda w. 715b 25-30 ean Se . . . t'^ds, quae ibi aliena, hie congrua.

  • e'crri Peck : ovra vulg. : locus hie corruptus.

" Elements : aroixela. The term is a metaphor taken from " letters of the alphabet," the original meaning of the term. In the physical sense, " element " maj^ be defined as e^ ov avyK€LTat yrpwrov evvTrapxovros aStaiperov rta eiSet ets €T€pov ethos {Met. 1014 a 26). See Introd. § 24.

  • i.e., after the De partibus and the De incessu animalium. ' See Introd. § 74.

    • The exceptions are the erythrinus and the channa : see 741 a 35, 755 b 21 ; cf. 760 a 8.

'See Introd. § 67. Here probably = excrements : cf. H.A. 551 a 6. See however 737 a 4, 762 a 3 ff.



parts ; and the corporeal " elements," ° as they are called, are the matter for the uniform parts). Consequently, of the parts it remains to describe those which subserve animals for the purpose of generation, about which I have so far said nothing definite, and of Causes we still have the Motive Cause to deal with, and to explain what it is. And, in a way, consideration of this Cause and consideration of the generation of each animal comes to the same thing : and that is why our treatise has brought the two together, by placing these parts at the end of our account of the parts, ** and by putting the beginning of the account of generation immediately after them.

Now of course some animals are formed as a result Distinction of the copulation of male and female, namely, animals uni\^ereaL°*^ belonging to those groups in which there exist both male and female, for we must remember that not all groups have both male and female. x\mong the blooded "^ animals, with a few exceptions, the individual when completely formed is either male or female ; but among the bloodless animals , while some groups have both male and female and hence generate offspring which are identical in kind with their parents, there are other groups which, although they generate, do not generate offspring identical with their parents. Such are the creatures which come into being not as the result of the copulation of living animals, but out of putrescent soil and out of residues.* ' Speaking generally, however, we may say that (a) in the case of all those animals which have the power of locomotion, whether they are adapted

  • The passage 715 b 25-30 should be inserted here, if anywhere.



715 a

8e TTTrjva ra Se Tre^evriKa toZs acofiacnv, iv Trdcrt Tovrotg earl^ to drjXv Kal ro appev, ov fxovov^ 30 rots' evaijJLOLg, dAAa evtot? Kal dvaLfiois^ • /cat 715 b TOVTOJV TOLS fiev Ka6^ oXov ro yevo?, otov rots jLtaAaKTiot? Kal rols [jLaXaKoarpaKOLs- ev 8e ro) rcov evTOfiwv yevet ra TrXeZaTa. tovtcdv S' avrajv oaa fjiev €/c avvSvaaiJiov yiverai rcov avyyevcov t,ipajv, /cat ayra yewa Kara tt^v' avyyeveiav oaa Se p-rj 5 e/c t,a>o}v aXX ck arjTTOfievrjg rrjs vXrjs, ravra 8e yewa /xev erepov 8e yevos, Kal to yiyvopievov ovT€ di^Xu eariv ovre dppev. roiavra 8' iarlv evca Tcov evropuDv. Kal rovro ovjx^e^'qKev evXoyoJS' el yap oaa fxr) yiyverai e/c ^ipcov, e/c tovtcov eyivero t,cpa avvSva^ofJievcoVy el puev ofjioioyevrj ,* Kal 10 rr]v e^ ^PXH^ roLavrrjv e8et t<Jl)v reKvcoadvrwv â– elvai yeveoLV {rovro 8' evXoyiDS d^iovfiev ^aiverai yap avfji^alvov ovrcos errl rcov dXXcov t,(x)ow)' el 8' dvop^oLa pev Svvdpeva he avvhvdl,eadai, rrdXiv e/c rovrcjv erepa rig dv eyivero ^UCTt?, /cat ndXiv dXXr] res e/c rovrcov, Kal rovr" eTTopever^ dv els 15 dneipov. rj 8e <Jivais <f)evyeL ro drreipov ro pev yap drreipov dreXes, r] he (f)vaLs del ^T^ret re'Ao?. oaa 8e pr] TTopevriKd, Kaddirep ra oarpaKoheppa rdjv t,cpcov Kal rd ^d)vra rw TrpoaTrecJjVKevat,, Sta ro TTaparrX'qaLav avrojv eivat, rrjv ovaiav rots (f)vroLs, wanep ouS' ev eKelvois, ovS' ev roiirois ^ ev rraai tovtois earl Z* : iv eVi'ois fiev tovtcov dnav to yevos exei vulg. ^ /jLovov SZ : fxovov ev vulg.

^ sic PZ : dAAo Kal tcov dvaificov ev Tiaiv vulg. * Ofioyevrj PZ^*.

« See Introd. § 74.



lo be swimmers, or fliers, or walkers, male and female are found ; and this applies not only to the blooded animals but to some of the bloodless ones as well. And among the latter, in some cases it holds good of a whole group, as for instance the Cephalopods and the Crustacea " ; and it holds good of most of the Insects. Among animals of this class, those which are formed as the result of the copulation of animals of the same kind, themselves generate in turn after their o^vn kind ; those, however, which arise not from h\-ing animals but from putrescent matter, although they generate, produce something that is different in kind, and the product is neither male nor female. Some of the Insects are Uke this.** And this is what we should expect ; for supposing that creatures which are produced other^^ise than from Uving animals copulated and produced Uving animals : if these products were similar in kind to their parents, then the manner of their parents' original generation should have been like theirs. This we may reasonably claim, because it is e\ident that this is so \rith all other animals. If, on the other hand, the products were dissimilar from their parents, and yet able to copulate, we should then get arising from them yet another different manner of creature, and out of their progeny yet another, and so it would go on ad infimtum. Nature, however, avoids what is infinite, because the infinite lacks completion and finality, whereas this is what Nature always seeks, (b) The creatures which cannot move about, Uke the Testacea and those which live by being attached to some surface, are in their essence similar to plants, and therefore, as in plants, so also in them, male and

  • See 732 a 25 ff., 758 b 6 ff.

715 b

ARISTOTLE 20 eCTTt TO drjXv /cat to appev, dAA' ^'Sry Kad^ o/jlolorrjTa /cat /car' avaAoytar Aeyerai- fxiKpav yap Ttva roiavT7]v e;)^ei ht,a<^opdv. /cat yap iv rocs (bvTOLS VTTap-^et, to. pikv Kap7Toc/)6pa Sevbpa rov avTOV ylvovs, ra 8' ayra p,€V ov (f)€p€L Kapirov, cru/x^aAAerat Se rots' (j^epovat rrpog to tt€tt€lv, olov 25 avfi^aivet, Trepl ttjv avKrjv /cat tov ipiveov.

^["EcTTt Se /cat €771 TOJV cf)VTa)V TOV aVTOV TpOTTOV Ta pi€v yap e/c OTTepp-aTO? ytVerat, to. 8' cjaTrep avTopLaTLt^ovcrq? Tr\g <j)voeo)£- ytVerat yap r) t'^s" yij? ar]TrofJLev7]s 7] jjiopiojv rtvcDv ev Tot? (f)VToZs' ei'ta ydp awra /xet' oy avvioTaTai Ka9* avTO. p^ajpt?/ 30 ev €Tepois 8' eyytVerat 8eV8peatv, otop' o i^o?.] ^ quae sequuntur w. 25-30 plane hue aliunde tralata, hie enim iamdudum de plantis sermo. transferenda censeo ad 715 a 35 post ■nepiTTMfidrcjv.

^ Xapi'S eV y^s ZS.

" The concoction referred to here is that which produces the ripening of fruit. See Introd. § 62. The use of the same word neTTeiv both for the fruit of plants and for the semen of animals is appropriate, in that both, according to Aristotle, are produced out of "nourishment" by a process of "concoction." " See 755 b 10, and H.J. 557 b 31. The fig tree commonly cultivated in S. Europe is Ficus carica. This species includes two kinds of individual trees : (1) those whose inflorescences contain fully-developed female flowers only ; (2) those whose inflorescences contain male flowers near the opening, and lower down aborted female flowers known as " gall-flowers " owing to their being specially prepared to receive the eggs of the fig-wasp {Blastophaga grossorum), which turns the ovary of the flower into a " gall." The latter trees are known as Caprificus. The female wasps, after impregnation by the male wasps within the gall, emerge from it and get dusted with pollen from the male 8


female are not found, although they are called male and female just by way of similarity and analogy, since they exhibit a slight difference of this sort. Thus among plants also we find that in one and the same kind some indi\idual trees bear fruit, while some, although they do not bear any themselves, assist in the concocting * of that which is borne by the others. An instance of this is the fig and the caprifig.* '^ [The same sort of thing is found in plants too : some are formed out of seed, others as it might be by some spontaneous activity of Nature - they are formed when either the soil or certain parts ** in plants become putrescent, since some of them do not take shape ^ independently on their own, but grow upon other trees, as for instance the mistletoe does.] flowers as they leave the inflorescence, and then pollinate female flowers elsewhere. Caprification is the name given to the artificial assistance of this process by hanging inflorescences of the caprifig on to trees of class (1). The growers believe that the fruit of the Ficus is improved by the wasps ; but in fact excellent fruit is produced by these trees without pollination, though of course no fertile seerLf. Hence caprification must be a traditional usage dating from the time when fertile seeds were required for propagation, which is now done bv means of cuttings. See Kerner and Oliver, Natural History of Plants, ii. 160-162 ; H. MuUer, Fertilization of Flowers, tr. p. 521 and bibliography. Cf. H.A. 557 h 26 ff., where the wasp is mentioned.

' The following sentence is obviously out of place here, as is shown (a) by the opening words, which must mark the beginning of a reference to plants, whereas here plants are already being discussed ; and (6) by its inappropriateness to the particular point under discussion. It would be relevant if transferred to 715 a 25. Cf. H.A. 539 a 16 fl".

" Cf. 762 b 19.

' See Introd. § 54.


ARISTOTLE 716 a Ucpl jjiev ovv (jivrayv, avTo. KaO^ avra ;\;ct)pi? e7naK€7TT€OV .

II YlepL 8e Tcov aAAo))/ t,cI)Oiv tt^s yeveaecog XcKreov Kara rov eTTL^dXXovra Xoyov Kad^ cKaarov avrojv, OLTTO Twv elp'qixevoiv avvetpovras. KadoLTrep yap 5 etTTOfiev, rrjg yeveaecog dpxois dv res ovx rfKiara deirj TO drjXv Kal to dppev, ro pukv dppev (vs rrjs KLvqcrecvs Kal rrjs yeveaecos e^ov ttjv dpx^v, ro he. drjXv d)S vXrjs. rovro Se jU-aAtcrr' dv rt? TTiarevaeie detopoiv TTCog yivero.L ro airepfjia, Kal TTodev ck rovrov fxev yap rd (f)va€i yiv6p.€va crvviararai, rovro 10 8e TTCO? dird rov dr^Xeos Kal rov dppevos avjJL^aivei yiyveadai. Set jxt] Xavddveiv ro) yap aTTOKplveadaL ro roLOvrov pboptov drrd rod d-qXeos Kal rov dppevos, /cat ev rovrois rrjv aTTOKpLocv elvai Kal e/c rovrcov, hid rovro ro drjXv Kal ro dppev dp)(al rrjs yeveaeois elacv. dppev {Mev yap Xeyofiev t,wov ro els dXXo 15 yevvdJv, OrjXv Se to els avro' Sto Kal ev rep oXcp rrjv rrjs yyjs (^vaiv ws drjXv Kal p^rjrepa ovojJidl^ovaLV,^ ovpavov he Kal rfXiov rj ri rcov aAAcov rdjv roiovrcov cos yewojvras Kal rrarepas TrpouayopevovaLV.

To S' dppev Kal ro OrjXv hia(j)epei Kara jJLev rov Xoyov rep hvvaadai, erepov eKarepov, Kara he rrjv ^ ovofid^ovaiv Z : voyi,il,ovaiv vulg.

" It is impossible to represent the force of the Greek neuter in English.

" See note on Causes, Introd. §§ 1 ff. This statement, here unexplained and unjustified, will be fully dealt with later on.

" See Introd. § 54. 10


Still, plants will have to be considered independently all by themselves.

As far as animals are concerned, we must describe II their generation just as we find the theme requires of*^a\e°° for each several kind as we go along, Unking our »nd female. account on to what has already been said. As we mentioned, we may safely set down as the chief principles of generation the male (factor) <* and the female (factor) ; the male as possessing the principle of movement and of generation, the female as possessing that of matter. ** One is most likely to be convinced of this by considering how the semen is formed and whence it comes ; for although the things that are formed in the course of Nature no doubt take their rise "^ out of semen,** we -must not fail to notice how the semen itself is formed from the male and the female, since it is because this part * is secreted from the male and the female, and because its secretion takes place in them and out of them, that the male and the female are the principles of generation. By a " male " animal we mean one which generates in another, by " female " one which generates in itself. This is why in cosmology too they speak of the natiu-e of the Earth as something female and call it " mother," while they give to the heaven and the sun and anything else of that kind the title of " generator," and " father." Now male and female differ in respect of their The gexaai logos/ in that the power or faculty possessed by the p*^ • one differs from that possessed by the other ; but they differ^ also to bodily sense, in respect of certain ' Cf. the definition given at 724 a 17 ff., and also 721 b 6.

  • See Introd. § 18.

f See Introd. § 10. With this passage cf. 766 a 18 fiF, 11


716 a

20 a'iadrjuiv [xoploLg tlctlv, Kara fjcev rov Xoyov rw dppev [JL€V elvac to SvvdfJLevov yevvdv els erepov, KadaTrep eXexOrj Trporepov, to 8e drjXv to et? avTO, /cat €^ ov yiveTai evv7Tap)(ov iv tco yevviovTi to yewcofjievov. cTret 8e Bwajxei Sicoptcrrai /cat epyo) Ttvi, Setrat Se irpos Trdaav ipyaalav opydvcov, 25 opyava Se rat? SvvdpieaL to. fiepr] tov crto/iaTos", avayKotov etp'at /cat TTpos ttjv TeKvojaiv /cat tov avvSvaapiov [xopia, /cat ravra Sta^epovr' dAAi^Awv, /ca^o TO dppev Stotoet tou ^i^Aeoj. ei yap /cat Ka^' oAou XeyeTai tov t,(x)ov tov fxev to dijXv tov Be to dppev, aAA' ov KaTO. ttolv ye [rof ovto drjXv /cat 30 dppev eoTLVy dXXd KaTo. Tiva Svvapnv /cat /caTCt Tt {xopiov, axjirep /cat^ opaTiKov /cat iropevTiKOv , oTvep /cat (f)atveTai /caTct tt^v alad'qoiv. ToiavTa Se Tvyxdvei fJiopia ovTa tov jxev d'qXeos at KaXovfievai vcTepai, TOV 8' dppevos to. irepl tovs opx^Ls /cat tovs Trepiveovg ev Trdat tols evaifxoLS' to, fiev yap opxeig 35 e'xet avT(Jov, to. Se tovs tolovtovs rropovs. elal 8e 716 b 8ta(^opai tov 6-r^Xeos /cat dppevos /cat ev tols dvai [xois, oaa avTOJV ep^et TavTrjv ttjv ivavTiCjoaiv. 8ta<l>epeL 8' ev tols evaipLOLS to. p-eprj to. TTpos ttjv fXL^tv TOLS ax'TiP'O.aLv . 8et 8e voeti' oTt [XLKpds d.px'fjs p^eTaKLVovpLevTjs TToXXd ovpLfxeTa^aXXeLV elcode tcx)v pueTa ^ seclusit Rackham, om. Z^*. ^ Kal PZ : Kal to vulg.

" The force of this important remark will be explained later. Cf. 734 b 35.

" Cf. 766 b 2 if. ; also 729 b 12 ff.

" This introduces what is to some extent a modification of 12


physical parts. They differ in their logos, because the male is that which has the power to generate in another (as was stated above), while the female is that which can generate in itself, i.e., it is that out of which the generated offspring, which is present in the generator," comes into being. Very well, then : they are distinguished in respect of their faculty, and this entails a certain function. Now for the exercise of every function instruments are needed, and the instruments for physical faculties are the parts of the body. Hence it is necessary that, for the purpose of copulation and procreation, certain parts should exist, parts that are different from each other, in respect of which the male will differ from the female ; for although male and female are indeed used as epithets of the whole of the animal, it is not male or female in respect of the whole of itself, but only in respect of a particular faculty and a particular part * - ^just as it is " seeing " and " walking " in respect of certain parts - and this part is one which is evident to the senses. Now in the female this special part is what is called the uterus, and in the male the regions about the testes and the penis, so far as all the blooded animals are concerned : some of them have actual testes, some testicular passages. There are also differences between male and female in those of the bloodless creatures which have this opposition of the sexes. In the blooded animals the parts which serve for copulation differ in their shapes. We must note, however,'^ that when a small principle '^ changes, usually many of the things which depend upon it the statement just made (716 a 37 ff.). And cf. the passage H.A. 583 b 31 If. Cf. also 764 b ;28, 766 a 24 ff. See Introd. § 11.


716 b

ARISTOTLE 5 T7JV apxfjv- SrjXov 8e tovto cttl roiv eKTeixvo^evcov Tov yevvTjTLKOv yap [xopiov 8ta00etpo/zevou fjiovov oXt) crx^^ov 7] p.op(f)7] avfifieTa^aXXet roaovrov cocrre r) drjXv SoKeXv elvat rj fiiKpov aTToAetVetv, cu? ov Kara to TV)(pv pLopiop ouSe /card rrjv Tv^ovaav 10 Svvafiiv drjXv ov Kal dppev to ^a)ov. (f)av€p6v ovv oTL apxTj Ti? ovaa (jtaiveTai to 6rjXv /cat to appev TToXXa yovv avfijjieTa^dXXeL fxeTa^aXXovTCov fi drjXv /cat dppev, ojs o.px'fjs jJieTaTTLTTTOvarjs .

Ill "E;)(et 8e TO, TTepl Tovg op^eis /cat rds" vaTepas ovx ojJiOLCos TTaai rot? evaipiOLS t^wois, koI TrpcoTOV 15 TO, TTepl Tous" opx^is Tolg dppeatv. to, p,ev yap oXcOS OpX^LS OVK eX^t Tcbv TOCOVTCOV t,a>iJL>V, otov TO T€ Tcov Ixdvcov yevos /cat to tcov o(j)ecov, dXXd TTopovs ixovov hvo aTTepfiaTLKovs' rd 8' ex^L /xev opxeis, ivTos 8' ex^L tovtovs irpos tjj 6a<f>VL /card TTjV TCOV Ve(f)pCOV X^P^^> ^'"'O ^^ TOVTOiV cKaTepov 20 TTopoVy voairep ev tols p-rj exovaiv opx^LS, avvaTTTOVTas els ev, KaOdirep /cat err' eKeivwv, otov 61 re opvides TTavTes Kal rd (pOTOKQVVTa TeTpdiroha tcov Sexop^evcov tov depa Kal TrXevpiova exovTCov Kal yap TavTa TrdvTa evTos e;)^et Trpos ttj oa(f)UL tovs 6pX€t,S, Kal Svo TTOpOVS aTTO TOVTCOV 6p.OLCOS TOt? 25 6(j>eaLV, olov aavpoi Kal ;)^eAcovat /cat to. c^oXiScoTa

° In this passage Aristotle prefigures the distinction made to-day between primary sex-characters, i.e., the genital organs themselves including testis or ovary ; and the secondary sexcharacters, e.g., the cock's comb or the hen's special feathering, which, as is now known, depend on the secretion of the 14


underg6 an accompanying change." This is clear with castrated animals, where, although the generative part alone is destroyed, almost the whole form of the animal thereupon changes so much that it appears to be female or very nearly so, which suggests that it is not merely in respect of some casual part or some casual faculty that an animal is male or female. It is clear, then, that " the male." and " the female " are a principle. At any rate, when apimals undergo a change in respect of that wherein they are male and female, many other things about them undergo an accompanying change, which suggests that a principle undergoes some alteration.

The testicles and the uterus are not of similar III arrangement in all the blooded animals. Consider first the males, and their testicles. Some blooded animals (as the groups of Irishes and Serpents) have no testicles at all, only two seminal passages. ° Others have testicles, but they are inside, by the loin, near the place where the kidneys are ; from each of them runs a passage (as in those animals which have no testicles), and these two passages join up together (again like those other animals) : among the class of animals which breathe air and have a lung, this occurs in all the Birds and in the o\'iparous quadrupeds, for all these as well have their testicles inside, by the loin, and two passages leading from them, just as the Serpents have : examples are the lizards, the tortoises, and all the animals with homy scales. All sex hormones from the interstitial cells of the testis and ovary respectively.

  • These are in fact the testes, but Aristotle reserves this name for the firm, oval-shaped testes. This negative statement does not of course include the cartilaginous fishes, the Selachia, many of which are viviparous.



716 b

Travra. ra Se t^cooroKa navra fxev iv rco efxirpoadev k-)(eL rovs 6p)(eLs, aAA' evia avraJv eaat Trpo? rip reAet ttjs yaarpo?, olov 6 SeAi^i?, kol ov rropovs aAA' alSolov 0,770 tovtmv Trepaivov els to e^cu, Kadarrep ot, jSoe?,^ to. 8' e^co, Kal tovtcjov to. [xev 30 a7T7]pTr]fjLevovs, cocrTrep avdpcoTTOs, ra Se Trpo? rfj eSpa, KaOdnep ol veg. Stajpiarat Se Trept avrojv akpL^earepov iv rats laroplais rat? Trepl rcov t,woiv. At 8' vcnepai Trdai^ [xev elai St/xepet?, KadaTrep /cat ot opyets rols dppeac Svo Trdaiv ravras S' exovat TOL [X€v irpos rols dpdpoLs, KadaTrep at re 35 yuvat/ce? «:at rravra ra ^cooroKovvra pbTj jjlovov 717 a dvpal,e dXXd /cat iv avroZs, /cat ot l)(dves oaoi cpOTOKovaiv etj rovficfjaves, rd Se Trpo? roi yTrol^copiarL, KaQdrrep ol r dpvides navres /cat rcbv l)(dvwv ot t,(x>oroKOVvres . exovat, Se St/cpoa? /cat TO, jxaXaKoarpaKa rds varipas /cat ra jLtaAa/cta* to, 5 yap KaXov[xeva rovroiv u)d rovs TTepie)(ovras Vfjievas varepiKovs ^'x^i MaAtCTTa he dSiopiarov iirl rcov ttoXvttoSojv iariv, ojare SoKelv jxtav etvai' rovrov 8' atrtov o rov CTCu/xaros oyKos Travrj) opioios <^v. St/cpdat Be /cat ^ Kaddnep ol /So'e? delet Platt, qui tauros credit significari. ^ wacrt PSYZ* : Traaai Bekker per errorem.

" In front : that is, with reference to the ideal posture of an animal, viz., that of man.

  • The term aiSoXov seems to be used inclusively by Aristotle for any genital organs ; often it means " penis," but obviously it cannot mean this here. Cf. H.A. 509 b 27-29.

•^ For the bos, one of the Selachia or cartilaginous fishes, cf. H.A. 540 b 17 if., 5Q(i b 4. It is probably either Notidanus griseus, which has very large eyes, or Cephaloptera giorna { = Dicerobatis g.), the " ox-ray," This reference to j8oe? is excised from the text by Platt, who 16


the Mvipara, however, have their testicles in front,** though some of them have them inside by the end of the abdomen^ - e.g., the dolphin- and have no passages, but a sexual duct* which leads from them to the outside, as the ox-fish "^ have ; while some have the testicles outside, and of these some are pendent (as in man), others fastened by the fundament (as in swine). I have given a more accurate account of these in the Researches upon Animals.'^ The uterus * is always double without exception, just as in males there are always two testes >^'ithout exception. In some animals the uterus is by the pudenda (as it is in women and in all animals that are \-iviparous internally as well as externally, and such of the fishes as lay their eggs lisibly) ; in other animals the uterus is up towards the diaphragm ^ (as it is in all birds and in the \iviparous fishes). The Crustacea, too, and the Cephalopods have a double uterus, since the membranes which surround their " eggs " ' as they are called are uterine in nature.

The uterus is particularly indistinct in the Octopuses, so that it appears to be single. The reason for this is that the whole bulk of the creature's body is of similar consistency throughout. In the large supposes poes here to be "oxen." A.-W. translate " \vie die Stiere." <* See H.A. Bk. Ill, ch. 1.

' It should be noted, once for all, that this term includes what are now known as oviducts.

^ Aristotle does not confine his use of this term to mammals, which alone have a diaphragm in the usual sense of that term, and hence it must be understood to refer also to the corresponding position in lower animals, as in the present passage ; cf. also iJe respirations 475 a 8, where the viro^iofia of wasps, crickets, etc., is mentioned.

See H.A. Bk. V, ch. 18. * Cf. 758 a 8.


717 a

ARISTOTLE at Tibv €VTOfio)v elalv iv rots fxeyeOos ej^ovatv €V 8e TOt? eXdrroaiv dSrjXoi Sia rr^v [u.iKpoTrjra 10 TOV OlOjJLaTOS.

Ta fJLev ovv elpiq^eva fiopia rolg t,cpoi^ rovrov ep^ei TOV rpoTTov IV Yiepl he rijs €v toIs appeal Sia(f)Opa.s tcov airep fjiaTLKcbv opydvcDV, el ris /zeAAet Oecop-qcreiv tols alrlas St a? etatv, dvdyKrj Xa^elv TTpaJrov rivos 15 eveKev rj rchv opx^cov eari avaraaig. el 8r] rrdv rj (f>vais rj 8ta to dvayKalov TTOtel rj Sta to ^eXriov, Koiv TOVTO TO flOpiOV €Lrj StCt TOVTCOV ddrepOV. OTL jxev Toivvv ovK dvayKalov Trpos Trjv yeveaiv, <f>avepov TTaai yap av inrrjp^e rots yewioai, vvv S' ov6' oi 6(f)eLS e^ovaiv op^^Ls ov6^ ol IxOve?' wp.p.evot 20 yap elai avvSva^op^eyoi /cat TrXt^peig €)(ovres dopov Tovs TTOpovs. XeLTTerai toivvv ^eXTLOvos tlvos ■)(dptv. eoTL he TOiv \iev TrXeioTOJv t,a>(xiv epyov axehov ovdev dXXo TrXrjv wanep tcov cf)VTCL)v arrepixa /cat Kaprros. coarrep 8' ev tols Trepl ttjv Tpo(j>rjv TO. evdvevTepa Xa^poTepa rrpos ttjv einOvpiiav ttjv 25 Tfjs Tpo(j>ris, ovTCo Kal to. pLrj e^ovTa opx^i'S rropovs he [JLovov, rj e^ovTa pcev evTos S' exovTa, rrdvTa TaxvTepa irpos ttjv evepyeiav twv avvhvaa[xa)v. a he hel acocjypoveaTepa etvai, cooTvep €Kel ovk evdvevTepa, /cat evTavd^ eXiKag exovaiv ol -nopoi rrpog TO pLTj Xd^pov [JLTjhe Tax^Lav elvai ttjv eTtiOvpiiav.

30 ot 8' opx^is elal Trpos tovto pLep.rixo.vr]pLevof tov " The Final Cause.

  • See Introd. § 6.

â– ^ Of. the reason given in Plato, Timaeus 73 a, for the coiling of the intestines. See also P.A. 675 a 19 ff., 675 b 23 ff.

" See below, 718 a 15. 18


Insects too the uterus is double, whereas in the smaller ones it is indistinct on account of the smallness of the creatures' body.

This describes the arrangement of those parts of animals which I have mentioned.

Returning to the subject of the difference of the IV seminal organs in various groups of male animals : blooded If we are to consider the causes to which this is due, animau : we must first of all understand the purpose for the parts i^ sake of which " testes exist. If we agree that every- °^'* ' thing which Nature does is done either because it is necessary or else because it is better, we should expect to find that this part, Uke the rest, exists for one or the other of these two reasons. Now it is evident that it is not necessary for generation, otherwise all animals that generate would have it, whereas actually neither Serpents nor Fishes have testes, and these do in fact generate, because they have been observed copulating, with their passages full of milt. The other reason then remains : testes exist for some purpose - because it is better that they should exist. Now the business of most animals may be summed up pretty much as that of plants is - viz., seed and fruit; and,, just as (to take a parallel case) animals which have straight intestines are more violent in their desire for food," so here also, animals which have no testes but passages only, or which have testes but not external ones, are all quicker with the business of copulation. Those, however, which have to be more sober (a) in the case of feeding, have not straight intestines, and (b) in the case of copulation, have passages which are twisted,** so that their desire shall not be violent or speedy. This then is the object for which the testes have been contrived : they make 19


717 a

yap OTTepnaTiKov TrepirrMfJiaTOs ara(Tt[xa>T€pav TTOtovai Trjv Ktvrjaiv, iv fxev rolg ^woto/cois', otov iTTTTOL? re Kai rolg dXXois rolg toiovtols /cat iv avdpcjTTOLs, cr(x)t,ovT€S rrjv iTravaStTrXcoaLv [ov 8e rpOTTOV €)(€l aVTT], €K TOJV IGTOpLCOV TWV TT€pl TO.

35 ^cpa del decopelv)' ovdev yap elai [xopiov rcJov rropcov OL op)(^eig, dXXa irpoaKeivrai, Kaddnep rds Aaia? TrpoaaTTTOvcnv at v(j>aivovaai tols laroZs' d(f)aipov717 b fjievcov yap avrcjv dvaaTrcovTai ol rropoi evros, u)aT ov bvvavrai yevvdv rd eKTep,v6p.eva, enel el jxr^ aveaTTOJvro, iBvvavro dv, koI TJSr] ravpos n? fierd Tr]v eKTopLTiv ev6ecx)s dxevaag CTrX-^pcuae 8ta to 5 IX'^TTO) Tovg TTopovs dvecfTrdadai. rols S' opvcai /cat Tot? (hoTOKOL? Tcbv TerpaTTohojv Sexovrai ttjv airepfxaTLK7)v TreptTTcoaiv, ware fipahvrepav elvai ttjv e^oSov^ Tj Toi? IxdvaLV. <j>avep6v S' errl r&v opvidcov TTepX yap rds ox^ias ttoXv /xeL^ovs taxovcrt,^ rovs opx^is, /cat oaa ye rcov dpvecov KaS* copav piiav 10 d^euet, orav 6 xpovos oStos TrapeXdrj, ovrco puKpovs exovaiv ware axehov dSi^Aous' etvat, irepl he • rrjv ox^^CLV a(f)6Spa /xeydXovs. ddrrov p,ev ovv ox^vovai rd evros exovra' /cat ydp rd eKros exovra ov rrporepov ro anepfMa d(f)iria(, rrplv dvaoTTaaai rovs opxeLs.

V "Ert Se TO dpyavov ro irpo's rov avvhvaapiov rd 15 juev rerpaTToSa e;;^ef evSexerai ydp avrols exeiv Tot? S' opviat /cat rolg diroaLV ovk evBex^Tai Sia ro 1 Sie^oSov PZ. 2 -^o^^j psY.



the movement of the seminal residue more steady. (1) In the ^'i\ipa^a, as for instance in horses and other such animals, and also in man, they do this by maintaining in position the doubling-back of the passages (for a description of this reference must be made to the Researches upon Animals),'^ since the testes are no integral part of the passages : they are merely attached thereto, just like the stone weights which women hang on their looms when they are wea\-ing. ^ When the testes are removed, the passages are drawn up within ; this is why castrated animals cannot generate, whereas if the passages were not so drawn up they would be able to do so. A bull immediately after castration has been kno\\'n to mount a cow and effect impregnation,"^ because the passages had not yet been drawn up. (2) In Birds and in the oviparous quadrupeds the testes receive the seminal residue, so that its emission is slower than it is in the case of Fishes. This is clearly to be seen in Birds : their testes are much larger at the time of copulation.* Those birds which copulate at one season only of the year have such tiny testes when this period is over that they are almost indistinguishable, whereas during the breeding season they are very big. So then the animals whose testes are internal accomplish their copulation more quickly, since in fact those with external testes do not emit the semen until the testes have been dravvn up.

Another point. The organ for copulation is present V in the quadrupeds because it is possible for them to have it, whereas it is not possible for birds and foot " H.A. 310 a -20 ff., and 718 a 15 below.

  • Cf. 787 b 2Q. ' Cf. H.A. 510 b 3.

Which have no " testes " in Aristotle's sense.

  • Cf. H.A. 509 b 35 flF.


717 b

ARISTOTLE rcov fiev TO. OKeXr] vtto fxearjv elvai rrjv yacrrepa, Ta S oAoj? dcTKeXrj etvai, rrjv Se rov alSoiov (f)vaLV ■r]pTrja6aL ivrevdev Kal rfj diacL KetadaL ivravda. 8l6 Kal iv rfj o^iXia rj avvracrts yiverai rwv oKe 20 Xa)V' TO re yap opyavov vevpcjhes Kal rj (f)vats^ Tcvv GKeXcov vevpcuhrj^. war iirel tout' ovk ivBex^rai ^x^iv, dvdyKrj Kal 6px€t9 r) firj e'xetv 7] [XT] evravd^ exetv rolg yap exovaiv rj avrrf deaig ajJi(f)OT€ pcDV avrcov.

Eti he Toig ye rovs opx^is exovaiv e^co Sta rrj? KLvrjaeco? Oepfiaivopievov rov alSoLOV irpoepx^Tai ro 25 anepfia avvadpotadev, dAA' ovx tos eroifiov ou evdvs dcyovaiv, axmep toZs Ixdvcnv.

Hdvra S' ex^i' to. t^cooroKa tovs opx^is ev ro) Ttpoadev [rj e^co\,^ ttXtjv exivov ovtos 8e Trpos rfj oa<j>VL fxovos, Sict Trjv avrrjv alriav St' ^VTrep Kal ol opvide^, raxvv yap dvayKalov yiveadai rov avv 30 SvaafJiov avrajv^' ov yap cooTrep Ta aAAa* rerpdTToSa enl rd Trpavrj eTTL^aivei, aAA' opOol p,iyvvvTai Sta Tas dKdvdas.

At rjv jxev ovv alTiav exovai Ta exovTa opx^i^s, etprjTai, Kal St' rjv alriav rd fiev e^co rd S' evTos.

^ avaraais SZ.

  • aut 7) e^oj secludenda (om. S), aut <^ hn-6s> addenda (Platt).

^ Sia . . . avTu>v fortasse secludenda ; sed cf. 769 b 34 seqq.

  • oAAa Z : om. vulg.

" But the goose has a penis, H.A. 509 b 30.

  • Cf. 718 a 5, 739 a 10.

c Omit, or read " either outside or inside."

    • Inside, of course.



less animals. It is impossible for birds " because their legs are under the middle of the abdomen. It is impossible for the other creatures because they have no legs at all, and that is the place where the penis is always suspended and that is the position for it. (This also is the reason why there is strain on the legs during sexual intercourse : both the organ itself and the legs are by their nature sinewy.) And so, since it is impossible for them to have this organ, they must of necessity have no testes either, or else not have them in that place, since in those animals which possess both penis and testes the situation of both is one and the same.

Another point. As far as the animals with external testes are concerned, as the penis is set in movement and gets heated, the semen first collects itself together, and then advances : it is not ready immediately contact is established, as it is in fishes.^ All the \ i\ipara have their testes in front, [or outside,*^] except the hedgehog. This is the only one that has them by the loin,** and the reason is the same as for the birds,*' since they must of necessity accomplish their copulation quickly, for they do not mount on the back as the other quadrupeds do, but on account of their spines stand upright for intercourse.

We have now said why those animals which have testes have them, and why some have them outside ' This remark, if it remains in the text, obviously cannot refer to the only reason so far given for birds at 717 b 15-1,7 ; if taken as referring to the reason which immediately follows, this will roughly correspond to the statement in II.A. o39 b 34 that some birds copulate quickly. But no doubt the reason Aristotle has in mind is th^ one mentioned below at 719 buff., viz., that the skin is too hard.



717 b

VI ocra 8e /xt) exei, KaOcxTrep e'lprjTai, Sid re ro /Jbrj ev dAAo, 35 TO avayKOLOV /xovov ovk €)(€l tovto to fiopLov, Kal 8ta TO avayKOLOV elvai ra)(€lav ylveadat ttjv ox^iav TOtavrrj S earlv r] rojv l)(dvcov (jivats Kal rj tcov 718 a 6(f)ecov. ol [xev yap l)(dv€S ox^vovai TrapaTTLTTTOvres Kal (XTToXvovTai Ta)(€U)s. uiOTTep yap errl rcov dv6pa>Tra>v /cat rravroiv twv tolovtcjv dvdyKrj Karaa^^ovras ro TTvevfxa Trpoteadat rrjv yovrjv, tovto S' 5 €(cetvot9 avfJiPaivei firj he)(op.evoi^ ttjv ddXarrav, etal 8e ev<j)dapToi tovto fir] ttolovvtcs , ovkovv Set ev TO) avvhvaajJLO) to airepp^a 7T€tt€lv avrovg, coarrep Ta Tre^a /cat ^cpoTOKa, dAA' vtto ttjv a)pav^ TO aTTepjxa TTeTTep-jxevov dOpoov e-^ovaiv, woTe jxr] €V Tip diyydveiv dXXiqXcov TreTTetv/ dXXd TrpoteadaL 10 TTCTTepipiivov . Sio opx^is OVK exovaiv, dAA' evdels Kal dirXovs tovs TTopovg, olov pbtKpov p.6piov Tot? TeTpaTToatv vndpx^t- Trepi, tovs 6p)(^LS' ttj? yap eTTavaScTrXwaecos tov rropov to jjlcv evaipiov pcepos earl to 8' dvaip^ov, o 8e;^eTat /cat 8t' ov rjSr] CTTrep/xa 6V iTop€V€Tai, a)ad^ OTav ivTavda eXdrj rj yov-q, 15 Ta;^era /cat toutois" ytvcTat 'q drroXvaLS. tols 8' l-)(dvaL TOLOVTOS 6 TTOpOS TTaS COtIv OLOS €7tI TOJV ^ VTTO Tr)v wpav A.-\V., cf. H.A. 509 b 20, 35 : irpo rrjs wpas coniecerat Platt : vno ttjs aipas vulg.

^ TTCTTeiv A.-W., digestio S : â– trotdv vulg.

" See ch. 4, init. For necessity, see Introd. § 6.

  • This appears to be the meaning ; Michael Scot renders eiciunt sperma velociter : cf. the English phrase " relieve themselves." Also at 718 a 14.

" Viz., all that breathe.

•* This, according to Aristotle, corresponds to breathing ; it is their method of self-refrigeration : see De respiratione 476 a 1 ff. 24


and others inside. And as for those which have no M testes, they lack this part, as we have said, because such absence is not good, but necessary merely '^ ; and also because it is necessarj' that their copulation should be accomphshed quickly. Fishes and serpents come under this class. Fishes copulate bv placing themselves alongside each other and quickly ejaculate.* Just as men and all such animals "^ in order to emit the semen must of necessity hold their breath, so fishes must refrain from taking in the seawater,** and when they omit to do this they easily come to grief. On this account they are bound to avoid concocting * the semen during the act of copulation (which is what the \i\iparous land-animals do) ; instead, they have their semen ready concocted and collected at the proper time, so that they do not concoct it while in contact \\-ith each other, but emit it already concocted. For this reason they have no testes, but passages which are straight and simple. In the testes of quadrupeds there is a small portion of a similar character : I refer to the latter portion of that length of the passage which is doubled back.' One portion of this length has blood in it and one has not, and by the time the fluid enters this latter portion and passes through it, it is already semen ; so that when it arrives there, ejaculation quickly takes place * in these animals too. In Fishes the whole of the passage is of the same character as this latter ' Cf.l\lh2b above, ' The vas deferens; cf. above 717 a 33; and H.A. 510 a :?3 ff.

' Cf. above, 718 a 1 ; Scot's Arabic original seems to have been extremely cautious and to have given both possible meanings of dn-oAuaij; for Scot has eius exitus est velox, et cum exit sperma separantur mas etfemina.


ARISTOTLE 718 a , , ^ avupwTTOJV Kai tCov rotovTOjv ^cfwv Kara to ercpov fiepo? TTJg €TTavahi7rXaja€OJ? . VII Ot 8e 6(f>eLs ox^vovrai TrepceAtTTo/Ltevot aAAi^Aot?, ovK €)(ovai, S' opx^ts ouS' alholov, coairep e'lp-qTai TTporepov, aiSotov fxev ore ovhe GKeXrj, opx^is 8e Sta 20 TO fxrJKOs, dXXa iropovs, coartep ol l-)(Bves' Sta yap TO eivai avTOJv irpopi'qK-q ttjv <^vatv, el en eVtCTTaCTi? eytyveTO rrept tov<s opx^LS, ii/jv)(^er^ av r] yoirq §ia Tr]v ^paSvTTJTa. orrep avpL^alvei, Kai i-nl Tcov fxeya to alhoZov €)(6vTajv ayovoiTepoi yap elai Tcbv pLerpLaS^ovTCov Sta to jxtj y6vi[xov etvat to 25 airipixa to ijjv^pov, i^vx^adai Se to <f)ep6fievov Xiav jxaKpav. St' t]v fxev ovv alriav to. pikv 6p)(€is e;\;et TO. S' OVK e;^et raJv t^ipajv, et/OT^rat.

^YlepnrXeKOVTai S' aAAi^Aot? ot 6(f>€LS Std Trjv a(f)vtav TTJs TrapaTTTcoaeo)?. fMLKpo) yap irpocrapfxoTTOVTes jjioplo) Xiav jJuaKpol ovres ovk evavv 30 dpfiooTOL eluLV evret ovv ovk e-^ovai jjiopta ots TTepiXyjifjovTaL, dvTi tovtojv^ tjj vyporrjn xpcJovrat Tov aojjxaTos, TrepieXiTTopLevot dXXrjXois. Sto /cat hoKovGL ^paBvTepov aTToXveadai tcov ixdvtov, ov jjiovov Sta TO [JLTJKog Tcjv TTopoiiv dXXd Kai Sta tt^v rrepl raura cr /ceucoptav.] VIII 35 Tots" Se d-qXeoL to. Trepl ras" voTcpas aTTopijaetev av Tt? ov TpoTTov e\ei' TToXXai yap vTrevavTicoaeis ^ quae sequuntur non proprio loco posita videntur.


" Which is the place where it would have to be : 717 b 17, 18.

  • As the preceding sentence would normally mark the



portion of it in man and other such animals (i.e., the latter portion of that length of it which is doubled back).

Serpents copulate by t^^-isting round each other, VII but they have no testes and not even a penis, as I said earlier : no penis, because they have no legs either," and no testes because of their length - instead, they have passages just as fish do - since as their bodies are so very long, if there were to be yet further delay in the region of the testes, the semen would be cooled off owing to its slow rate of progress. This does in fact happen with men who have a large penis : they are less fertile than those who have a moderately large one, because the semen gets cooled off by being transported too great a distance, and cold semen is not generative. I have now stated why some animals have testes and others not.

  • [Serpents intertwine because they are not naturally fitted for placing themselves alongside each other ; their bodies are so long, and the part by which they unite is so small, that they find difficulty in achie\'ing union ; and so, as they have no parts by which they can take hold of each other, they make use of the suppleness of their bodies instead, and t\^ist around each other. On this account, they seem, too, to take longer to ejaculate than fish do, not only because of the length of the passages but also because of the intricacy of the manoeuvre.]

One may well be puzzled concerning the arrange- VIII ment of the uterus in the various female animals ; C^) sexual many instances of quite contrary arrangements female.

conclusion of the chapter, the remarks which follow are probably a supplementary note, or an alternative version, incorporated in the text.



718 a

VTTapxovcnv avrols. ovre yap tol !^q)OTOKovvTa ojxoicog ep^ei iravra, aAA' dvOpcorroi fJU€V /cat ra Tre^a 718 b TTavra Kara) rrpos rol? dpdpoL?, rd Se aeXdxT] (jdy^ t,(x>OTOKOvvra dvco Trpos roi V7Toi,d)fjiaTL, ovre rd (poroKovvra, dAA' ol fxev Ixdves Karoj Kaddnep dvdpojTTog Kal rd t,cporoKovvra rdv rerpaTTohoji', OL 8' opvides dvo), Kal oaa (voroKel tcov rerpa5 TToSojv. ov jxrjv aAA' exovcn /cat aurat at TJTrevavTidiceeis Kard Xoyov. irpdiTov /xev ydp rd ipoTOKovvra (poroKel hiatj^epovTcos' rd pikv ydp dreXi] TTpoLerai ra (La, olov ol l)(6v€S' e^co ydp cttlreXelraL Kal Xap,^dv€L av^rjOLV rd rdjv Ixdvatv. alrtov 8 orL rroXvyova ravra, Kal rovr' epyov 10 avrcijv .ojaTTep rdJv (f)vra)v el ovv ev avrols ireXeaLovpyovv, dvayKaXov oXCya rep TrXrjdeL etvai* vvv Se roaavra loxovglv ware Sok€lv <(ev)^ oiov etvai rrjv varepav eKarepav ev ye rols pLLKpols Ix^vSioif^ravra ydp TToXvyovcurard eanv, wortep Kal errl rcbv dXXoiv ra)V dvdXoyov rovroLg exovrcDV rr^v cfivcTLV, Kal ev (f)vroLS Kal ev t,cpoLS' rj ydp rov ^ <Ta> Peck, vel fortasse ^MoroKa <oin-a>.

  • <ev> Peck, unum ovum S. ev supplendum esse suspicati erant A.-W. (collato H.A. 510 b 24), Schneider.

" Selachia : the cartilaginous fishes, including the Sharks. The " fishing-frog " is not viviparous (see 754 a 26, n.).

  • The observation of Aristotle that the eggs of many organisms swell during their development, though unappreciated for many centuries, is the basis of the modern distinction between cleidoic and non-cleidoic eggs. The walls of a cleidoic egg are permeable only to matter in the gaseous state {e.g., the hen's egg). Most aquatic animals, however, lay non-cleidoic eggs, i.e., eggs which, though they have a sufficiency of organic material (such as proteins, fats, 28


occur. To begin with, not all the Vivipara have the same arrangement. All that are land-animals, including human beings, have the uterus placed low down by the pudenda, whereas the v'iviparous Selachia " have it higher up by the diaphragm. x\nd then again, the Ovipara show the same variations. Fishes have the uterus low down Uke human beings and the vi\iparous quadrupeds, whereas birds have it higher up, and so do the oWparous quadrupeds. Nevertheless, there is rhyme and reason even in these contradictory phenomena. First of all, the egglaying animals have different ways of laying their eggs, (a) Some creatures' eggs are imperfect when laid - e.g.. those of fishes, which become perfected. i.e., grow, outside the creature which produces them.^ The reason is that these animals are very prolific and this is their function," as it is that of plants ; so that if they brought the eggs to a state of perfection inside their bodies, the eggs would of necessity be few in number, whereas in actual fact they produce so many that each uterus seems to be just one mass of ^gg, at any rate in the very small fishes, which are the most prolific of all. The same is true both of those plants and of those animals which are of a corresponding nature ** in their own classes ; what carbohydrates, etc.) to make each an embryo, are insufficiently supplied with water and inorganic materials ; these they have to absorb from their environment. Hence their swelling. Though the main bulk of this is due to waterintake, it is interesting that the greater part of the copper, for example, which i.b present in the respiratory bloodpigment of the octopus at the time of hatching is derived, not from the egg as laid, but from the surrounding sea-water. See also 732 b 5, etc ' Cf. 717 ei22. " ».*., small.


718 b

ARISTOTLE ' 15 fieyedovs av^rjat? rpeTrerai els ro anepfia toijtois. OL 8 opvides Kal TO. reTpdnoha tcov (hoTOKixiv reXeia (ha tiktovctlv, d Set Trpog ro aat^eadat aKXrjpoSepfia elvai (fiaXaKoSepfjia yap ews dv av^7]aiv €)(r) eariv), ro S' oarpaKov yiverai vtto deppLorrjrog i^LKp,a^ovar]s ro vypov e/c rod yeiohovs.

20 avayKaZov ovv depfxov eivai tov tottov iv (p tovto avp-^TJaerat. roiovrog S' o Trepi ro UTTO^to/na- Kal yap rrfv rpo(f>rjv irerrei ovros. et ovv rd (ha avayKTj ev rfj varepti elvai, /cat rrjv varepav dvdyKrj Tvpos r(h v7Tol,(hjxari elvai rolg riXeia rd (hd riKrovaiy rols 8' dreXj] Karco' irpo ohov yap ovrcoS 25 earai. Kal Tre^y/ce 8e p^dXXov rj varepa Kdroi elvai rj av(o, 07T0V pLTj ri ifnToSi^et erepov epyov rrjs (jyvaeojs' Kdrco ydp avrfjg Kal ro Trepa? eariv ottov 8e ro Trepan, Kal^ ro epyov avrrj' 8' ou ro epyov. IX E;^ei 8e /cat rd t,(poroKovvra Trpds aAAi^Aa 8ta(f)opdv. rd jxev ydp ov piovov dvpa^e ^(ooroKet 30 dAAa /cat ev avrols, olov dvdpojTroL re Kal lttttoi Kal Kvveg Kal irdvra rd rpL^as e-)(ovra, Kal rojv ivvSpcov SeXcfnves re Kal (f)dXaLvat Kal rd rotavra K-qrr).

X To. 8e aeXaxf] Kal ol e)(ei's dvpa^e [xev t,cporoKovaiv , ev avroZg 8' (horoKovai Trpoirov. (horoKOvai 8e reXeiov (hov ovrojs ydp yevvdrai e/c ^ Kal Z : oni. vulg. * avr-q PSYZ*: aunj vulg.

° i.e., do not increase in size after being laid.

  • i.e., without first producing an egg internally. Aristotle knew nothing of the existence of the mammalian egg, which is a single cell of microscopic size.



would have produced increase of size is in them diverted to form seed, (b) Birds, however, and quadrupedal Ovipara lay eggs that are perfect," and these eggs for safety's sake are bound to have a hard skin (while they are still growing, they have a soft skin), and the shell is formed by heat, which evaporates the fluid from the earthy substance ; hence the place where this is to be done must of necessity be hot - a condition which is fulfilled by the region round the diaphragm, as the fact that it concocts the food shows. So, if the eggs must of necessity be within the uterus, the uterus must of necessity be alongside the diaphragm in those animals whose eggs are in a perfected condition when laid, while it must be low down in those whose eggs are imperfect when laid ; it will be advantageous so. Further, it is more natural that the uterus should be low down than high up (unless there is some other business of Nature's which prevents it), since its conclusion is down below too ; and where the conclusion is, there also the function is ; thus the uterus is where the function is.

Similarly, the Vivipara differ from one another. IX Some of them bring forth their young alive not externally only but also within themselves,*' as for instance, human beings, horses, dogs and all haired animals, also such water-animals as dolphins, whales and such cetacea. Selachia and \ipers, though they bring forth their X young alive externally, first of all produce eggs internally. And the egg they produce is a perfected one, for thus only is an animal generated from the

  • C'f. H.A. 566 b 2, where Aristotle explains this to mean those creatures which have no gills, but a blowhole.



718 b

35 rov (hod to ^coov, i^ areAous" Se ovdev. dvpat,e 8e ovK cooroKovoL 8ta to ^v^pa rrjv (f)vcnv etvat /cat XI ovx MS TLveg cf)aoL depjxd. fiaXaKoSepfxa yovv ra (ha yevv(hatv' 8ta yap to elvat oXiyodepfxa ov ^rjpaLV€L avT(hv Tj (f)vaLS TO 'ia-)(aTov. ^la piev ovv 719 a TO ijjvxpa elvai /xaXaKoSeppia yew(haiy Sta Se to piaXaKoSeppLa ov dvpat,e' hi€(f)0eipeTO yap dv.

Orav 06 to ^(hov e/c tov (hov yLyvrjTai, tov avTov TpoTTov Ta TrAeiCTxa ytyverat ovTrep iv toIs opviaiv KaTa^aivei yap AcaTCo/ /cat yiyveTai ^(ha Trpos toIs 5 apdpoLs, Kaddirep /cat ev" Toi? e^ d-pxT)? evdvs ^(poTOKovaiv. Sto Kal ttjv voTepav to. TocavTa ex^t avopiotav /cat rot? ^ojOTO/cot? /cat rot? (hoTOKOis, Ota TO dpi(f)OTep(x)v pieTex^iv tcjv elScov /cat yap irpos TO) v7To^(i)p,aTL exovai /cat /caro) TrdprjKovaav TTavTa TOi aeXaxcoSr). Set Se /cat Tiept TavTrjs /cat 10 Trept Tojt' d'AAcuv vcTTepcbv, ov TpoTvov exovaiv, e/c re T(ov avaTopLOJv Tedecopr^Kevai /cat rcDv loTopLwv. ojoTe Std /iei' to (hoTOKa etvat TeXei(ov (h(hv dvoi €X€t, Std Se TO t,(x)OTOKeZv KdTio, /cat dpij)OTip(ov pt.eTeiX'^cfiaaLV.

Td S evdvs t,cpOTOKovvTa rrduTa /cciTCtc ou ydp ^ TO SY : om. vulg. ^ ged vid. p. 562.

' Kal iv Z : eV Y : koX vuler.

" According to Aristotle, Empedocles had said that those animals which are hottest live in the water to counteract the excess of heat in their constitution {De respir. 477 b 1 IF.).

  • The Dissections, in seven Books, is no longer extant. Aristotle several times refers to the "diagrams in the Dissections " and the like {e.g. 746 a 14), and it was no doubt a collection of material with anatomical diagrams prepared for use in the lecture-room. Jaeger (Aristotle, Eng. trans., 336), following V. Rose, describes it as an anatomical atlas. See also. Jaeger, Diokles von Karystos, 165-167. 32


egg : nothing is generated from an imperfect egg. The reason why they do not lay their eggs externally is because thev are by nature cold creatures, not hot, as some persons allege." Anyway, the eggs they XI produce are soft-skinned - because the creatures have so httle heat in them that their natural constitution does not dry oiFthe outermost part of the eggs. Thus the coldness of the creatures is the reason why the eggs they produce are soft-skinned, and the fact that the eggs are soft -skinned is the reason they are not produced externally : if they were, they would come to grief.

When the animal is formed out of the egg, the process of formation is for the most part the same as for birds : (the eggs) descend, and the young animals are formed close by the pudenda, as occurs also in creatures which are viviparous right from the outset. Another result of this is that in animals such as we are now discussing the uterus differs both from that of the Vivipara and from that of the Ovipara, since they have a share in both these groups ; that is to say, in all the Selachians the uterus is at the same time close by the diaphragm and also extends along do\vnwards. (However, to ascertain the arrangement of the uterus of the Selachians and other kinds as well, the Dissections ^ should be inspected and also the Researches '^). Thus the Selachians have their uterus high up because they are oviparous and lay perfected eggs, while they have it low down because they are Niviparous ; thus they have a share in both.

Animals which are viviparous from the outset '^ all have the uterus low down, since they have no natural

' H.A. 510 b 5 ff. " See above, 718 b 30.


ARISTOTLE 719 a e/XTToSi^et rrjs <j)va€OJs ovhev epyov, ovhe Sitto 15 yoveZ. Trpo? Se toutoi? ahvvarov t,cha yiyveadai TTpos Totg V7Tol,a)[xaaLv to, /xev yap e/x^pua ^dpos cx^i'V dvayKalov Kal Kivrjaiv, 6 Se totto^ eTTLKaipos iov Tov l,rjv ovK dv Svvano ravd' vrreveyKelv . en 8' dvayKT] hvaroKiav etvat, Sid to p-rJKo? TTJg (f)opd?, €7T€L Kal vvv eiTL Tcov yvvatKciJv, idv rrepl tov tokov 20 avaaTTaaaxTt y^aap.'qcrdpLevai rj tl tolovtov ttoltjaaaai, 8vaTOKOvaLv. /cat Keval S ovaat at voTepai dvu) TTpoaLaTafjLevaL TTviyovaiv Kal yap dvayKT] Tas /xeAAoucras" ^coov e^eiv laxvpoTepas eivat, Sto aapKcoScLg elalv at roiavrat Trdaat, at 8e Trpo? to) VTTot,(x>piaTi^ vp-evcoSeis. Kal in' avTcov 8e tojv 25 Styoi'tav TTOiovpiivctiv t,iLa)v <f)avep6v tovto avjx^alvov TO, fiev yap chd dvoj Kal €v toj TrXayLco La)(ovai, Ta Se ^oia ev tu) Kara) fiepei ttjs vaTepas. At' T]v fxev ovv aiTcav inrevavTioj? k^pvai ra rrepi ras" VGTepas eVia tcov l^a)a)v, Kal oXcos Std rt toi? jaei/ KdTCo toXs Se avoj 77^6? toj VTrot,ojpLaTi etcrtv, eipT^rat. XII 30 AtoTi Se ras" /^tep- voTepag exovai Trdvsa ivTos, Tovs S' opx^LS TO, /xev eKTog Ta S evros", atrior tou juev ras" voTipas ivTos etvat rraatv, ort ev raurat? eart to yivofjievov, o Setrat ^yAa/cT^S" /cat aKeTrrjs' Kal 7Teifjea>?, 6 8' ckto? tov awfiaTog totto's ev^Xa ^ sic PZ : Tots vrro^atftaaiv vulg. * /cai oKemjs oin. PZH, A.-W.

They omit the internally oviparous stage. " See Introd, § 62, and n.



function that prevents this, nor do they produce their young by the two-stage process." Besides, it is impossible for young animals to be formed near the diaphragm ; embryos are bound to be hea\y and to move about, and that part of the body is a vital spot and would not be able to put up vvith such things. Further, (if the uterus were placed high,) parturition would of necessity be difficult on account of the distance to be covered, since even as it is, in the case of women, if they draw up the uterus at the time of parturition by yav\-ning or by doing something of the sort, difficulty in delivery is the result. Even when empty the uterus produces a stifling sensation if ' pushed upwards. Besides, a uterus which is destined to contain (not an egg but) an actual animal must of necessity be a stronger thing ; that is why the uterus of all viviparous animals is fleshy, whereas in those cases where it is near the diaphragm the uterus is membranous. This is clearly to be seen in the case of those animals which produce their young by the two-stage process : the eggs are carried high up and towards one side, whereas the young creatures are carried in the lower part of the uterus.

We have now explained the reason why contrary arrangements of the uterus are found in certain animals, and in general why in some the uterus is placed low down and in others high up by the diaphragm.

We have seen too that while all animals have their XII uterus inside, some have their testes inside and others re^n^rkf*^ outside. The reason whv the uterus is alwavs inside is that it is the container for the voung creature while it is being formed, and this needs protection, shelter, and concoction,^ which the outer part of the body 35

ARISTOTLE 3o 7TTO? /cat IpVXpOS. OL O OpX^iS TOig fl€V eVTOS TOt? 719 b S e/CTO?^* Sta <(Se)^ to Setadai Kal rovrovg OKeTn)^ /cat /caAujLt/xaro? Tr/ad? re aojrrjpiav Kal Trpos t7]v tov aTTepfiaros ttci/jlv {dSvparov yap iifjvypievovs /cat TTeTrrjyorag dvaarrdadai /cat TrpoteadaL Tr]v yovqv), [StoTrep]* oCTOt? ei' (jiavepo) elalv ol op-^ei?, €)(Ovai 5 (JKerrrjv SepjJLaTiKrjv T'qv KaXovjJLevrjv oa^^av oaois S' 7^ rod Sep/xaro? (f)vaL? ivavTiovrac Sta okXt]porrjra Trpos to (jltj TrepLXrjTTTLKrjv etvai jLtr^Se jU.aAOaKr]v /cat Sep/xart/o^v/ otov rot? r' t^^uoiSe? €)(ovGi TO Sep/xa /cat rot? (fioXihcoTov , Tovrotg S' avay/catov • 10 evrds" €)(€iv. StoTrep ot re 8eX(f)lves /cat oaa rciiv KrjTCoSa)V opx^i'? €)(ovcnv, ii'rog €)(ovgl, /cat ra (hoTOKa /cat Terpdrroha tCjv (jioXihojTcov . /cat to Tctjv opvidoiv Se SepfJLa aKXrjpov, (Lare Kara fieyedos dav[XfX€Tpov etvat TreptAajSetv, /cat TavTqv aiTiav eivat TraCTt toutois" Trpo? Tat? elprfpievai'S rrpoTepov 15 e/c Tojv Trept to.? o;^eta? avpL^aivovTUiv dvayKaiojv. Sta TT7V avTTjv S' atViav /cat <) eAe'^a? /cat c) ix^vog exovoLV ivTos tov9 opx^t?- ovSe yap tovtols ev<j)vkg TO Sepfxa -npos to X'^P'-'^'^ov e;^etv to oKeTraaTiKov fxopiov.

[KetvTai Se /cat ttj deaei virevavTiOis at voTepai TOLS T€ ^(X)OTOKOVaiV iv aVTOL£ Kal TOL£ COOTOKOVGL 20 dvpat,€, Kal tovtojv Tot? Te Ta? vuTepa's exovai /caTco /cat TOt? Trpd? to* VTrot^cop.aTi, olov TOt? ^ eKTOS rols S' eWds SZ.

  • sic interpungunt A.-W., qui et <Se> addunt.

^ SioTrep seclusi.

  • jUTjSe . . . BepfiaTiK-qv secludunt A.-W,

" Not in the Generation of Animals ; but see 717 b 29. 36


cannot provide, being easily injured and cold. The testicles, however, are inside in some animals but outside in others : since, however, they also need shelter and covering to keep them safe and to secure concoction for the semen (for if they have been exposed to cold and rendered stiff they cannot be drawn up and emit the semen), those animals whose testes are in the open have a covering of skin over them known as the scrotum ; while those animals the nature of whose skin is so hard that it is not amenable to this arrangement, and cannot be used for a WTapping and is not soft or Uke ordinary skin (e.g., animals whose skin is like that of fish, and those whose skin is made of horny scales) - they must of necessity have their testes inside. On this account the dolphins and those cetacea which possess testes have them inside ; so do those horny-scaled animals which are o\-iparous and four-footed. Birds, too, have hard skin, which will not accommodate itself to the size of the testes and make a wrapping for them, and this makes another reason why in all these cases the testes are inside in addition to the reasons (previously mentioned") due to the necessary exigencies of copulation. And for this selfsame reason the testes are also inside in the elephant and in the hedgehog ; the skin of these two animals, as of the others, is not well adapted for having the protective part separate. [Contrary positions of the uterus are found in those animals which are internally vi\iparous and in those which are externally oviparous ; and again in some of the latter class it is placed low down, in others by the diaphragm, as for instance in fishes on the one

  • The following paragraph is simply a hash-up of parts of the preceding chapters.


ARISTOTLE LX"vGL Trpos" re rou? opviuag /cat ra cooroKa tcov TerpaTToScov, Kal rots /car' d[jicf)OT€pov? rovg rpo7TOV? yewoJaLv, ev iavroXg [xev (horoKovcriv , els Se TO <f)av€p6v t,a}OTOKovcnv. ra [xev yap ^a)o 25 roKovvTa Kai ev avrois Kal e/CTo? ctti ttJ? yaarpog e;^et ra? varepag, otov dvOpcoTTOs Kal jSou? /cat Acuojr /cat rdAAa ra rotaura- Trpo? yap rrjv tcov i/ji^pvojv aiorripiav Kal av^rjaiv avpL^epei [xrjdev eTTelvai ^dpog cttI Tat? varepatg.Y Xlli Ectti Se Kal erepos 6 TTopos 8t' oi) t) tc ^y]pd 30 TTepLTTCoacg e^ep^eraL Kal St' o5 i^ i5ypd TouTot? TTttcrtv. Std exovaiv alSola rd rocavra Trdvra Kal ra dppeva Kal ra drjXea, Kad* ct^ eKKpiverat to TrepirTCDjLta TO vypov Kal roZg /xev appeal to anepp^a, rots Se d-qXeGi to KV-qpia} ovtos 8' eVdvco /cat iv Tot? TTpoadioL's VTrdpxei 6 vopos (rov)* Trjg ^rjpds Tpo(f)rjs.

35 [ocra S' (LotokcZ p,€v aTeAe? 8' <^oi'> otov ocrot tcov 720 a l-)(dvcov ojoTOKovaiv, ovtol 8' oi5p( WTrd ttj yaarpl dAAd 77/30? TTJ da(j)Vi e)(OvaL Ta? varepas' ovt€ yap ipL7Tohit,eL Tj Tov (jjov av^riais, 8td to e^co TeAetovadaL Kal vpo'Cevai to av^avop^evov -Y 6 tc TTopog 6 avTos ioTL [/cat]" ev toi? p-rj e)(ovai yevvr^TCKov 5 at8otov Tcp^ TT]? iyjpds Tpo(f)'qs, Tracri TOt? (Lotokols j Kal TOLS €)(ovaLV avTuyv kvotlv, olov Talg ;^eAcovats"* TTJs yeveaeojg yap eve/cev, ov Trjs tov vypov nepiTTcopiaTos eKKpiaecos, elal SlttoI ol TTopoi' hid 8e TO vypdv elvai tt^v (f>vaiv tov OTTeppiaTOs /cat rj Trjs ^ Kelvrai . . . varepaLs secludit Platt.

^ a Em : o vulg. ^ rd KaTafjiTjvta A.-W.

  • <Tov> Aldus, A.-W.

^ oaa 8' . . . au^avo/ievoi^ secludit Platt.

  • /cai seel. A.-W. ' Tw Z : o vulg.



hand as against birds and o\"iparous quadrupeds on the other ; and then again it is different in those aniniak which produce their young by both of the two methods, \'iz., which are internally o\iparous and outwardly \'i\i parous. Those animals which are both internally and externally vi\iparous have their uterus placed against the abdomen, as for iastance man, ox, dog, and other such animals, since it is expedient for the safety and growth of the embryo that no weight should be put upon the uterus.] In all these animals the passage through which the XIII solid residue issues is other than that through which the fluid issues. On this account all such animals, both male and female, have pudenda by which the fluid residue is voided, and thereby too in males the semen passes out and in the females the fetation.** This passage is situated higher up than the passage for the solid nourishment and in front of it. [Those animals which lay eggs, but lay imperfect ones, e.g., the o\"iparous fishes, have their uterus not under the abdomen but by the loin, since the growth of the egg causes no obstruction, because the groAnng object icomes to its perfection and makes its advance outside Ithe animal.] In all those animals which have no pudendum which serves for generation, this passage is the same as that for the solid nourishment, \-iz., in all the 0\ipara, including those 0\ipara which have a bladder, e.g., the tortoises. The existence of tno passages, it must be remembered, is for the sake of generation, not for the sake of voiding the fluid residue, and it is only because the semen is fluid in " See Introd. § 56.

  • This sentence is a continuation of the previous interpolation.


720 a

ARISTOTLE vypdg rpo(f>rjs TrepirTcocn? KeKoiviovrjKe rod avrov 10 TTopov. SrjXov 8e rovro e/c rov arreppia pL,kv Travra (f>€p€Lv TO. l,(pa, TTepLTTCopia Se p-rj Trdai yiveaOai vypov .

'Evret ovv Set koI tovs tcov appevcov TTopovs Tous" OTTeppLariKovg epr^peiadai Kal /x->) TrXavdadai, Kal TOLS driXeai rag varepas, rovro §' dvayKaXov 7] TTpos ra TTpoadia rod acLpiaros tj Trpos rd Trpavij 15 avpL^aivetv, rols p^ev ^cooroKois Sid rd epi^pva iv rolg TTpoaOiois o.l varepai, rots 8' (porOKois Trpos rfj oCT^yt Kal rot? rrpaveaiv oaa 8' ojoroKrjaavra €v avroLS t,cporoK€.i CKro?, ravra 8 dpi<f>orepa}s ex^i- 8ta ro piereLXrjcj^evai dpLiporepcov /cat elvai Kal ^cporoKa Kal cooroKa' rd puev ydp dvio ttjs 20 varepas, Kal fj yiyverai rd (pd, vtto ro vrrol^copLa vpos rfj 6a(f)m earl Kal rol? Trpaviat, Trpo'Covaa^ 8e Karco IttI rfj yaarrpr ravrrj ydp l^cporoKet yjSrj. 6 8e TTopos ei? Kal rovrois Trjg re ^rjpdg- TTeptrrcoaecos Kal rrj'S ox^tag- ovdev ydp e^et rovrojv alSotov, 25 KaOdnep e'iprjrai rrporepov, aTTTjprrjpievov. opiOLCOs 8' exovai Kal ol tcDv dppevcov TTopoi, Kal rdv e^ovrojv Kal rcov p-r) exovrojv opx^ts, rals rdJv (horoKCJv varepais' rrdaL ydp Trpos rols Tipavecn TTpoa7Te(f)VKaai Kal Kard rov rorrov rov^ rrjs pa^eo)?- Set piev ydp p,r) TrXavdadaL aAA' ehpaCovg elvat, roLOvros 8' 30 o OTTtadev rorrog- ovros ydp ro avvexes rrapexei Kal rrjv ardaiv. rdls p-ev ovv evrog exovai rovs opxets evdvs epTjpeiapievoi elulv ldp,a rots TTopoig],^ Kal rots

^ irpoiovaa Platt, Trpo'Cova-rjs vulg. : cf. 719 a 7, H.A. 511 a 7 Seqq. : Trpo'Covarjs Se koltu) Sus.

  • Tov Z : om. vulg.

^ dij.a TOLS TTopots seel. Platt. 40


nature that the residue from the fluid nourishment shares the use of the same passage. This is clear from the fact that although all animals produce semen, fluid residue is not formed in all of them.

Now in males the seminal passages must have a fixed position and not stray about, and the same is true of the uterus in females ; and this fixed position must of necessity be either towards the front or the back of the body. Hence, (a) in the \'i\ipara the uterus is in front, on account of the embryo ; (6) in the Ovipara it is by the loin and at the back ; (c) in those animals which begin bv producing eggs within themselves and later bring their young forth externally, both positions are found combined, because the animals share the characteristics of both classes ; they are viviparous and oviparous ahke ; thus, the upper portion of the uterus, in which the eggs are formed, is below the diaphragm by the loin, and towards the back ; but its continuation is lower down, by the abdomen, for from this point onwards the production of live young begins. In these animals also there is one passage only for the solid residue and for copulation ; none of them has a pudendum projecting from the body, as has been said before. What is true of the uterus in Ovipara is true also of the passages in the males, both those which have testes and those which have not. In all of them the passages are fastened towards the back near the region of the spine ; fastened, because they may not stray about, but must have a settled position, which is just what the back part of the body provides ; it gives continuity and stability. Indeed, in those animals which have their testes inside, the passages acquire their fixed position at 41

ARISTOTLE 720 a CKTos o oyiOLOiS' etT anavTioaiv ets" ev Tipos rov tov aiSoLov TOTTov. o/xotws" Se Acai Tot? SeX(f)iaiv ot, TTopoL e)(ovaiv dXXa rov? opx^tS' exovai KCKpvfi35 ju-evous" V7TO to Trept rrjv yaarepa Kvros.

Ucog fiev ovv exovai rfj deaet Trepi to. [xopia ra 720 b (JvvTeXovvra irpog rrjv yeveaiv, koL hia rivas alrias, elpiQTat, .

XIV Tojv 8 ctAAcov ^cpcov Tcov dvalfxcov ovx 6 avros rpoTTOs Ttov jjLopLOJv Tcjv TTpos Tr]v yevcGiv avv TeXovvroiv ovre rot? ivalfioLS' ovd^ eavrols. eari Se 5 yevr] rerrapa rd Xonrd, ev fiev to tG>v pLoXaKOG TpaKCov, SevTepov Se to tmv piaXaKLOJV, TpiTOV Se to TOJV eVTOpiOiV, /cat T€TapTOV TO TWV ooTpaKoheppLCtiv (tovtcdv 8e TTcpl p,€V TrdvTiov dSrjXov, Ta 8e TrAetcrra OTi ov^ crurSua^erat <f>av€p6v Tiva 8e avvioTaTai TpoTTOv, VGTepov XeKTeov) . Ta 8e piaXaKoaTpaKa 10 avv8vd^€Tai piev wairep ra 07nadovpr]TLKd, OTav to pukv VTTTLov TO 8e Ttpave's eTraXXd^r] ra ovpala- tol^ yap VTTTioig Trpo? Ta Trpavrj eTn^atveLV ipiTroSH^ei Ta ovpaia pLaKpdv e^ovTa ttjv dirdpTTjoiv tcov tttcpvyicov. exovai 8' ol piev dppeveg XeiTTOvs Tropovs dopiKovs, at 8e diqXeiai vaTepas vpievojhei'S Trapd 15 TO evTepov, evdev Kal evdev iaxt-apievas , ev atg eyXV yiveTai to coov. Ta 8e p,aXdKia avpiTrXeKeTai piev Kara to aTopa, dvTepeihovTa Kal SiaiTTVTTOVTa TO.? TrXeKTdvas , avpiTrXeKeTai 8e tov TpoTTov tovtov e^ dvdyKrjs' tj yap <j>vais Trapd to aTopia ttjv reXevT'r]V TOV vepiTTcopiaTos avviqyaye Kapupaaa, Kad 20 dTTcp e'ipriTai TTpoTepov \ev rot? Trepi 'tcov popiojv 1 oil vulg., S : om. PY, Platt.

" Snails are the exception (762 a 33). 42


the very outset [at the same time as the passages] ; and similarly in those animals whose testes are external. Afterwards they meet and unite towards the region of the pudendum. The arrangement of the passages is the same as this in dolphins, although their testes are hidden below the abdominal cavity.

We have now described the situation of the parts which are concerned with generation in the blooded animals and have stated the causes.

In the other class of animals, viz., the bloodless XIV ones, the manner of the parts concerned with genera- bloodless tion is quite different from what it is in the blooded animals. ones ; and what is more they differ among themselves. We have here four groups still left to deal with : (1) Crustacea, (2) Cephalopods, (3) Insects, (4) Testacea (with regard to all of these the facts are obscure, but it is plain that most of them do not copulate " ; as for the manner in which they arise, we must describe this later on).^ (1) The (i) CrusCrustacea copulate as the retromingent animals do : one lies prone and the other supine and they fit their tail-parts one tp the other. The males are prevented from mounting the females belly to back by their tail-parts which have long flaps attached to them. The males have narrow seminal passages, and the females have a membranous uterus by the side of the gut, divided on either side, and in this the egg is formed. (2) The Cephalopods copulate by the XV • mouth, pushing against each other and intertwining (2) Cephatheir tentacles. This manner of copulation is due to necessity, because nature has bent the end of the residual passage so as to bring it round by the side of the mouth, as I have previously said [in the treatise

  • Book III, ell. 11.


720 b

ARISTOTLE Aoyot?]/ €^66 8' 7] drjXeia fxev varepiKov yiopiov (pavepios ^v eKaarcp rovrcvv ra>v t^cpcov (hov yap tcr;^ei to pbev Trpcorov dStopiarov, erreLra StaKpivofjLevov yiverai ttoXXo., /cat dTTortKrec eKaarov rovTOJv areXe?, KadaTrep /cat ol (poTOKovvres rajv 25 LX^vaJv. 6 Se TTopos 6 avTos rod 7TepLTTa>[iaTos /cat Tov varepLKov piopiov /cat roZs /xaAa/coarpa/cois' /cat TouTots" [eCTTt yap fj tov dopov d(f)LrjaL Sta tov^ TTopov'Y TOVTO* S' earlv iv rols virrioi? rod crcufiaros, fj TO KeXvcjios d(f)€arT]Ke /cat t^ ddXarra eio'epx^Tai. 8i6 6 ouvSuao/.tos" Kara tovto yLverai 30 TO) appevL irpo's riqv drjXeiav ^vayKatov yap, etnip a<jn,'qai rC" 6 dpprjv etVe anepfia etVe puopiov etVe dXXrjv Tim 8wa/xtv, /caTO. toi' varepiKov iropov TTXriaidt^eiv. tj 8e t^? TrXeKTdvrjs rod dppevo^ Sta Toy avXov Stecrt? eTri TtDv TroAuTrdSo)!^, fj (f)acrlv 6x^V€LV TrXeKravT) ol aAtet?, avp^TrXoKris X'^P^ eariv, 35 dAA' ovx (^9 opydvov p^pT^CTt/xou rrpos rrjv yeveatv e^aj yap can rod TTopov /cat rod awfxaros.

1 om. PZ, seel. A.-W. • * TO Bekker per typothetae errorem. ^ seclusi. * TOVTO Peck, raura vulg.

^ Ti PZ : om. vule:.

» 684 a 15, 685 a 1. f- C/. 718 b 11.

" Cf. P. A. 684 a 17 if.

■^ See Introd. § 18. " Part " does not necessarily imply a limb, and the fact that it is mentioned here between semen and dynamis suggests that " limb " is not the meaning here [cf. P. A. 648 a 2, where blood is described as a "part"). All the same, Aristotle may here be intending to use " part " in the sense of limb, for in three genera of the Octopoda the hectocotylized arm (see note below, on 1. 32) becomes detached from the male and remains within the 44


on The Parts of Animals].'^ The female of each of these animals has a part like a uterus, which is plain to be seen ; it contains an eg^ which at first is indistinct,^ but later divides up and is formed into a number of eggs, each of which the creature deposits in an imperfect state, just as the oviparous fishes do. In these animals as well as in the Crustacea the passage which serves for the residue and connects with the uterus-like part, is one and the same (it is on the under surface of the body, where the " mantle" Ues open and the sea water enters in '^). Hence it is through this that the male effects copulation with the female, since if the male discharges anything, be it semen, or some part,** or some other substance,* he must of necessity unite with the female through the passage which leads to the uterus. In the case of the Octopuses, the male inserts his tentacle through the funnel of the female, and the fishermen allege that copulation is effected by means of this tentacle,^ but its purpose is really to link the two creatures together ; it has no instrumental use so far as generation is concerned, because it is outside the passage (of the male) and outside his body.^ mantle of the female. Aristotle however does not explicitly mention this detaching of the arm.

  • Dynamis ; see Introd. §§ 23 ff.

  • This refers to the remarkable phenomenon in the Dibranchiata of the " hectocotylization " of one of the arms of the male, bv means of which copulation is effected, as is stated in H.A.'52'l a 5 ff., 541 b 9, 544 a 8 ff. Here, however, Aristotle denies that the arm is so used, and his argument is not unreasonable, for it is not yet known how the arm becomes charged with the spermatophores. For details and diagrams see P. Pelseneer, MoUusca (tr. G. Bourne), 323 ff.

' i.e., not a part of the main bulk of the body and not directly connected with the seminal passage.


ARISTOTLE 720b .17 / ov Eviore 0€ avvSvdl^ovTai Kal irrl ra Trpavrj ra 721 a /xaXoLKia' TTorepov Se yeveaeojs X^P*-^ 1 ^'•' o,XXr]v aiTiav, ovdev ajTrrat ttco.

XVI Tcov S' evTO/jiCov ra fxev ayvSya^erai, /cai t^ ye veais avTOJv earlv ck t,a)U)v avvojvvixcov, Kaddrrep €7n TCOV evaificov, olov at re aKpiSes Kal ol rer 5 Ttye? /cat ra ^aAayyta /cat ot a(/)rJK€? /cat oi jtxyp /ZT^/ce?, TO. 8e (TDi'Sua^erat /xev /cat yewoicrti/, ovx op-oyevi] o avrol^ dXXd OKwXrjKag p.6vov, ovSe yiyvovrai e/c t,d)a)v dAA' e/c ar)7Top.€va>v vypajv, rd Se ^r^pcov, olov at re i/jvXXai /cat at p.vlaL /cat at KavdaplSes' rd S' out' e/c ^(pcov yivovrai ovre 10 CTyvSua^oi^rat, Kaddnep ipbTTiSes re /cat Kcovojires /cat TToAAo, roiavra yevq. rcbv 8e avvhval,op.4va)v iv Tots" TrXeiaroL^ rd drjXea p^eit^o) rcov dppevojv ear IV. TTopovs 8e to. dppeva dopcKovg ov ^atVerat e)(ovra. d^irjat he cos errl rd rrXeZcrrov elrreLV rd dppev elg ro dfjXv ovSev pbopiov, dXXd rd drjXv els 15 TO dppev Karojdev dvco. reded)piqraL he rouro cttI TToXXwv, [/cat TTepl rov dva^aiveiv (Laavra}s,J rov vavrLOV 8 en dXcycov oiare he yevei hieXeZv, ovttco crvvecvparai. ax^hdv he rovro /cat eirl rd)v (ho roKOjv l)(dvojv rwv rrXeiarcov earl, /cat eVt rcov rerpaTTohcDV Kal woroKcov rd ydp OrjXea p.eil,co 20 Tiov dppevcov earl hid rd avp,c/)€peLV^ irpos rdv yivo ^ seclusi. ^ avn<f>ep€tv PZ : ovfi.(f>epov vulg.

" See Caleg. 1 a 5 " Things are called ' synonymous ' when their name is common and the logos of the essence corresponding to the name is the same." For o^diwjxov, see note on 726 b 24. A useful nmemonic is : owtLvvfiov is same 46


Sometimes too Cephalopods copulate while both creatures are lying prone, but it has not yet been observed whether this is done for the purpose of generation or for some other cause.

(3) As regards Insects, some of them copulate, and XVI in those cases the young are generated from animals ^^^ insects. which are of the same name " and nature as themselves, just as happens in the blooded creatures ; instances of this are locusts, cicadas, spiders, wasps, ants. Others, although they copulate and generate, generate not creatures of the same kind as themselves but only larvae ^ ; and these insects moreover are not produced out of animals at all but out of putrefying fluids (in some cases, solids) ; instances of this are fleas, flies, cantharides. Others neither are produced out of animals nor do they copulate ; such are gnats, mosquitoes "^ and many similar kinds of insects. In most of the sorts which copulate the females are larger than the males ; and the males do not seem to have any seminal passages. Speaking generally, the male does not insert any part into the female ; but the female does so into the male upwards from below : this has been observed in many instances, [and similarly as concerns mounting,] the opposite in a few ; but we have not yet enough observations to enable us to classify them distinctly. We find that the females are larger than the males not only in Insects but also in most of the oviparous fishes, and likewise in those quadrupeds which are oviparous ; the reason being that the size is an advantage to them when a great bulk is produced inside in name and same in nature ; ofKLvvfiov is same in name but not in nature. * See Introd. § 77.

' It is not possible to say exactly what insects are meant.


ARISTOTLE 721a ,.,,.,.. , . .

fievov avTOis vno tojv a)cov oyKov ev ttj Kvrjaet.

rot? Se d-qXecTLv avTwv to raXs varepaig dvdXoyov fiopLov iaxi'O'l^^vov iarl rrapd to evrepov, axnrep /cat rot? d'AAois', iv <L iyyiyveraL rd Kvrjp.ara.

SrjXov Se rovTO eiri re rijjv aKpiSajv, Kal oaa p.i 25 yedog avraJv €X€i, avvhvdl,€<jdaL TrecfyvKorcov rd yap TrXelara fXLKpd Xlav rcbv ivTOjJicov iartv.

Ta fjiev ovv irept t7)v yeveaiv opyava rolg ^cijots", 776/31 OJV OVK IXe^ddt] TTpOTepOV, TOVTOV ^X^l TOV rpoTTOv Tcbv 8' ojXOLOfJiepcbv drreXeicjidT] irepl yovrjg Kai yaXaKTOS , vepl d>v /catpds" eariv eiTrelv, rrepl 30 /^ev yovrjs rjSr], Trepl 8e ydXaKros ev rots ixop-evots.

XVII To. jjiev yap Trpoterac (f>avepa)s anepfxa^ rcbv ^cpcov, olov oaa avrcbv evaL/xa ttjv (f)vaiv iari, rd 8' evTOfia /cat rd jUaAa/cia TTorepcos, dhrjXov. axjre rovTo decoprjreov, TTorepov iravra rrpoteraL aTrlppia rd dppeva t] oi5 iravra, /cat et p.rj Trdvra, 8ia TiV 3") alriav rd fxev rd 8' ov' Kal rd drjXea 8e TTorepov 721 b CTU/x^ctAAerat anepfjia ri ^ ov, /cat et jxr] avepfia, TTorepov ovh^ dXXo ovdev, 'q crvfji^aXXerac fxev ri, ov OTTeppia Be. en Se /cat rd TTpo'Ce/Jieva airepp^a ri.

avpL^dXXerai, Sid rod aiTeppiarog npos rrjv yeveaiv aKerrreov, /cat oAcus" Tt? eanv rj rov aneppiaros (fivaig 5 /cat rj raJv KaXovpLevojv KarapirjVLCov, oaa ravrrjv rrjv vyporrjra tt poter ai rcbv t^cLcuv.

Ao/cet Se TTavra yiveadai e/c GneppLaros, ro Se ' anepfMa om. SY*.

" It will be noticed that Aristotle omits to describe the Testacea, which would naturally follow at this point. The 48


them by the eg'gs at the time of breeding. In the females the part that answers to the uterus is divided and extends alongside the gut, as in other animals ; this is where the fetations are formed. This can be clearly seen in locusts and in any insect whose nature it is to copulate, provided it is large enough ; most insects however are too small." Such is the manner of animals' instrumental parts connected vvith generation, which I had not dealt with in my previous treatise. ** Of the " uniform " '^ parts, semen and milk were there left undescribed, and the time has now come to speak of these. We v\ill deal with semen without delay, and with milk in the chapters which are to follow.*^ Some animals discharge semen plainly, for instance XVII those which are by nature blooded animals ; but it '^^'""â– is not clear in which way Insects and Cephalopods do so. Here then is a point we must consider : Do all male animals discharge semen, or not all of them ? and if not all, why is it that some do and some do not ? and further. Do females contribute any semen, or not ? and if they contribute no semen, is there no other substance at all which they contribute, or is there something else which is not semen ? And there is a further question which we must consider : What is it which those animals that discharge semen contribute towards generation by means of it ? and generally, what is the nature of semen, and (in the case of those animals which discharge this fluid) what is the nature of the menstrual discharge .^ It is generally held that all things are formed and Theor>.

reason is that, according to him, they do not copulate : see 731 b 8 ff. » D« partibus.

' See Introd. § 19. <* Book IV, ch. 8.




ARISTOTLE CTxrep/xa e/c rcuv yevvcovrajv. Slo rod avrov Xoyov eoTL, TTorepov /cai to drjXv /cat to dppev Trpotevrai^ ajJLcpa) â– ^ OoLTepov pcovov, Kal TTOTepov amo rravTos 10 aTTepx^Tat, rod acopLaros t) ouk dno TravTOS' evXoyov yap, el pL-rj oltto Travro^, /^^S' (xtt' dpi(f)OT€pa>v Tcov yevvcjVTOJV. hionep e7TLaK€TTT€ov, eTreihrj (j>aaL TLveg ttTTO TTavTog dinevat tov adj/Ltaros", Trepl tovtov TTU)? e)(€L TTpOJTOV. eOTL he aX^hoV, ols dv TLS XPV~ aaiTO reKpiripioLS ojs dcf)' CKaaTov tcDv pbopioiv aiTLOVTog TOV OTTeppiaTOs^ TeTTapa, TrpcoTov p.ev rj a(f)oSp6T'qs TTJg rjSovrjs' pLaXXov yap tjSv irXeov TavTO yivopLevov rrddos, TrXeov he to Tracrt TOt? pLopioig Tj TO evl rj oXiyoLS avpi^aZvov avTcbv. ctl TO €K KoXo^dJv KoXo^d yiveodaL' hid puev ydp to TOV pLoplov evhees etvat ov /3aSt^etv arrepp-a ev20 Teudev 0a<Ttv, odev S' dv pur] eXdjj, tovto ox»/x/3aivetv fXT) yiveadai. irpos he tovtois olI opioioTrjTes irpos Tovg yevvTjaavTas- yivovTai ydp eoLKOTes, ojoTrep^ Kal oXov TO crcDjua, Kal pbopia piopiois' e'nrep ovv Kal TO) oXo)* acTtov ttjs opiOLorrjTO? to d(f>^ oXov eXdelv TO aneppia, Kal tois piopLOLs a'lTLOv dv e'irj to ^ irpotevTou PSZ* : irpoterai vulg. ^ <x)S . . . airipixaros om. PZ.

^ uxjrrep om. P. * TO) oAoi Z : TOV oXov vulg.

" This is a view which is found in the remarkable Hippocratic treatise tt. 70^17? ktX. 3 and 8 (vii. 474 and 480 Littre), and seems also to have been held by Democritus (see Diels, Vorsokr.^ 68 A 141 and 68 B 32). It closely resembles the hypothesis (" pangenesis ") which was put forward by Darwin, that every imit of an organism contributes its share to the germ of the future offspring ; in other words, that the 50


come to be out of semen, and semen comes fromofpanthe parents. -And so one and the same inquiry will examined. include the two questions : (1) Do both the male and the female discharge semen, or only one of them ? and (2) Is the semen drawn from the whole of the parent's body" or not ? - since it is reasonable to hold that if it is not drawn from the whole of the body it is not drawn from both the parents either. There are some who assert that the semen is drawn from the whole of the body, and so we must consider the facts about this first of all. There are really four Unes of argument which may be used to prove that the semen is drawn from each of the parts of the body. The first is, the intensity of the pleasure involved ; it is argued that any emotion, when its scope is widened, is more pleasant than the same emotion \t-hen its scope is less wide ; and ob\iously an emotion ^ . which affects all the parts of the body has a wider scope than one which affects a single part of a few parts only. The second argument is that mutilated parents produce mutilated offspring, and it is alleged that because the parent is deficient in some one part no semen comes from that part, and that the part from which no semen comes does not get formed in the offspring. The third argument is the resemblances shown by the young to their parents : the offspring which are produced are like their parents not only in respect of their body as a whole, but part for part too ; hence, if the reason for the resemblance of the whole is that the semen is drawn from the carriers of heredity move centripetally from all the parts of the body to the germ, thus involving the inheritance of acquired characteristics (for which inheritance, however, there is no evidence). - See also Hippocrates, -nepl depcav vSarcov roTTUiv 16. " Cf. 724 a 9-10.


ARISTOTLE 721b , _ , „ , acp eKaarov ti tcov fxopKov eAueiV. ert oe /cat 26 IvXoyov av eCvat S6^eL€v, wcnrep Kal rod oXov earl ri i^ ov yiverai Trpcorov, ovrcn Kal rcbv ixopioiv eKaarov, coar el eKelvov aireppia, /cat rojv fiopicuv cKaarov eirj dv rt anepixa tStov. indavd 8e /cat rd rotavra jxaprvpta ravrais rat? So^ats" ov yap jxcwov rd avix(f)vra TrpoaeoiKores ylvovrai rolg yo 30 vevoLV ol rralheg, aAAo. /cat rd eVt/CTT^ra* ovXds re ydp exovrcDv rcov yevvrjadvrcov 'tjSrj riveg ea^ov ev roLS auTot? roTTOis rcjv eKyovojv rov rvrrov rfjs ovXrjs, /cat arlyfia e^ovros ev rco ^paxlovi rov rrarpog e7T€cr'qp.7)vev ev XaA/o^Sovt rco reKvco avyKe^vfJievov fxevrot /cat ov htrjpOpcoixevov ro ypdpLpia.

35 on, p-ev ovv diro iravros ep)(erai ro aireppba, a^^ehov 722 a e/c rovrwv paXiara TTiarevoval rtveg.

XVIII ^alverai S' e^erdl,ovai rov \6yov rovvavrlov jLtaAAov rd re ydp elprjjjLeva Xveiv ov p^aAeTrdi/, /cat TTpos rovroLs aAAa avp^alvet Xeyeiv dSvvara. rrpd)rov jxev ovv on ovdev aripuelov rj opoLorr)? rod 5 dmevaL drro rravrog, on /cat ^(ovrjv /cat ovv^o-S /cat rplxo-S op^oLOL ylyvovrat, /cat rqv Klvrjoiv, dcj)' ujv ovdev d-nepx^rat. evia S' ovk exoval ttco orav yevvcbcriv, olov rplxojcnv ttoXlojv t) yeveiov. en rots dvcodev yovevGLv eolKaaiv, d(f> Sv ovdev dTrijXdev

" It will be seen that this translation, in spite of its sound of modernity, Ls a close representation of the original.



whole, then the reason for the resemblance of the parts is surely that something is drawn from each of the parts. Fourthly, it would seem reasonable to hold that just as there is some original thing out of which the whole creature is formed, so also it is with each of the parts ; and hence if there is a semen which gives rise to the whole, there must be a special semen which gives rise to each of the parts. And these opinions derive plausibility from such e\"idence as the following : Children are born which resemble their parents in respect not only of congenital characteristics but also of acquired ones " ; for instance, there have been cases of children Avhich have had the outline of a scar in the same places where their parents had scars, and there was a case at Chalcedon of &. man who was branded on his arm, and the same letter, though somewhat confused and indistinct, appeared marked on his child. These are the main pieces of evidence which give some people ground for beUe\ing that the semen is drawn from the whole of the body.

Upon examination of the subject, however, the XVIII opposite seems more likely to be true ; indeed, it is not difficult to refute these arguments, and besides that, they involve making further assertions which are impossible. First of all, then, resemblance is no proof that the semen is drawn from the whole of the body, because children resemble their parents in voice, nails, and hair and even in the way they move ; but nothing whatever is drawn from these things ; and there are some characteristics which a parent does not yet possess at the time when the child is , generated, such as grey hair or beard. Further, children resemble their remoter ancestors, from whom nothing has been drawn for the semen. Resemblances 53

722 a

ARISTOTLE ttTToStSoaat yap 8td 7ToX\a)v yevewv at ofxoioTTjrcs, 10 otov Kal iv "HAiSi 7] TO) AWlottl avyyevofjLevrj- ov yap 7] dvyarrjp iyevero, aAA' o e/c ravTrjs AWtoi/j. Kal eirl rcbv <j)VTcbv 8e o auros' Aoyo?* St^Aov' ya/a on Kai TOUTOts' aTTO Travnov dv twv ficpcbv ro anipixa yiyvoLTO. ttoAAo, 8e to. p-kv ovk epj^et, to, 8e /cat ac^e'Aot Tt? av, to, 8e 7Tpoa(f>verai. eVt ou8' aTro 15 Tcov TTepiKapTTLOiv oLTTepx^TaL' /caiTot /cat ravra yiverai rqv avrrjv ep^ovra p,op(f}'^v.

"Eti TTorepov arro rwv 6p,oiopepa)v povov drr€p)(€Tai d(f)* eKaarov, olov (xtto aapKos /cat octtou /cat vevpov, rj /cat (Xtto tcDv dvopotopepajv, otov 7Tpo(T(x}Trov /cat x^ipos ; el puev yap a??' eKeivcov 20 povov, {eot/ceVat eSet e/cetva )u,dvov)^ eot/cacrt 8e pidXXov ravra rot? yovevcri [rd dvopoiopeprj],^ olov 7Tpoaa)Trov /cat â– )(elpas /cat TrdSaf e'lTTcp ovv prjSe ravra ro) aTrd TravTO? aTreA^eti', ri /ctoAuet jLt7y8 CKelva ro) diro Travros dneXdelv opoia elvai, dAAo. 8t' dXXrjv air lav; el 8' aTrd rcov dvopoLopepcijv povov, OVK dpa dTTO Trdvrcov. TrpoaiqKei 25 Se pdXXov d??' eKeivajv rrporepa yap eKeZva, /cat CTuy/cetrat rd dvopoLopeprj e^ eKelvcov, /cat coarrep TTpoacoTTOv Kal x^Xpas ylyvovrai eot/cdre?, oiiroi Kal ^ <€oiK€vat eSei eKeiva fj.6vov> Peck ; monuerant A.-W. intellegi debere, e.g., ISei eKeiva fiovov eoiKevai.

^ TO. dvo/xoiojuep^ secludenda, nam ravra hoc significat.



of this sort recur after many generations, as the following instance shows. There was at Elis a woman who had intercourse with a blackamoor ; her daughter was not a black, but that daughter's son was. And the same argument will hold for plants. We should have to say that the seed was drawn from the whole of the plant, just as in animals. But many plants lack certain parts ; vou can if vou wish pull some of the parts off, and some parts grow on afterwards. Further, nothing is drawn from the pericarp to contribute to the seed, yet pericarp is formed in the new plant and it has the same fashion as that in the old one.

Here is a further question. Is the semen drawn dnly from each of the " uniform " parts of the body, such as flesh, bone, sinew, or is it drawn from the " non-uniform " parts as well, such as face and hand ? Consider the possibilities : (1) The semen may be drawn from the uniform parts only. If so, (then children ought to resemble their parents in respect of these only,) but the resemblance occurs rather in the non-uniform parts such as face, hands? and feet. Therefore if even these resemblances in the non-uniform parts are not due to the semen being drawn from the whole body, why must the resemblances in the uniform parts be due to that and not to some other cause ? (2) The semen may be drawn from the non-uniform parts only. This means that it is not drawn from all the parts. Yet it is more in keeping that it should be drawn from the uniform parts, because they are prior to the non-uniform, and the non-uniform are constructed out of them ; . and just as children are born resembling their parents in face and hands, so they resemble them in flesh and 55


722 a

adpKas /cat ovvx'^S- el 8' utt' a^<f}OT€poiv , tls 6 rpoTTOs av eirj rrjg yeveaecos; avyKeirai yap e/c ToJv ofMOLop^epaJv ra avop-oioixepi], ware to aTTo 30 TOVTiov aTTieWt ro a7r' eKeivcov av eirj ajnivai /cat T^S" avvueaecos' woTrep Kav ei oltto tov yeypapb fxevov ovofj-aros aTTiyet rt/ et fxeu aTTo Travros, koLv arro tcov avXXa^oJv iKaarrjs, et 8' auo tovtcov, (xtto T(x)v arof^eiixiv Kal rrjs avvdeaews, c5ctt' elnep e/c TTVpos /cat TCOV TOLOVTOjv cxap/ces" /cat dcrra cruvecrTa 35 (Tti^, arro tcov crTOL)(ei(ov av eh] piovov^' airo yap 722 b TT^s avvdeaecos TTcog evSe^erat; aAAa fxrjv dvev ye TavT7)£ ovK av eirj ofxota. TavTTjv S' et rt SrjjLtt ovpyeZ vcTepov, tovt av etrj to ttj? ojjiotoTrjTOS aLTLov, aAA' ov to aTreXdelv oltto navTos.

"Ert et pev Siecnracrpeva to. peprj iv tw aireppaTt, ^ (ZTTijei Ti P, aTtirj ti Z : om. vulg. » ^ (jlovov Z : ^aAAov vulg.

" The point of the argument is this. There is no additional material in the non-uniform parts beyond what there was in the uniform ones ; the only additional factor is the assemblage (composition, combination, arrangement) of the uniform parts so as to make the non-uniform ones {e.g., of flesh, bone, blood, sinew, etc., so as to make a face or an arm). And as the assemblage, the fact that the vmiform parts are arranged in a particular manner, is not a material thing, obviously nothing can be drawn from it as an ingredient for the semen. The argument can be carried a stage further still, as Aristotle points out, for the uniform parts themselves are merely assemblages of the elementary forms of matter. Earth, Air, Fire, Water. (See Introd. § 24, and 715 a 10 ff.) 56


nails. (3) The semen may be drawn from both uniform and non-uniform parts. The question then arises : What can be the manner in which generation takes place ? The non-uniform parts are constructed out of uniform ones assembled together ; so that being drawn from the non-uniform parts would come to the same thing as being drawn from the uniform parts plus the assemblage of them." (It is just Uke the case of a word written down on paper : if there were anything drawn from the whole of the word, it would be drawn from each of the syllables also,** and this of course means that it would be dra^Ti from the letters plus the assemblage of them together.) Now flesh and bones, we should agree, are constructed out of fire and the like substances  ; which means that the semen would be drawn from the elements only, because how can it possibly be drawn from the assemblage of them ? And yet without this assemblage the parts would not have the resemblance ; so if there is something which sets to work later on to bring this assemblage about, then surely this something, and not the drawing of the semen from the whole of the body, will be the cause of the resemblance.

Further, if the parts of the body are scattered about Hence, the theory boils down to an assertion that the semen is drawn from the simplest forms of matter, and as this excludes any distinctive characteristics, the theory loses all meaning.

  • Contrast the interesting theory examined in Plato, Theaetetus 201 D ff., that " elements " {aroixeta), whether physical elements or " letters " of the alphabet, are " aXoya " and cannot be known, until they are assembled into a " syllable," which is an entity over and above its comiwnents, and " has -a Aoyo?," and so can be known. - See also 715 a 12, n.

' The " elements " ; see Introd. § 24.


722 b

ARISTOTLE 5 TTfSs" ^fj; 6t 8e avve)(y], ^coov av etrj yuKpov. Kai ra Tcov alSoLCOv TTCos; ov yap oy.oiov to avrtov oltto rod dppevos Kal rov di^Xeos.

"Eti el dp,(f>or€pa}v o/xotaj? oltto ttolvtcov drrepx^Tai, Svo ytyveraL ^oja* eKarepcov yap aTravra €^€i. Sto Kal ^KfXTTeSoKXijs eoLKev, ei-Vep ourcu XcKTeov, fidXtara Xeyeiv opboXoyoufxeva tovto) tw 10 Xoyo) [to ye roaovrov, aXX" e'lTrep ere pa tttj, ov KaX(2)sf- (f)r]aL yap iv rw dppevi Kal rep diqXeL olov avjx^oXov eveZvai, oXov 8' a.7r' ovherepov dinevai, aXXd SteoTTaaraL pLeXecov (f)vats, rj pcev ev dvSpos . . .

Sid ri yap rd drjXea ov yewa e^ avrcov, elirep diro TTavTOS T€ direpx^raL kol e^et v7to8o)(7]v; dXX 15 01? €OLK€V "q ovK direpx^Tai a770 jravros, r) ovrcos axTTTep EKelvo? Xeyei, ov ravrd d(f>^ eKarepov, Sto Kal heovrai rrjs dXX-qXcov avvovaias. dXXd Kal tovt' dhvvarov . ooairep yap Kal jjueydXa ovr* dhvvarov SieaTraafieva aco^eadat Kat kpujivxa elvai, ^ seclusi.

" i.e., which generative organs is the offspring to have - male or female ones ? Sc, in this respect, though it may be identical in respect of hand, nose, eyes, etc.

"" Nature " seems to mean here, as often, "natural substance," or " substance." â– * Emped. fr. 63 (Diels, Vorsolcr.^) ; it probably continued, e.g., " Seed, and the other portion is in woman's." 58


within the semen, how do they live ? If on the other hand they are connected with each other, then surely they would be a tiny animal. x\nd what about the generative organs ? " because that which comes from the male will be different from that which comes from the female.^ Further, if the semen is drawn from all the parts of both parents alike, we shall have two animals formed, for the semen will contain all the parts of each of them. If this sort of view is to be adopted, the statement most closely in accord with it appears to be that of Empedocles [at any rate up to a point ; if we take any other view, he appears wrong]. Empedocles says that in the male and in the female there is as it might be a tally - a half of something - and that the whole is not drawn from either of the parents. " But " (I quote his words) torn asuiider stands The substance ' of the limbs ; part is in man's . . .** Otherwise the question arises, why is it that female animals do not generate out of themselves, if so be that the semen is drawn from the whole body and a receptacle for it is at hand } No ; so far as we can see, either the semen is not drawn from the whole body, or if it is, it happens in the way described by Empedocles - the two parents do not both supply the same portions, and that is why they need intercourse with each other. But even Empedocles' explanation is impossible. The parts cannot remain sound and living if " torn asunder " from each other when small, any more than they can when they are fully grown. Empedocles, however, implies that they 59

722 b

ARISTOTLE kaddnep EjU.TreSo/cA'^S' yewa cttI rrjg ^iAottjtos", 20 XeycDv ■fi TToXXai fjiev Kopaai avav)(eves i^Xdarrjaav. eld* ovTOis aviJL<j)veadai (f)7]ai,v. tovto Se (f)avep6v on dhvvaTOV ovre yap fi'Tj ifjvx'^v e^orra ovre pLTj t,a)riv TLva BvvaLT* av aco^ecrdai,, ovre (Zarrep ^oia ovra TrXeico avpL(f)V€adaL ojar elvai TrdXiv eV.

25 dAAd fXTjv TOVTOV top rpoTTov avfi^aLvei Xeyeiv tols aTTo TTavTos dmevaL <f)daKov(nv, (Lanep totc ev TTJ y^ evi rrjg (fnXorrjros , ovtcd tovtols eV rep aa>[xari. dSvvarov yap avvexT] rd fiopta yiyveadai, /cat dmevaL €ls eva tottov avviovra. etra TTWs Kal " 8i€G7Taarai " rd dvco /cat /cdroj Kal Be^id Kal dpLarepd /cat Trpoadia /cat OTriadia; 30 TTOvra yap ravra dXoya eartv.

"Eti rd piipy] rd fiev Svvdjjiei rd 8e vddeai SlcopLarai, rd fiev avofjioiopicprj ru> hvvaadai ri TTocelv, OLOV yXwrra /cat X^^P> ^^ ^' dp^OLOfiepi] aicXrjporrjrL /cat piaXaKorrjri /cat Tot? dAAot? rots" roiovroig TTaQecriv. ov TTavrats ovv exov alp-a ovSe adp^} 35 hrjXov roivvv on dhvvarov rd direXdov etvai avv ^ ov . . . aap^ om. S : <,alfj,a> alfxa oiiSe <.aap^> o'^pi Btf.

" According to Einpedocles, there were alternating periods during which Love and Strife respectively gained the masterv ; for details see Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy*, pp.' 231 ff.

  • Emped. fr. 57 (Diels).

" See Introd. §§ 41 ff.

"^ Viz., in the formation of the embryo.

' Cf. below, 723 b 14 ff., 729 a 7 ff.



can when he says in his account of their generation during the " Reign of Love," * There many neckless heads sprang up and grew * ; later on, he says, they grew on to each other. This is clearly impossible : on the one hand, if they had not Soul '^ or life of some sort in them they could not remain safe and sound ; and on the other hand, if they were a number of separate living animals, as one might say, they could not groAv on to each other so as to become one animal again. Yet this is actually the kind of thing which those people have to say who allege that the semen is drawn from the whole of the body ; just as it was in the beginning in the earth in the Reign of Love, so it is, according to them, in the living body.** Of course it is impossible that the parts should become connected, i.e., come off from the parents so that they go together into one place.* Besides, in any case, how were the upper and lower parts, the right and left, the front and the back, " sundered " ? All these ideas are fantastic.

Further, among the parts, some are distinguished by some faculty they possess, others by ha\'ing certain physical quaUties f : thus, the non-uniform parts (such as the tongue or the hand) are distinguished by possessing the faculty to perform certain actions, the uniform parts by hardness or softness or other such qualities. Unless, therefore, it possesses certain special qualities, a substance is not blood or flesh ; and hence it is plain that the substance which is ' One of the definitions of Trddos given at Met. 1022 b 15 is " a quality (ttoiottjs) in virtue of which a thing may be altered, e.g., whiteness, blackness, heaviness, lightness, etc." 6^

ARISTOTLE 723 a wvvfjiov Tolg fxepeaiv, olov atfxa oltto alfxarog iq aapKa arro aapKos. aAAa fxrjv el y i^ erepov nvos ovTos alfxa yiverai, ouS' dv rrjs 6ixol6tt]tos a'lrLov €17), d)s XeyovcTLV ol (fxiaKOvres ovtoj, to aTreXdelv aiTO TTavrojv tcjv pLopioiv iKavov yap dcf)^ evo? 5 aTTievai fiovov, eiTrep jjlt] ef at/xaro? atp,a ytyveTat,. Sta Ti yap ovk dv Kal d-navra i^ ivos ylyvoiro; o avTOS yap Xoyos eoLKev elvat ovtos ra> 'Ava^ayopov, Tip fJLTjdev yiyveadai toDv ojxOLOjjiepiJJV ttXtjv eKelvos piev cttI TrdvTOJV, ovtol S' evrt ttjs yeveaecjg t<x)v t^wcov tovto ttolovglv. eTretra Tiva 10 TpoTTOv av^rjOii^aeTaL raura to, dTreXdovTa (XTro TravTos; Ava^ayopas p-ev yap evXoycos (l>7]crl adpKas €K Trjs Tpo(f)7J9 TTpoaievaL rat? aap^iv tols 8e raura pi€v piT} Xeyovaiv, drro TravTog 8' aTnevai (jidoKovai, TTtSs" CTepov TTpoayiyvopievov earai fjieLt,ov, el piiq " Cf. note on 721 a 3. It has no right to be called by the same name {avvaivv/jLov, implying the same Xoyos of its essence) because it has not the same qualities, which clearly shows that it has not the same essence.

  • This phrase, which at once calls to mind the question asked by Anaxagoras (Diels 59 B 10) ttws yap av Ik firj rpi-xos yivono dpl^ Kal aap^ eV /u.17 aapKos; leads on naturally to the reference to Anaxagoras which immediately follows.

" According to Anaxagoras, the " uniform " substances, such as flesh, bone, blood, etc., were to be ranked as elements, i.e., as ultimate forms of matter, and therefore ex hypothesi did not come into being or pass out of being; and there was a portion of every one of them in every thing. Hence, there was a portion of flesh, bone, blood, etc., in all nourishment taken bj^ the embryo, and so Anaxagoras could easily account for the growth in bulk of the flesh, bone, and blood in the embryo. The theory now being examined, says Aristotle, seems to make a similar assertion about the semen only - this, it holds, contains a portion of flesh, bone, blood, etc. - but it does not go on to assert that the nourishment 62


drawn from the various parts of the parent has no right to the same name " as those parts - we may not call that " blood " which is drawn from the parents' blood, and the same ^^ith flesh. This means that the offspring's blood is formed out of something which is other than blood, and if so, then the cause of its resemblance will not be due to the semen's being drawn from all the parts of the parent's body, as the supporters of this theor}' assert - because if blood is formed from something that is not blood,* the semen need only be drawn from one part, there being no reason why all the other constituents as well as blood should not be formed out of the one substance. This theory seems to be identical ^yiih that of Anaxagoras,'^ in asserting that none of the uniform substances comes into being ; the only difference is that whereas he applied the theor}' universally, these people apply it to the generation of animals. Again, how are these parts which were drawn from the whole of the parent's body going to grow ? Anaxagoras gives a reasonable answer ; he says that the flesh alreadv present is joined by flesh that comes from the nourishment. Those people however, who do not follow Anaxagoras in the statement just quoted, yet hold that the semen is drawn from the whole bodv, are faced with this question : how is the embrvo to grow bigger bj' the addition of different substance to it which the embryo takes in afterwards also contains these substances. Hence the theory gets into a difficulty when the question arises of how the growth of the embrjo is effected. This difficulty is avoided by Anaxagoras, because he makes his principle " a portion of every element in every thing " apply nniversally, and does not limit its application to the semen onlv. (For Anax., see A. L. Peck, C'. XXV { 1931 ), 27 ff., 112" if.) 63

725 a

ARISTOTLE /xera^aAAet^ ro rrpoaeXdov; dAAa fjLTjv e'i ye 15 Swarat fxera^aXXetv to irpoaeAdov, 8ta tl ovk evdus e^ '^PXl^ "^^ CTTTepfia roiovrov iartv coar ec, avTov hvvarov elvai yiveadai alfia /cat adpKas, dXXa fiT) avTO elvai cKelvo /cat at/xa /cat ud.pKas; ov yap St] ovSe rovro ivSexerai Xeyetv, ai? ri] KaraKepaaei av^dverai varepov olov olvo^ vSarog TTpoaeyxvdevTog' avro yap dv irpcorov fidXiora 20 '^v CKaarov a/cparov 6v vvv §e varepov fxdXXov /cat adp^ /cat oarovv /cat ra)v dXXojv eKaarov eart pLopLcov. Tov 8e anepfjiaTos (f>dvaL tl vevpov elvai /cat oarovv Xlav earlv inrep rj fids' ro Xeyop^evov.

ITpos" Se rovroLS el ro drjXv /cat ro dppev ev rfj KViqaei hia^epei, Kaddrrep ^E,p.rre8oKXrjs Xeyei • 25 ev S' e-)(v6r] Kadapolaf rd puev reXedovai yvvat/ce? ipv)(eos dvrtdaavra. ...

(fiaivovrat S' ovv [xera^dXXovaai /cat" yvvauKes Kal dvBpes, (Larrep e^ dyovoiv yovifioi, ovroj /cat e/c djjXvroKajv dppevoroKOL, (hg ovk ev rep drreXdetv aTTO navros t) pirj rijs alrias ovar]g, dXX ev rw 30 avfifierpov r) davpip^erpov etvat ro aTTO rrjs yvvatKog /cat rov dvSpos dTnov, -^ /cat 8t' dXXrjv rivd roiavrrjv alriav. hT]Xov roivvv, et rovro drjaopiev ovrios, on ov rw dTreXdelv diro rivo? ro OrjXv, uitir ^ fir) /xera/SaAAei Z : fievec vulg. * Kai PY : om. vulg.

" Emped. fr. 65 (Diels). Cf. 764, a 1 fF., 765 a 8. 64


unless the substance that is added changes ? If however it is admitted that this added substance can change, why not admit straight away that the semen at the outset is such that out of it blood and flesh can be formed, instead of maintaining that the semen is itself both blood and flesh ? They might try to argue that it grows at a later stage by admixture, just as wine is increased in bulk by pouring in water ; but even this line of argmnent proves impossible, because if that were so, then it would surely be at the outset that each of the parts was its own proper self, before it was mixed, whereas in actual fact it is at a later stage that this occurs (I refer of course to flesh and bone and every one of the rest of them). And the assertion that some of the semen is sinew and bone is quite beyond us, as the saying goes.

Here is another objection. Suppose it is true that the differentiation between male and female takes place during conception, as Empedocles says " : Into clean vessels were they poured forth ; Some spring up to be women, if so be They meet with cold. . . .

Anyway, both men and women are observed to change : not only do the infertile become fertile, but also those who have borne females bear males ; which suggests that the cause is not that the semen is or is not drawn from the whole of the parents, but depends upon whether or not that which is drawn from the man and from the woman stand in the right proportional relation to each other. Or else it is due to some other cause of this sort. Thus, if we are to assume this as true, viz., that the same semen is » C/. 767 a 16, 773 a 17, and Introd. § 39.

D 65


723 a

ovde TO jxepos o ex^i iSiov to t€ dppev /cat to drjXv, €t7Tep to avTO anepiia kol drjXv Kal appev SvvaTai 35 yLyveudai d)s ovk ovto^ tov fioptov iv to) arrepixaTi. 723 b TL ovv Sca<f>€p€i, cttl tovtov Xiyeiv rj inl twv a'AAcot' ixoptojv; a yap /xtiS' oltto ttjs vaTepas anepixa yiVerat, o auro? Adyo? /cat eVt tojv a'AAoiv qv etr] fxopcojv.

'Ert evta ytverat tcov t^cpiov ovt* i^ ofioyevaJv ovT€ TO) yevei 8ia(f)6pajv , olov at fxvlai /cat ra yevt) 6 Tcijt' KaXov/Jievcov ifjvXXtbv} e/c Se tovtojv yiVerat pL€V t,o)a, oy/cert 8' ojxoLa tyjv (jivaiv, dAAa yevos tl aKOjXrjKCov. hrjXov ovv otl ovk drro TravTos piepovs aTnovTog yiyvovTai oaa eTepoyevrj- opioia yap dv rjv, eiTTep tov oltto rravTOS (XTTteVai arjjjieiov ioTLV r) 0/XOtOT77?.

"Ert OLTTO puds avvovaiag /cat tcov t,cx)U)v evLa 10 yewd TToXXd, ra 8^ ^uto. /cat TravraTraCTiv 8'^Aov yap OTL aTTO pads Kivrjaecos tov eTreretor TrdvTa <j)epei KapTTOv. Katroi tt-cDs" SvvaTov, et aTTO rravTog aTTeKpivcTO to crTrep/xa; pclav yap aTTOKpiaiv diro puds dvayKaZov yiveadai avvovaiag /cat /xta? 8ta/cptcrecus". ev 8e rat? voTepais ;;^a>/)i^eCT^at aSwarov' 1 ipvXXdiv Em, Aldus, Buss., A.-W.,Tlatt : tjjvXcov SZ : ifivxoiv vulg. ; cf. 721 a 8 supra.

" And that the differentiation takes place in the uterus.

  • This does not of course imply a belief in plant fertilization ; but the precise meaning of the remark is not clear. On comparison with 728 b .S5 ff., it appears that the product of the " one act of coition " in animals corresponds to the " seed " of plants, which also is a " fetation," in which male and female are not separate, just as male and female are



able to be formed into either male or female <* (implying that the sexual part is not present in the semen), it is clear that it is not the semen's being drawn from some one part which causes the offspring to be female, nor, in consequence, is it responsible for the special physical part which is peculiar to the two sexes. And what can be asserted about the sexual part can equally well be asserted about the other parts ; since if no semen comes even from the uterus, the same will surely hold good of the other parts as well.

Further, some animals are formed neither from creatures of the same kind as themselves nor from creatures of a different kind ; . examples are : flies and the various kinds of fleas as they are called. Animals are formed from these, it is true, but in these cases they are not similar in character to their parents ; instead we get a class of larvae. Thus in these creatures which differ in kind from their parents we clearly have animals which are not formed out of semen dra>\"n from every part of the body, for if resemblance is held to be a sure sign that this has occurred, then they would resemble their parents.

Further, even among the animals there are some which generate numerous offspring from one act of coition, a phenomenon which is, indeed, universal with plants ; these, as is manifest, produce a whole season's fruit as the result of one single movement. Now how is this possible on the supposition that the semen is secreted from the whole body ? One act of coition, and one effort of segregation, ought necessarily to give rise to one secretion and no more. That it should get divided up in the uterus is impossible, combined in the " fetation " of an animal. See also 728 a 27, 731 a 1.


723 b

ARISTOTLE 15 ^'817 yap uianep airo veov cf>VTOv rj t,a>ov, ov anepfxaros eir]^ rj 8ta;^ajpiCTis'.

"Ert TO. aTTOcfyvrevopieva avr' avrov (jiepei airepp^a' hrjXov ovv oTi /cat TTpiv d7TO(f)VTev6rjvaL oltto tov avTov p^eyeOovs^ ecftepe rov Kaprrov, /cat ovk oltto TTOVTOS TOV <j>vrov aTTTjei TO uneppLa.

Meyiarov Se tovtcov reKpLT^piov reOeajp-qKapiev 20 t/cai/cos' em tcov evropicov. Kal yap el pirj iv rrdaiv, aAA' €7tI rajv TrXetaTOJV ev rfj o^^^V ^ Ot]Xv et? to appev pc^pog tl avrov aTToreiveL [Sto Kal ttjv 6)(€Lav, Kadarrep eiTTopiev irporepov, ovtco TTOtovvraif- to. yap KOLTOidev els ra dvo) ^aiVerai eva<j>ievra, ovk iv Trdaiv, dAA' iv rots TrXeiaroLS rcov reOecoprj 25 piivoiv. Oiore (f)avep6v dv etr] on 01)8' oaa Trpoterai yovrjv Tcjv dppevwv, ov to aTTo rravTog aTnevai rijs yeveaews atriov ioTiv, aAA' aAAoi' rtva rpoTTOv, TTcpl oS aK€7TT€ov voTcpov . Kal ydp emep to dvo TTavTog dTTievai avvej^atvev, wanep (^aoiv, ovdev e8et diTO TTavTOJV d^iovv dTnevai, dAAa p^ovov dTTO 30 TOV SrjpbLovpyovvros, olov aTTO tov TCKrovog dXXd p/Tj dTTO TTJs vXiqg. vvv 8 opLOiov XeyovGLV ojanep Kav el dno twv VTToSrjpLaTOjv cr)(€S6v ydp 6 dpLoios^ VLog Tw TraTpl opioia ^opel.

"On 8' rjhovrj a(j)ohpd yiverai iv rfj opLiXla rfj ^ dno . . . eirj] oltto ^u)ov aTripjxa noiei Z, sim. 2.

^ fxepovs coni. Bonitz. ^ seclusi : om, 2.

  • d o/xotos P : o/xoids ns vulg. : ofioios Z.

" The text is probably corrupt : for the sense cf. 729 a 6 fF. * Ch. 16.



for by that tirae the division would be made as it were from a new plant or animal, not of semen. <* Further, transplanted cuttings bear seed - derived, of course, from themselves : which is proof positive that the fruit they bore before they were transplanted was derived from that identical amount of the plant which is now the cutting, and that the seed was not drawn from the whole of the plant.

The weightiest proof of all, however, we have sufficiently established by our observations of Insects. Perhaps not in all Insects, but certainly in most, during copulation the female extends a part of itself into the male [so, as we said earlier,* this is actually the way in which they effect copulation] : the females can be seen inserting something into the males upwards from below. This does not applv to all Insects, but to most of those which have been observed. Hence surely it is clear that even in the case of those males which discharge semen generation is not caused by the semen's being drawn from the whole of the body, but it is brought about in some other way, which we must consider later on. And indeed, if it were really true that the semen is di-awn from the whole body, as these people say, there would still be no call for them to assert that it is drawn from all the parts ; they need only say it is drawn from the creative part which does the fashioning - from the artificer, in other words, not from the material which he fashions. As it is, they talk as though even the shoes which the parent wears were included among the sources from which the semen is drawn, for on the whole a son who resembles his father wears shoes that resemble his.

It is true that there is intense pleasure in sexual 69


723 b

rcx>v d(f>po8iaicov, ov to 0.776 7Tavr6s (XTrieVai airiov, 35 dAA' oTt Kvrja/xos eariv laxvpog- Slo /cat et ttoXXolkls 724 a avfJL^aiveL tj ofiiXia avrr), tjttov yiv^rai to ■)(aip€iv ToZs TrXTjcnd^ovaiv. ctl 77p6s to) TeXei rj X'^P^' ^'^^^ Se ev eKOLcrTCp tcov piopicov, Kal [x-q ajxa, dAA' iv jX€v Toig 77 poTcpov ev Se tols vaTepov.

Tov 8 €K KoXo^cov ytveaOat KoXo^d r) avTrj aWia 5 Kal Bid TL ofioia rots' yovevuiv. ytVerat 8e Krat ov KoXofid e.K KoXo^wv, (x)G77€p Kal dvofjLoia TOt? re KvcoaaoLV Trepl wv vaTepov ttjv atriav decoprjTeov TO yap 7Tp6^Xrip.a tovt e/cetVot? TavTov eotlv.

"Ert et TO drjXv pirj TrpoteTai crTrep/xa, tov avTov Xoyov fiT^S' 0,770 77avT6s dmevai. Kav et ju.?) (xtto 10 TravTos dTTcpx^TaL, ovdev dXoyov to ju.7^8' aTTo tov 9j]Xeos, dAA' d'AAov Ttvd Tportov aiTiov etvai to dijXv Trjs yevlaecos. rrepl ov Srj ixofjievov eaTiv eTnaKeifjaaOai, eTreihrj cf)av€p6v otl ovk dTro TravTcov dTTOKpiveTai to aTre'pjLta Tchv pbopuov.

^Kpx^ 8e /cat TavTiqs Trjs OKeipeCDS /cat twv erro15 fievojv TrpwTov Xa^elv 77€pl aTrippiaTOS tl cotiv ovTOi yap /cat Trept tcDv epyoiv avTOV /cat tcov 77ept avTO avfJb^aLVovTOjv eo-rat /xdAAov evdecoprjTOV. povAerat 8e toiovtov ttjv ^vaiv elvai to a7T€pp.a, e^ 70 ■LBRARY I


intercourse. The cause of this however is not that the semen is drawn from the whole body, but that there is violent stimulation ; and that of course is why those who indulge often in such intercourse derive less pleasure from it. Moreover, the pleasure in fact comes at the end, but according to the theory it should occur (a) in every one of the parts, and (6) not simultaneously, but earher in some and later in others.

As for mutilated offspring being produced by mutilated parents, the cause is the same as that which makes offspring resemble their parents. And anyway, not all offspring of mutilated parents are mutilated, any more than all offspring resemble their parents. The cause of these things we must consider later * ; the problem in both cases is the same.

Moreover, if the female does not discharge any semen, then it is consistent to say that the semen is not drawn from the whole body either ; or again, if it is not drawn from the whole body, there is nothing inconsistent in saying that it is not drawn from the female either,* but that the female is responsible for generation in some other way than this. This, in fact, vriW be the next subject for us to investigate, now that it is clear that the semen is not secreted from all the parts of the body.

We must begin this investigation and those which Definition are to follow by discovering first of all what semen is ; this will enable us to consider more easily its functions and ever}'thing connected ^^•ith it. Now the aim of semen is to be, in its nature, the sort of stuff from which the things that take their rise in the realm » Bk. IV, chh. 3 f. * Cf. 721 b 10.



ARISTOTLE ov ra Kara ^xjaiv ovvLardixeva yiverai rrpcorov [ov rep i^ €K€ivov ri etvai ro ttolovv, olov rod dvOpcoTTOV 20 yiyverai yap e/c rorrrov, ore rovro ion ro CT7rep/xa]^. eTTfc't Se TroXXa)(a)s yiyverai dXXo i^ dXXov - erepov yap rpoTTOVy ws ef rnxipas (f>afi€v vv^ yiyverai kol €K TTaihos dviqp, on rdSe puerd rohc dXXov 8e rpoTTOV, CO? e/c x^Xkov dvSpids Kal e/c ^vXov kXcut], 25 Kai rdXXa oaa ws" e^ vXr^S' ytyveadai rd ytyvopieva Xeyopiev, ck rivos evvTrdpxovros /cat a^cqpanadevros ro oXov eariv. erepov Se rpovov cos €K pLOVGLKov dpioyaos Kal cos i^ vytovs Kapuvcov, Kal oXcDS (hs rd ivavriov €k rov ivavriov. en Se irapd ravra, ojs ^Fj7Ti)(appLos TToiel rrjv inoLKoSop/qaLV, CK ri]s Sia^oXrjs rj XoiSopta, e/c Se ravrrjs 30 7/ P'O-X^ ' ravra Se iravra €K ri,vos jf dpx'r] ttjs Kivqaems, rcbv Se roiovrcov ivicov piev iv avrols ^ seclusi : ov tu> e^ eKeivov tlvos, olov eK rov dvdpwnov, on TovTov Ti €<7Tt TO oTTepfia- €7T€i8r] Bc ctc. AMus 1 alia alii edd. vide et not. Anglice scriptam.

2 ^ Platt : TJ vulg.

« With this definition, c/. 716 a 7 flf., T21 b 6, and Phys. 190 b 3-5. - At this point in the Greek text there follow some unintelligible phrases which I have omitted from the translation. The version of them given in the ed. princeps differs considerably from that in the Berlin edition, and they may be fragments of some annotation upon the definition (founded perhaps on some such passage as 765 b 12, 13 {q.v.) or, more probably, on 11. 724 b 2-4, where rf. note and reference to Physics ; avOpconos is there used as an illustration and there maj^ have been a similar illustration here, which has been corrupted). Actually any addition to the definition, as apart from an illustration of it, at this point is inappropriate, as Aristotle is here giving the simplest and basic definition, from which he builds up his final definition ; this 72


of Nature are originally formed." There are, however, numerous senses in which one thing is formed or comes into being " from " another * : (1) as we say " from day comes night," and " from boy comes man," meaning that the one comes after the other ; (2) as a statue is formed from bronze, or a bedstead from wood, and all those cases where we describe things as being formed from some material ; here the finished whole has been fashioned into a certain shape from something which was there to begin ^\^th ; (3) as a person may become uncultured from being cultured or ailing from healthy, i.e., all cases of a contrary coming from its contrary ; (4) as in a " cumulative " passage in Epicharmus '^ : e.g., from slander comes abuse, from abuse a fight ; in all these cases " from so-and-so " means that so-and-so is the source of the movement,** and in some instances Ls also abundantly clear from the argument which immediately follows.

  • Cf. the similar discussion, with some of the same examples, on the meaning of " from " in Met. 1023 a 26 ff. ; also Phys. 190 a -2-2 ff.

' Epicharmus of Sicily (Aristot. Poet. 1448 a 33) was the chief Dorian comic poet. Aristotle may have in mind a passage of his similar to that quoted by Athenaeus (ii. 36 c, d), and Suidas, which G. Kaibel (Comicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, I. i. p. 118) prints as follows, with the Doric vowels restored and with the emendations of various scholars : A. e'/c iikv dvaias Oolva, eK 8c OoCvas 7T0(Ti?, eyefSTO. B. x^P^^^> '"? v' ^P'* (Soicei).

A. (K be TToaios fuLKOS, eV yultKov S' eyeved' vavia, eV 8 vavias (Si'/ca . . ., e'/c biKas Be KaraySiKa, €K Se KaTahiKas vehai re kol a<f>aX6s kol L,afj.ia. See also A. Lorenz (Leben u. Schriften des Koers Epicharmos, p. 271). Cf. Aristot. Met. 1023 a 30, 1013 a 10, Rhet. 1365 a 16.

    • ».«., the " Efficient " or " Motive " Cause.



724 a

7] apxf] T-qg KivqaecDS eariv, ocov /cat ev rocg vvv elprjfjievoLS (juepo? yap tl tj hia^oXrj ttjs Trdarjs rapa^rjs eariv), ivlcov 8' e^a», 0101^ at rexvat tCov BrjixLovpyovpidvcov /cat o Xvx^os ttjs KatofjLevrjs 35 ot/cta?.

To 8e aTTepjxa (j>avep6v on Suoiv tovtolv ev 6a repcp eariv r] yap (Ls i^ vXrjs o.vrov rj cos e/c Trpio 724 b Tov KLViqaavros ecm to yivopievov. ov yap Brj cos ToSe jJLera rdSe, olov e/c rojv YlavaOrjvaLOJV 6 ttXovs, ou8' CO? e^ evavriov (jideipopievov re yap yiyverai TO evavTLOV e/c tov ivavTtov, Kal €T€p6v tl Set VTTOKeZadat e^ ov ecrrat Trpcorou ivuTrdpxovTO? . toZv 5 Suotv St) Xrj7TT€Ov ev noTepw deTeov to OTrepfia, TTOTepov COS" uAtjp' /cat irdaxov r^ co? etSos" Tt /cat 770tow, t) /cat cifx^oi. ajJ-a yap laojs brjXov eoTai Kal TTCO? T^^ e^ evavTicov yeveais VTrapx^i Trdai toXs e/c TOV aTTepfxaTos' (f>vatKrj yap /cat 7) g/c tcov ivavTicov yeVecrt?* to. /xev ya/o e^ ivavTLCov ytyveTai, 10 dppevos Kal dr^XeoSy to, S' e|- evo? /jlovov, olov ret ' re (f>VTd Kal tcJov ^cocjv eVta, ei^ oaots [xr] ecrrt bicopiafievov to dppev /cat to ^r]Ay x^P'-'S ^ 17 Z : om. vulg.

" i.e., either (2) or (4) above.

  • â– Cf. the discussion on the meaning of yiyveaOai and yiyveadai. eK rivos in Phys. 190 a 5 ff . These contraries are merely attributes of something else, something which has being (ovala), is a concrete existing thing, and is the " substrate " : Kal yap iroaov Kal ttoiov . . . yiverai vnoKetfx €vov TLv 6s (190 a 35). If we say that a man " becomes " cultured " from " being imcultured, it is " man " that persists through



of this sort the source of the movement is within the things themselves, as in the ones just quoted (where slander is actually one part of the whole to-do) ; in others it is external to them ; e.g., craftsmanship of every kind is external to the works which the craftsman produces, and the torch is external to the house which is set on fire.

Now it is clear that the case of semen falls under one or other of these two senses " : the offspring is formed " from " it either (a) as " from " material, or (b) as " from " a prime mover (a source of movement). It is definitely not an instance of (1) above, where " from " means " after," e.g., " from the Panathenaean festival comes the sea-voyage " ; nor of (3), i.e., of coming into being " from " a contrary ; for the one contrary is destroyed as the other comes into being from it, and so there must be present besides them some primary substrate, from which the new contrary is to come into being. ** Thus we now have to discover in which of the two classes semen is to be placed : Is it to be regarded as matter, i.e., as something which is acted upon, or as a form, i.e., as something which acts of itself - or even as both ? for perhaps at the same time it will also be clear in what way formation from contraries has its place in all things that arise from semen. (After all, formation from contraries as well as the other methods of formation is found in nature ; sonxg animals are formed from contraries - male and female, though some are formed from one parent only, as are plants and certain of the animals in which there is no definite separation of male and female.) out the change. Clearly, says Aristotle, this is not the meaning of yiyveaOai required here.


724 b

ARISTOTLE ^VovT) ixev ovv TO aTTo Tov yevvcJovTOs KaXeXraL aiTiov^ baa avv8vdl,€adai 7Te<f)VK€, to irpcorov e;\;ov ^PXV^ y^veaeco'Sy airep^a he to i^ dfK^orepojv rds 15 dpxois e'x^^ '^'^^ avvhvaad ivr ojv , olov rd re rcov (l>vra)v /cat eviojv t,ipa>v, ev ots fir] K€)(copLaTaL to drjXv /cat TO dppev,^ oiortep to yiyv6p.evov Ik di^Xeos /cat appevos TTpioTov /xty/xa, oiov Kyr^pid Tt 6V t) oiov'*' /cat yap TavTa rjhrj e)(ei to e^ djX(j)oZv.

^7Tep[ia Se /cat Kaprros hia^epei tw voTepov Kal 20 TTpoTepov Kaprros piev yap to) e^ a'AAou eti^ai, OTTcpixa Se Tcp e/c tovtov a'AAo, eTret a/x^o) ye TaVTOl/^ ioTiv.

  • H 8e Tou Xeyofxevov cnrepfxaros^ cf)vcns, tj TTpturr}, rraXiv Ae/CTea Tt? ecrTtv.]

'Avay/CT7 St] Trav, o av Xap,^dv(op.€V iv to) acopari, r^ pcepos etvat tojv /caTa (j)vaLV, Kal tovto rj 25 TOJV dvopLOiopuepchv r) tcov o/xoto/xep<ov, r) tcDv rrapa (fivatv, olov (fivpia, •^ nepLTTCopia ^ avvTrjypia 7) Tpo(f)T]V. Xeycx) Se TrepiTTCxipia p,€V to ttjs Tpo(f)rjs U77oAet/x/xa, avvTr]yp,a 8e to aTTOKpidev e/c tou' ^ vv. 12-22 inepta seclusi.

  • amdv P : erci^ S : airiov vulg.

^ oiov . . . appev secluserat Platt.

  • wov Wimmer, sicut ovum S : i^coov vulg'.

  • fortasse tov avrov scribendum.

  • <us yov7]s addit Z.

' eV ToC] €KaaTOv PSZ.

" The following paragraphs seem to be an interpolation. They interrupt the argument ; further definitions are h^re inappropriate, and one of those here given is incorrect. Besides, Aristotle does not in the Generation of Animals make the distinction between yovri and anepfjLa. These definitions seem to have been put in here because the following passage contains some definitions.

76 •


" [Seminal fluid is the name given to that which comes from the generating parent, in the case of those animals whose nature it is to copulate, and it is that in which a generative principle is first found. Semen (seed) is the name given to that which contains the principles derived from both the parents which have copulated, as in the case of the plants and certain animals in which male and female are not separate, Uke the first mixture which is formed fi-om the male and female, being as it were a sort of fetation or egg - for these objects too already contain that which comes from both parents.

Semen (seed) and fruit differ by the " prior and posterior ** " : fruit (is posterior) in that it is derived from something else, whereas seed <is prior) in that something else is derived from it, since in fact they are both one and the same thing.

We must now resume and state what is the primary nature of semen, as it is called.] Now every substance, whatever it may be, that we find in the body, must of necessity be one of the following : (1) one of the parts which are there in accordance with nature, in which case it will be one of the imiform or non-uniform parts ; (2) one which is there contrary to nature, e.g., a tumour ; (3) residue '^ ; (4-) colliquescence ** : (5) nourishment. By residue I mean that which is left over as surplus from the nourishment ; by colUquescence that which is given off as an abscession * from the material that

  • â– The meaning of these terms is discussed in Met, 101Sb9ff.

« See Introd. §§ 65 if.

â– * See Introd. § 67 : also 735 a 27 if. and De somno et Tig. 456 b 34 if.

' See Introcl. § 67.



724 b

av^tjliaTOs VTTO rrjs irapa (f)vaiv avaXvaecos. on fxkv ovv ovK dv €17] /xepog, (j>avGp6v ojxoioixepks 30 pikv yap ioTLV, e/c Se tovtov ovdev avyKeirai, OJcrTTep eK vevpov /cat crapKog. ctl Se ovSe KeXOjpiaiJievov, ra 8' aAAa Trdvra P'^pf]. aAAa pur]v ouSe Ta)V^ TTapa (j)vaLV, oi58e TT'qpojp.a' iv aTxaai re yap VTrdp)(€i, /cat rj <f)vaLs €k tovtov ytyverat. rj 8e Tpo(j>rj (j>avepa)s iireLcraKTOv. oiOT dvdyKrj -^ 35 avvTrjyp.a rj irepiTTCopia etvai. ol p,€V ovv dp-)(aZoL eoLKaaiv olop^evois eivat avvTTjypia' to yap oltto TTavTOS aTTievai (f)dvaL Sta Tr]v 6epp,6TrjTa tyjv oltto 725 a rrjs KLVijaecos avvry^yp^aTOS e;^ei 8vvap.LV. to Se arvvTrjyfia^ tcDi/ vrapa (j>vaLV Ti, e/c 8e t(x)V Trapd (f)vaiv ovdev ytVerat twv /caret (f>vaLV. dvdyKrj dpa 7T€piTTajp.a etvai. aAAa pirjv TrepcTTCopd ye -ndv r^ 5 d)(^piqaTOV Tpocf)rjg eaTiv rj )(pr)atprjg. dxp'^OTOv p,€V ovv Xeyoj a^' rjg purjOev ert avvTeXelraL els ttjv (f)V(nv, aAA' dvaXtaKopievov TrXeovos paXiOTa /caKovTai, TTjv 8e XPI^^P'W "h^ evavTiav. otl p,ev Bt] tolovtov TTeptTTco/xa OVK dv etrj, (j>avep6v toZ? ^ ov Twv Z : ovhk vulg. : correxerunt A.-W. ^ TO 8e avvTTjyfia S* : to Se avvTr)yiJ.aTa vulg.

" And therefore would have to be reckoned as one of the uniform parts.

Viz., the non-uniform parts, for the construction of which the uniform parts act as the " material." " This may mean that it is not present continuously as such, but has to be " concocted " and " collected " on each occasion for which it is required : see 717 b 25.

<* See Introd. § 12 and 737 a 26, n.

  • e.g., Hippocrates, tt. yoviis 1 (vii. 470 Littre), where this statement occurs. Aristotle's equation of this view with the belief that socmen is a awT-qyii-a is hardly fair, in face of the context, q.v. Compare, e.g., the statement i; he yovrj . . .



supplies growth, as the result of decomposition proceeding contrary to nature. Now it is clear that semen cannot possibly be (1) one of the parts ; since although it is uniform," it does not serve as the material out of which any other parts ^ are composed, as sinew and flesh do ; nor again is it separate and distinct,^ whereas all the other parts are. Nor (2) is it something contrary to nature, or a deformation, (a) because it is present in every single individual, and (6) because the natural organism develops out of it. As for (5) nourishment, obviously this is introduced into the body from without. It must therefore be either (4) a colliquescence or (3) a residue. The early thinkers appear to have supposed it was a colliquescence, because to say that it is drawn from the whole body in virtue of the heat which the movement produces,* is equivalent to saying that the semen is a colliquescence. But colUquescence belongs to the class of things that are contrary to nature, and from such things nothing that is in accordance with nature is ever formed. Therefore the semen must of necessity be a residue. ^ ery well. Every residue results either from useful or from useless nourishment. By " useless nourishment " I mean that which contributes nothing further to the natural organism and which if too much of it is consumed causes very great injury to the organism ; " useful nourishment " is the opposite of this. It is obvious that semen cannot be a residue resulting from useless nourishment, for while residue of that sort is found in epxerat airo navros tou vypov tov ev t<x> adifiaTt, eovros to loxvpoTOTov dnoKpiddv tovtov 8e Icrropiov robe, ori aTO/cpiVerai to icrxvporaTOV, ort frrqv Xayvevacofiev afUKpov ovrco fifdevm, dadevees yivofieda witli Aristotle's own statement at 125 b 6-8.


ARISTOTLE 725 a , , , S' '^ ' « ' .

yap KaKiara ota/<rei/xevois" ol rjAiKiav tj voaov TrXeiarov evvTrapj^ci^ tolovtov, anepfia 8e rJKLara 7) yap oXcog ovK e^ovaLV rj ov yovip^ov Sea to pii 10 yvvadai a^p'^crTov TT€pirrojp.a /cat voarj/iarLKov.

y^pT)aipLOV dpa rrepLTTcoixaros pcepog tl earl to airipfxa. ■)(^priaipicx)Tarov 8e ro eaxarov Kal i^ ov rj8r] yiverai eKaarov rCov p^opicov. eon yap to fiev TTpoTepov to 8 vaTepov. ttjs /^ev ovv TrpiOTTjg 15 Tpo(f)ri's nepLTTCopia (jiXeypba Kal et tl aXXo tolovtov /cat yap to (^Xeypca T-fjg )(prjaLp.ov Tpocfirjg TrephTcop.d ioTLv arjpbeZov 8' otl p.Lyvvp,€Vov rpotfifj /ca^apa Tp€(f)€L Kal rrovovaL /caravaAtcr/ceTat . to 8e TeXevTaZov ck TrXeiaTt^s TpO(f>rjs oXiyiaTOV .^ evvoelv 8e 8er OTL p,LKpcp av^dveTai Ta ^oja /cat ra (fiVTa 20 to)* Kad^ rjp.€pav irap^puLKpov^ yap dv Trpoart^e/xeVoy to) avTO)^ vTTepe^aXXe"^ to peyedos.

TovvavTLOV dpa ^ ol dp^ouoL eXeyov Xcktcov. ol p-kv ydp TO aTTO iravro^ dTTLOv, "qpels 8e to Trpo? drrav livaL 7T€(f>vK6s arreppa epovp,€V, Kal ol pLev GVVTr]yp,a, (j>aiveTaL 8e irepLTTCxipba pLaXXov. ev 25 XoywTepov ydp dpiOLOV etvaL to irpooLov €a)(CiTov Kal TO TTepLTTOV yLv6p,€VOV TOV TOLOVTOV, otov TOt? ypa(f)€vaL tov dvhpcLKeXov TroAAa/ct? nepiyLveTaL ^ voaov rj e^iv Z.

^ evwdpxet PZ : VTrdpxei. vulg.

  • ylyveTou. add. PZ*. * tw PY : to vulg.

^ 7ra/x/it/<rpoi5 A.-W. : Trdv • niKpov Vulg. : locus hie corruptus.

  • TO) avTU) Platt : tov avTov vulg.

' uTrepe^oAAe PY : vTrepe^aXe vulg. : vTrepjSaAAoi Platt.

» vSee Introd. § 66. * Cf. 728 a 31, n.

" Cf. 765 b 29 ir.

^ Because it is the concocted residue of blood, the " ultimate nourishment " distributed to all the parts of the body.



considerable quantities in those who through age or disease are in a very bad state of health, the same is not true of semen ; such persons either have none at all, or if they have, it is infertile because of the useless and diseased residue that gets mixed with it.

Hence, semen is part of a useful residue ; and the most useful of the residues is that which is produced last, that from which each of the parts of the body is directly formed. I said " last," for of course some of the residues are produced earlier, some later. Nourishment in its first stage yields as its residue phlegma and any other such stuff." Yes, phlegma too is a residue from the useful nourishment, as is shown by the fact that when it is mixed with pure nourishment it nourishes the body,^ and that the body consumes it in cases of disease. The residue which comes last, however, is very small in bulk though the nourishment which pelds it is very large '^ ; but we must bear in mind that it requires very Uttle to supply the growth of animals and plants from day to day, since the continual addition of a very small amount to the same thing would make its size excessive.

Our own statement therefore must be the opposite Semen a of what the early people said. They said the semen ^^'^"®is that which was drawn from the whole of the body ; we are going to say the semen is that whose nature it is to be distributed to the whole of the body.** And whereas they said it was a colUquescence, we see it is more correct to call it a residue. After all, it is more reasonable to suppose that the surplus residue of the final nourishment which is distributed all over the body resembles that nourishment, just as (to take a common instance) the paint left over on an artist's 81

ARISTOTLE 725 a „ ofjLOLov TO) dvaXcodevTi. avvTTjKOfievov 8e ^deiperai TTav KOL e^iaraTciL rrj^ <f)va€(x)s. reKjji-qpLov 8e rov jJLrj avvrrjyfjia elvai dXXa TrepcTTCOfxa fxdXXov, to 30 ra [JL^ydXa tcDv ^a)cov oXiyoroKa elvai, rd he yuKpd TToXvyova. avvrrjyfxa piev yap nXdov dvayKotov etvai TOis jueyaAot?, Tre/atTTCo/xa 8' eXaTTov els ydp TO acjpba pLeya ov dvaXiaKerai to TrXeZarov rrjs Tpoifjy^S, coctt' oXiyov ylverat to Treptrrto/xa. eVt TOTTOS ovvTT^ypLaTL piev ovdels dnoSeSorai Kara 35 (f)vaiv, dXXd pel 'ottov dv evoS'qarj tov crcu/xaTO?, 725 b rot? 8e /cara (fivcriv TTepLTTcopbaac Trdaiv, olov TTJg Tpocjirjs TTjS ^f]pdg rj kcitcu KoiXia /cat TfjS vypds 7] KVdTLs Kal Trjs XPV^^H-V^ V ^^^ KoiXia, koI toZs arreppiaTLKols^ voTcpai /cat atSota /cat /xacrrot* et? TovTovs ydp ddpoil^eTai /cat avppeZ. /cat pLapTvpia 5 ra avpc^acvovTa oti to elpripbivov arreppia eaTtv TavTa he crujU-jSatVet Sta to ttjv (l>v(nv elvai tov TrepiTTcopiaTos ToiavT7]v^' rj Te ydp eKXvais eXaXi-CTTOV dTTeXdovTos TOVTOV yiveTai eTrihrjXos, cos OTepioKopieva Td acopLaTa tov e/c ttjs Tpo(f)rjs yivopievov TeXovs. {oXtyois he tlglv ev puKpip xpovqj 10 /caTct Ttt? 7)XiKLas Kovcf)Li^eL tout' dmov, OTav nXeovdorrj, Kaddrrep rj TrpcoTT] Tpocf>rj, dv VTrep^dXXr) toj vXijOet,' Kal ydp TavTTjs aTTiovarjs Td aojpLaT ev ^ rots anepfiaTiKots PSZ : ttJ? anepfiaTiKrjs vulg. ^ oTt . . . ToiavT-qv fortasse secludenda (A.-W.), vel on ro anepfxa TTepiTTUip.a eon .xpTJaifiov scribendum ; vertit S et accidentia quae accidunt testificanttir quod sperma est superfluum quo indigetur ad iuvamentum.

" For e^ioTaadai t^s <f>vaea)s, see 768 a 3, n. i.e., the large intestine. " i.e., the small intestine.



palette resembles that which he has actually used ; whereas everything that undergoes colhquescence gets destroyed and departs from its proper nature." Here is a piece of evidence to show that semen is not a colhquescence but a residue : the large animals produce but few young, while the small ones are prohfic. Now in the large animals there must of necessity be more colhquescence and less residue, because most of the nourishment is used up to maintain the large bulk of their body, so that but little residue is produced. Further, no place has been assigned by Nature for colhquescence, but it runs about in the body wherever it can find a clear way for itself ; whereas there is a proper place for all the natural residues - e.g., the lowef intestine ^ is set apart for the residue from title sohd nourishment, the bladder for that from the fluid, the upper intestine " for that from the useful nourishment, the uterus, pudenda, and breasts for the seminal residues - they run into these places and collect there. As evidence of the truth of our statement about what semen is we can quote the actual facts, facts which directly result from this residue's being of the nature described by us. Thus (1) though only a very small quantity of semien be emitted, the exhaustion which follows is quite conspicuous,** which suggests that the body is being deprived of the final product formed out of the nourishment. (There are, I know, a few who for a short period during the heat of youth derive rehef from the emission of the semen when it is superabundant. The same is true also of nourishment in its first stage, if there is an excessive quantity of it ; Cf. Hippocrates, ti. yovijs 1 (vii. 470 Littre), quoted in note on 725 a 1.


ARISTOTLE r]fji€p€L [xdAXov. en orav avvairir) dXXa TrepiTTWfiara' ov yap p-ovov aTrepp,a to olttlov, aAAa /cat ere/sat /ue/xiy/xeVat 8vvdp,€is rovrco^ avvaTrep-)(ovraL, 15 avrat 8e vaacjheis , 8t6 ivicov ye Kal dyovov TTore yCverai to a.TTO)(copovv 8ta to oXiyov ^xew to cnep/xariKoi/. aAAa tols TrXeiaToig koL <hs irrl to ttoXv eiTTeZv avpL^aivei e/c tojv d(f>po8LaLaap.a)v e/cAucrt? /cat dSvvapia /xaAAov 8ta ttjv ilprjp^evqv aiTtW.) ert ou/c ewTTapx^L oTrepp-a out* iv Tjj TrpcoT-rj i^At/cia 20 OUT €V Tip yy]pa- OVT ev tols appcocrTtat?, iv p.ev Tip Kapiveiv hid ttjv dSvvap,{.av, iv 8e to) yr]po- 8ta to pur] 7T€TT€IV TO IkOVOV T7]V <j>VaLV, vioLS 8' OVOL 8ta TT^v av^7]aii^' <f}ddv€i yap dvaXiOKopLevov Trdv ev eTeai yap TrevTe a-)(^ehdv eiri ye rail' dvdpcoTrojv rjpLLav Xap,^dy€iv 8o/C€t to crdJpLa tov p^eyidovg tov 25 iv Tip dXXip ^(^povip yiyvopLevov aTravTos.

noAAot? 8e avpu^aivei /cat ll,ipois /cat (f)VTOLg Kal yeveai Trpog yevr] 8ta^opa. irepl TavTa /cav toj yevei Tip avTip Tot? opioeiSeaL Trpos dXXr]Xa, olov dvdpcoTTip TTpos dvdpiOTTOV Kal dpneXip Trpos dpcTreXov. ra /xev yap TToXvaireppa ra 8' dXiyooTreppid eart, rd 30 8-' da7Tepp,a TrdpLTrav, ov St' dadeveiav, aAA' iviois ye Sid* Touvav-Ttov* /caravaAtcr/ceTat yd/a et? to acopia, olov Tibv dvOpixiTTiov ivioLS' eveKTtKoi yap ovtcs /cat yivopbevoi TToXvaapKoi r^ TTioTepoi pbdXXov rJTTOv TTpotevTai a7T€pp,a Kal tJttov eTndvpiovcn tov atf) ^ rovTio Platt : tovtois vulg. ^ Std PZ : om. vulg.

" i.e., of nourishment. * Or, muscle.



the body is more comfortable for having got rid of it. Relief is obtained too when other residues are got rid of in company viith the semen : in such cases what is emitted is not merely semen, but there are other substances which come away at the same time mixed up vvith it, and these are morbid. This explains why at certain times with some persons the emission is infertile : it contains so small an amount of actual semen. However, speaking generally for the majority of men, the sequel to sexual intercourse is exhaustion and weakness rather than relief, and the cause is as I have described.) Besides (2), semen is absent during childhood, old age, and infirmity ; absent during infirmity on account of the weakness of the body, during old age because the organism does not concoct a sufficient amount " ; during childhood because the body is grovring, and the concocted matter is all used up so soon that there is none left over : it is usually held that in about five years human beings, at any rate, grow to one-half of the complete size that they vrill attain in the rest of their lifetime. In respect of semen we find that yriih many animals and plants one group differs from another group, and even v^ithin one and the same group individuals of the same kind differ from each other, e.g., one man from another, and one grape-vine from another. Some individuals have much semen, some little, some none at all ; and this is not due to any bodily weakness, but in some cases, at any rate, it is due to the opposite : the available supply gets used up to benefit the body ; as an example of this we have men in sound health putting on rather a lot of flesh *" and getting a bit fat : these emit less semen and have less desire for sexual intercourse than is normal. A 85


725 b

poBiaid(^€t,v. ofJbOLov Sc /cat to Trepl ras rpaycLxra^ 35 ajXTTeXovs Trddos, at hid rrjv Tpo(f)rjv i^v^pl^ovcnv 726 a (cTret Kat ol rpdyot Tvioveg ovreg rjTrov 6)(^evovaLv, 8i6 Koi TTpoXeTTTVVOVOLV avTovs' Kal rds dp^TreXovs Tpaydv ttTTo rov TrdOov? tcov rpdyujv KaXovaiv).

Kai OL TTLOves 8e dyoviorepoL ^aivovrai elvai rcJov pbT] TTiovcov, Kal yvvalKcs Kal dvSpes, 8td ro roc? 5 evrpacfidai TT^jropievov to TrepiTTOJ/xa yiveadai ttl peXrjv eoTL yap Kal rj mpLeXr] TrepiTTOjpia, 8i' ev^oaiav vyieivov.

"Ep'ta 8' oXojs ovhe ^epei arrepp^a, otov Irea Kal aiyeipos. elal /xev odv eKdrepai atrtat^ tovtov Tov TrdOovs. Kal yap hi dhvvap,iav ov Trirrovai Kal Sid hvvap,iv dvaXioKovaiv, coairep eLpyjrai. 10 o/xoto)? 8e Kal TroXvxod^ iari Kal TToXvaTrepp.a^ rd p.ev 8ia hvvap,iv rd 8e 8t' dhwap^iav ttoXv ydp Kal d^prjGTOv TTepirrwpia (jvp^puiyvvrai, oior eviois yiyveadai Kal dppcoaTrjpLa, orav avrojv p,rj evoh-qaj) Tj aTTOKdOapais . Kal evioi piev vyLdt,ovTai, oi Se Kai avaipovvrai. avvrr^Kovrai ydp Tavrrj axnrep 15 fcat €is TO ovpov 7J8r] ydp Kal rovr* dadev7]pLa (jvve^iq riaiv.

  • ["ETi O TTOpOS 6 aVTOS TO) TTepLTTiOpiari Kal TO)

oTTeppiaTi' Kai oaois pieu d/x^oti' yiyveTai rrepiT ^ eKarepai alrlai scripsi, post A.-W., qui alriai eKarepai : alriai, Kal erepai P, Kal erepai atrial vulg. (aliae S). ^ noXvxpovid PSY. ' icat TroXvoTTep/Ma fort. secl. * vv. 16-^^5 seclusit Platt; 725 b 25- 726 a 15 seclusit Sus.

" The former part of this interpolation seems to belong to the interpolation connected with chh. 12 and 13 (c/. 719 86


similar phenomenon is that of grape-vines which " go goaty," rampaging all over the place because they are getting too much nourishment. (The reason for the phrase " go goaty " is that they behave just like he-goats, which when they get fat indulge less in copulation, and incidentally this explains why goats are made to slim before the breeding season comes on.) And further it seems that fat people, men and women alike, are less fertile than those who are not fat, the reason being that when the body is too well fed, the effect of concoction upon the residue is to turn it into fat (since fat also is one of the residues, a healthy one, because it results from good living).

Some living things actually produce no semen at all : examples are the willow and the poplar. Both reasons together are responsible for this state of affairs ; in other words, on account of their weakness the trees cannot concoct their nourishment, and on account of their strength they use it all up, as described above. Similarly, some animals are prolific, and have abundance of semen because they are strong, but others because they are weak ; the explanation being that in the latter case much useless residue gets mixed up with the semen, and in some instances, when there is no clear way open by which the evacuated matter may leave, it actually produces disease, from which some recover though others succumb. Their semen is contaminated by the colliquescences which get into it, just as they do into the urine - another malady by no means unknown.

" [Further, the same passage serves both for the residue and for the semen : (a) in those animals which b 29 ff.) ; the latter part refers to the subjects discussed in 725 a- 726 a.


, ARISTOTLE 726a , . . . ^ ^ c ^ ,. r rj rod vypov, ravrrj Kal rj ttjs yovrjs yiyverat OLTTOKpiais {vypov yap TTepirrojpid eariv rj yap 20 rpocf)rj Trdvrcxjv vypd //.aAAoi^), ols Se [Mi] ioTtv avrr), Kara ttjv rrjs i'r]pds VTroardaeaJS d'Tro)(Uipnriaiv . eVt 7] fiev avvrrj^ts del voacoSrjs, rj 8e tov TrepirTWjxaros d<f)aipeaLS ax^e'At/xos" rj he rod aTreppiaros dTTOx<JjpT]ot£ djj,(f)orepojv^ 8id ro TrpoaXafx^dvetv rrjs pLT] ;^/07ycrtjUou rpo(f)rjs. el Se y rjv avvrrj^is, 25 del e^Xarrrev dv vvv 8' ov Trotet touto.] "On pi€v ovv rrepirroypbd eari ro aTrep/xa XPV~ aifiov rpo(f)rjs Kal rrjs ia^drrj^, etre Trdvra Trpoterai arreppia elre pirj, ev rols TrpoeiprjpievoLS (jtavepov. XIX Mera he ravra hiopiareov rrepirrcopLd re rroias 30 rpo(f>rjs:, Kal rrepl KarafirjviCjov yiyverai ydp riat Kara/jL'qvca rdJv t^cooroKOiv. 8ta rovrcx)v ydp (f)avepov earai Kal rrepl rov d'qXeos, rrorepov Trpoterai GTTepfxa warrep ro dppev Kal eanv ev^ pLiypLa ro yivop^evov €k Svolv arreppidrotv, t) ovdev anepp^a. dvoKpiverai drro rov dr^Xeos' Kal el pir]dev, rrorepov 35 ovSe dXXo ovdev avp^dXXerai elg rrjv yeveaiv dXXd 726 b fxovov Trape^ei rorrov, t) avpi^aXXerat rt, Kal rovro rrcos Kal rtva rporrov. "On piev ovv eanv eaxo-rr) rpo(f)r] ro atpia rols ^ haec non sana ; Aldus habet del voawhris, r) 8e rov anepfiaros dTT0X<^P^OLS axfteXifios Sta to npoaXaiM^. ktX. * ev om. PZS.

» See P. A. 650 a 34, 651, a 15, 678 a 8 ff . ; it has been implied throughout the discussion in the preceding chapter (ch. 18).



produce residue both from the fluid nourishment and from the soHd, the semen is discharged by the same exit as the fluid residue, because it is itself a residue from a fluid, the nourishment of all animals tending to be fluid rather than solid ; (6) in those animals which produce no fluid residue, the semen leaves by the same way as the solid excrement. Further, colUquescence is always morbid, whereas the removal of residue is beneficial ; and the discharge of semen has both characteristics because it includes some of the useless nourishment. If it were just a colliquescence, it would always be injurious, whereas in fact it is not so.] To conclude : the foregoing discussion makes it clear that, whether all animals discharge semen or not, semen is a residue derived from useful nourishment, and not only that, but from useful nourishment in its final form.

Our next task is to detemiine what is the character XIX of the nourishment from which this residue is derived ; Menstrual and we must discuss the menstrual discharge as well, because this occurs in some of the Vi\dpara. By this means we shall be able to give a clear answer to the following questions : Does the female discharge semen as the male does, which would mean that the object formed is a single mixture produced from two semens ; or is there no discharge of semen from the female ? And if there is none, then does the female contribute nothing whatever to generation, merely providing a place where generation may happen ; or does it contribute something else, and if so, how and in what manner does it do so ? We have said before ** that in blooded animals blood is the final form of the nourishment, and in 89

726 b

ARISTOTLE ivaijJLOLg, toIs 8' avaiybois to avaXoyov, etprjrai TTpoTepov e7T€i 8e /cat r] yovrj Treptrrcond iari rpo(j>r\s Kol rrjs iaxo-TTjs, tJtol af/xa av eirj ■^ ro 5 avaXoyov 'q ck tovtcov tl. inei S' e/c rov aifxaros TrerropLivov Kal p,€pi,l,op,4vov nrios yiverai twv p,opto)v eKaaroVy ro Se OTrepp-a TT€(f)dev p,€v dXXoiorepov aTTOKpiverat rod at/xaro?, dnev-rov S' 6v, Kal orav n? 7Tpoa^idl^r]rai TrXeovdKLS )(^pcoiX€vos ra> d(f>poSLaidt,€LV, eviois alfiarcoSes rjSr] rrpoeX-q 10 Xvdev, (jyavepov on rrjs alp^arLKYJ^ av etiq Tvepirroopua rpo(f)rj<; ro arreppia, rrjg ets rd p^^prj StaSiSo/Ltevi^s' reXevraiag. Kal 8id rovro pLcydXrjv e^et Svvapiiv - K:at ydp rj rov Kadapov Kal vyieivov atpiarog (xtto)(^(I)p'qaLg eKXvrLKOv - Kal ro o/zoia yiyveaOai rd CKyova roZs yevvrjaaaiv evXoyov op,oiov ydp rd 15 rrpoaeXdov rrpos rd piepT] ra> VTToXeL(f)dlvrL. atare rd aTT€pp,a iarl rd rrjs x^P^^ V "° '^^ TrpoacoTTov T] oXov rod S^ipov ahiopiarois X^P V T^pdocoTTov rj oXov ^wov Kal olov eKeivcov eKaarov evepyeia, roLovrov rd aireppia Svvap,€L, rj Kard rov oyKov rov iavrov, rj e;i^et^ rivd hvvapnv iv iavro) (rovro ydp 20 ovTTO) hrjXov rjpZv e/c rd)v hicopLapievcov, norepov rd ^ exov A.-W.

" See Introd. § 18. " Cf. P. A, 678 a 8 ff .

•^ Dynamis : see below, b 19.

<* And concocted into semen. Cf. also 725 a 25 ff.

« Introd. § 36.

f See Introd. §§ 26 ff. This is an important passage for the meaning of dynamis in this particular connexion. Cf. 727 b 14, and ch. 21.



bloodless animals the analogous substance. And since semen also is a residue from nourishment - from nourishment in its final form, surely it follows that semen will be either blood or the analogous substance, or something formed out of these. Now every one of the parts " is formed out of the blood as it becomes concocted and in some Avay diWded up into portions ; and though semen which has been concocted is by the time of its secretion from it considerably different in character from blood, yet unconcocted semen, and semen emitted under strain due to excessively frequent intercourse, has been known in some cases to have a bloodUke appearance when discharged ; and this shows that semen is pretty certainly a residue from that nourishment which is in the fomi of blood and which, as being the final form of nourishment, is distributed to the various parts of the body.* This, of course, is the reason why semen has great potency '^ - the loss of it from the system is just as exhausting as the loss of pure healthy blood - and this, too, is why we should expect cliildren to resemble their parents : because there is a resemblance between that which is distributed to the various parts of the body and that which is left over.** Thus, the semen of the hand or of the face or of the whole animal really is hand or face or a whole animal though in an undifferentiated way ; in other words, what each of those is in actuality, such the semen is potentially,^ whether in respect of its o^\•n proper bulk, or because it has some dynamis ^ within itself (I mention both alternatives because from what we have said so far it is not clear which is the correct one,^ i.e., whether ' This will be settled during the remaining part of the Book ; see especially ch. 21.


726 b

ARISTOTLE (jcofia rod aTripjxarog iari ro aiTtov rrjs yeveaeoj?, t) e^et TLva e^LV Kal apx^jv Ktv-^aeojs yevvrjrcKi^v)' ouSe yap rj X^'-P o^^S' a'AAo rcbv pLopicvv ovhev dv€V i/jvx'^S^ ■^ (xAAt^? tlvos Swdfjiecos eon X^P o^Se fxopiov ovdev, dXXa jjiovov ofiiovvfjiov.

25 \^av€p6v Se Kal on oaois avvrrj^Lg yiverai airepfianKT], Kal tovto TrepirTCopid ianv. avpi^aivei, 8e Tovro orav dvaXvrjraL els to TrpoeXdov,^ (Zanep orav drroTTearj ro evaXeii^dev* rod Kovidpuarog evdvs' ravrov yap eon, ro dneXdov rep Trpcorw irpoareOevn. rov avrov rporrov Kal ro reXevralov 7repirrcx) pia ra> Trpcoro) ravrov eanv.^ Kal 30 TTepl pL€v rovrcov Sicoplada) rov rpoirov toutov.] 'Evret 8' dvayKaZov Kal rep dadevearepco yiyveadai TTepirroipLa TrXelov Kal rjrrov venepLpievov, rQLOvrov S' ov dvayKalov etvat atpuarcoSovs vyporrjros ttXtjOos, daOeviarepov Se to eXdrrovos ^ tjjvxiKijs PSY.

2 w. 24-80 secluserunt A.-W., Sus., t^latt.

^ npoeXdov Z, irpoaeXdov vulg. : in primo dissolvitur S, qui et valde diversa hie habet.

  • evaTToXeL(f>6ev YZ : confer to irpoacXBov . . . vrroXii^dlvrt supra, vv. 14, 15.

^ eoTL TO aTT€XQ6v . . . ravrov eariv] eon ro TeXeirraiov {reXevTaiov om. P) TrepiTTCoiMa tw npwTU) TTepiTTCufiari PSY.

" e$LS. See definition in Met. 1022 b 4 : oiov evepyeid tis Tov exovTos Kal exofxevov, ojaTrep npci^is tij t) Kivrjais' orav yap TO jxev -rroifj ro be rrofrirai, ecrri rrolrjais fj^era^v.

" See Introd. §§ 41 ff.

" Aristotle often repeats this in the Generation of Animals and the Parts of Animals; see also Met. 1035 b 24. For ofjicovvfiov, cf. Cat. 1 a 1 oijujjvvfia Xeyerai Sv ovofia fiovov 92


the physical substance of the semen is the cause of generation, or whether it contains some disposition " and some principle of movement which effects generation), since neither a hand nor any other part of the body whatsoever is a hand or any other part of the body if it lacks Soul ^ or some other dynamis ; it has the same name,*^ but that is all.** [It is clear also that in cases where seminal colliquescence occurs, this too is a residue ; and this happens when (a fresh secretion) is decomposed into that which preceded it ; just as when a (fresh) layer of plaster spread on a wall immediately drops away, the reason being that the stuff which comes away is identical with that which was applied in the first instance. In just the same way, the final residue is identical with the original colliquescence. Such then are the Unes on which we treat that subject.] Now (1) the weaker creature too must of necessity produce a residue, greater in amount and less thoroughly concocted ; and (2) this, if such is its character, must of necessity be a volume of bloodlike fluid. -^ (3) ITiat which by nature has a smaller share Koivov, 6 he KOTO. Tovvofia Xoyos ttjs ovaias erepos. In this case, the ovaia required to be present is Soul (see following note, and reference to De anima given in note on 738 b 26) ; but it is absent. For awiLwyuov, see note on 721 a 3.

Because Soul is the essence of any particular body (or of any part of it). Cf. 738 b 26 and note there.

This paragraph seems to be a continuation of the preceding interpolation, 726 a 25. There are variations in the text. Thus, the mss. PSY replace " stuff which . . . colliquescence " by " final residue is the same as the first residue." Some of the words seem to echo lines 14 and 15 above.

  • Semen of course has undergone a further stage of concoction, and has lost its bloodlike appearance.



726 b

depixorrjTO? kolvcovovv Kara (f)vaLv, to 8e drjXv on 35 TOLOVTOV eiprjTai Trporepov, avayKotov kol tt^p' ev TO) OrjXeL yivopLevrjv alpLaTwSr] ajTOKpiaiv TreptV 727 a TOJfjia elvat,. ytVerat Se rocavTT] rj roJv KaXovfievcDv KaTafJLTjVLCOV CKKpiats.

"Otl fiev ovv iarl ra /cara/LiTyvia TrepLTTcofxa, Kal OTL avaXoyov cos" rots' appecnv rj yovq ovrco tols drjXeai to. Karapi'qvia, c/javepov. otl 8' opOcos 5 elpT]TaL, ar]ixeXa to. avpb^aivovTa vepl avTO.. /cara yap TTjv avTTjv rjXiKtav tols p-ev appeoLV app^erai iyylveadaL yovrj /cat aiTOKpiveTaL, tols 8e diqXedL pr^yvvTai to. KaTapLt^vLa /cat (jjwvqv re pLeTa^dXXovaL /cat eTTLar^fxaLveL to. ire pi tovs piaaTovs. Kal Ttaverat Tr\s T^Ai/cta? Xrjyovarjs tols pL€v to hvvaaOai 10 yevvdv, rat? Se to. /cara^Tyvta. en Se /cat to. TOiaSe ar]p,€La otl 7T€pLTTOjp.d eoTLV avTrj r] e/cKpLGLS tols drjXeaLv. (hs yap iirl to ttoXv ovd^ alpLoppothes ylvovTaL rat? yuvat^tv oyV e/c tcjv pLvoJv pvoLS at/xaro? ouVe tl dXXo p.rj tcov /carapLrjvLOJV LGTap,evcov idv re avp^^fj tl tovtojv, â– )(€l15 povs yiyvovTaL at KaddpaeLS a>S" fiedLOTaixevqs^ els TavTa TTJs diTOKpiaeojs . €tl Se ovTe (jtXe^cLhrf opiOLOJs yXacl>vpa)T€pd^ re /cat Aetorepa to, dijXea TCOV dppevojv eoTl Sta to avveKKpiveadaL tt)v els TavTa TTepLTTOjoLV iv TOLS KaTap/r)vioLS . to S' auro TOVTO Set VO[JLLt,€lV aLTLOV €LVaL Kal TOV TOVS oyKovs 20 iXdTTOvs etvat tcov acopidTOJV tols drjXeaLV rj tols dppeoLV €v TOLS t,a)OTOKovaLV iv tovtols yap rj ' liidiOTa^evrjS PZ : avaXiaKO[iei'Tjs Vlllg. - ^AejScoS-j; Peck, ^AejScoScts- vulg. * aTpixuinpa Z.



of heat is weaker ; and (4) the female answers to this description, as we have said already. From which we conclude that the bloodUke secretion which occurs in the female must of necessity be a residue just as much (as the secretion in the male). Of such a character is the discharge of what is called the menstrual fluid.

Thus much then is evident : the menstrual fluid is a residue, and it is the analogous thing in females to the semen in males. Its behaviour shows that this statement is correct. At the same time of life that semen begins to appear in males and is emitted, the menstrual discharge begins to flow in females, their voice changes and their breasts begin to become conspicuous ; and similarly, in the decline of hfe the power to generate ceases in males and the menstrual discharge ceases in females. Here are still further indications that this secretion which females produce is a residue. Speaking generally, unless the menstrual discharge is suspended, women are not troubled by haemorrhoids or bleeding from the nose or any other such discharge, and if it happens that they are, then the evacuations fall off in quantity, which suggests that the substance secreted is being drawn off to the other discharges. Again, their blood-vessels are not so prominent as those of males : and females are more neatly made ** and smoother than males, because the residue which goes to produce those characteristics in males is in females discharged together with the menstrual fluid. We are bound to hold, in addition, that for the same cause the bulk of the body in female Vivipara is smaller than that of the males, as of course it is only in Vivipara that the " Also implying " hairless," " delicate," " dainty." 95


ARISTOTLE 727 a . , , " a' r ' rcov KarafjLrfVLOJV yiverai pvarig avpaL,€ jxavoig, /cat TOVTMV eTnh7]\6rara ev ralg yvvat^lv TrXeiaTrjv yap d(f)tr]ULV diroKpiaiv yvinj tcjv t,(l)cov. SioTrep eTnhrjXordrois del d>)(p6v re eari /cat dhr]X6^Xe^ov , 25 /cat Tr]v eXXen/jtv Trpog rovs dppevag e^^i- tou aco[xaros (fiavepdv.

ETret Se tout' earlv o ylyverai toIs drjXeaiv d)S rj yovTj TOLS dppeaiv, hvo 8' ovk evSe^^^erac arrepfiaTLKas dpa yiveadat dTroKpiaets, cfyavepov otl to dT]Xv ov avfx^dXXerai aTrepjxa els rrjv yeveaiv. el fjiev yap ajreppLa -qv, Karapirjvia} ovk av -qv vvv 30 he hid TO ravra yiyveadai eKelvo ovk eanv.

. AioTt pukv ovv, woTTep TO arreppia, /cat to. Karapb-qvia TTepLTTCvp,d ecTTLV, eiprjTai' Xd^oL S' av tip€vr]s ttjs TrepLrrcoaeoJS eXXeiTTei rd TTepl rrjv yoviqv, olov rcov re dvalpicov rd puaXaKia /cat TO, piaXaKoarpaKa irepl rrjv Kvrjaiv eariv apiara. 8ta ro dvaipua yap elvac /cat p-r] ytveadaL 5 TTLpLeXrjv ev avroZs, ro dvdXoyov avroZs rfj TTipieXfj drroKpiverai els ro rrepirrajpLa ro aveppiaTiKov.^ arjpLelov S' on ov tolovto aTreppa Trpoierai ro drjXv olov TO dppev, ouSe pLLyvvpievcvv dp(/}olv yiverai, wairep rives <f>aaiv, otl TroAAa/ct? to drjXv avXXapL^dvei ov yevop,evr]s avrfj ri]s ev rfj opLiXia

^ Karafiijvia P : ra Karafx-qvia vulg. 2 Tols oAAois PZ. * 727 a 31-b 6 seel. Sus,




menstrual discharge flows externally, and most conspicuously of all in women, who discharge a greater amount than any other female animals. On this account it is always ver^' noticeable that the female is pale, and the blood-vessels are not prominent, and there is an obvious deficiency in physique as compared \\ith males.

Now it is impossible that any creature, should produce two seminal secretions at once, and as the secretion in females which answers to semen in males is the menstrual fluid, it obviously follows that the female does not contribute any semen to generation ; for if there were semen, there would be no menstrual fluid ; but as menstrual fluid is in fact formed, therefore there is no semen.

We have said why it is that the menstrual fluid as well as semen is a residue. In support of this, there are a number of facts concerning animals which may be adduced. (1) Fat animals produce less semen than lean ones, as Ave said before, and the reason is that fat is a residue just as semen is, i.e., it is blood that has been concocted, only not in the same way as semen. Hence it is not surprising that when the residue has been consumed to make fat the semen is deficient. Take a parallel from the bloodless animals : Cephalopods and Crustacea are in their finest condition at the breeding season. WTiy ? Because, being bloodless, they produce no fat ; hence, what in them corresponds to fat is at this period »secreted into the seminal residue. (2) Here is an indication that the female does not discharge semen of the same kind as the male, and that the offspring is not formed from a mixture of two semens, as some allege. Very often the female conceives although she has derived E 97

727 b

ARISTOTLE r]8ovT]S- /cat yLyvofievrjg ttciXlv ovSev rjrrov, Kal 10 LaoSpojJLrjadvTCov [TrapaY tov appevos /cat rod d-qXeos, ov yevva/' eav jxr] r) rcjv KaXovfxevcov Karafx-qvicov i/c/xaj iiTTapxi] avjXfjieTpos. Sto ovre oXco£ fir] yiyvofievcov avrcov yevva ro dfjXv, ovre ytyvofxevcvv brav i^iKixat^T] cog iirl to ttoXv, dAAa piera ttjv KadapoLv. ore fiev yap ovk ex^c rpo(f)rjv oi)S' 15 vXrjv i^ T^? Sw-qaerai avarrjaaL ro t,cpov rj dno rod appevos evvrrap^ovoa ev rfj yovfj Svvap,LS, ore Se avv€KKXvl,erai 8ia ro TrXrjdos. orav Se yevojxevajv aTTeXdrj, ro vrroXei<l>dev avviararat. oaai he purj yiyvop^evcov rdJv Karap,7]vioiv avXXap.^dvovGLV, 'q fxera^v yiyvopievwv varepov Se p,T], atrtov 20 on rats puev roaavrrj ytVerat iKfids oar] p,era. rrjv Kadapatv VTroXeiirerai rais yovcfxois, TrXeioiv S' ov yiyverai TTepirrojOLS ware Kal dvpal,e drreXdelv, rals 8e p.erd rrjv Kddapatv avpLpiveL ro arop^a rojv varepdJv. orav ovv ttoXv puev ro dTreXrjXvdos rj, eVt 8e yiyvqrai p,ev KdOapais, pjq roaavrrj he coare 25 avve^LKpLdt,eiv^ ro arreppia, rore irX'qoLdt.ovaai avXXapifidvovaL rrdXiv.* ovhev he droTTOV ro avveLXrj(f)viaLS en yiyveadaf Kal yap varepov p-e^pi rivos (f)OLra. rd Karapiiqvia, oXiya he Kal ov 8ta navros.

^ seclusit Platt : to irapa Z.

^ yevva A.-\V. : yiyverai vulg. : ylyverai <(7uAA7/</(ts> l^tf.

' avvel^iKfxd^eiv Z : e^iKi^di^eiv vulg.

  • TraAiv om. PS.

« See above, 736 b 19.

  • " This really means ordinary individuals in which the menstrual discharge takes place.



no pleasure from the act of coitus ; and, on the contrary side, when the female derives as much pleasure as tile male, and they both keep the same pace, the female does not bear - unless there is a proper amount of menstrual Uquid (as it is called) present. Thus, the female does not bear (a) if the menstrual fluid is completely absent, (6) if it is present and the discharge of moisture is in progress (in most instances) ; but only (c) after the evacuation is over. The reason is that in one case (a) the female has no nourishment, no material, for the dynamis " supplied by the male in the semen to draw upon and so to cause the living creature to take shape from it ; in the other case (6) it is washed right away owing to the volume of the menstrual fluid. When, however, (c) the discharge is over and most of it has passed off, then what remains begins to take shape as a fetus. There are instances of women who conceive without the occurrence of menstrual discharge ; others conceive during its occurrence but not after it. The reasons are these. The former produce only just so much liquid as remains in fertile individuals ^ after the evacuation is over, and there is no surplus residue to be discharged externally ; in the latter, the mouth of the uterus closes up after the evacuation is over. Therefore, when there has been a plentiful discharge and yet the evacuation still continues, though not so copiously that the discharge of moisture carries the semen away with it, that is the time when if they have intercourse women can conceive again. There is nothing odd about the menstrual fluid's continuing to flow after conception has taken place ; indeed it actually recurs afterwards up to a point, but it is scanty and does not last throughout gestation. How 99


727 b

aAAo. TOVTO fxev voarjfiarojSes, SioTrep oAiyat? Kal oXiyaKis (TVjLtjSatvef to. S' cos €7tI to ttoXv yLvofxeva 30 fiaXiara Kara (f)uaiv iariv.

"On fJiev ovv avjJL^dXXeraL to drjXv els ttjv ye veaiv TTjV vXr]v, tovto S' €cjtIv iv Trj tcov /cara fjLTjVLCov avaTaaei, to. 8e KaTa/jL-qvia TreptTTOj/xa, StjAov.

XX "0 S' OLOvTai Tives arrep^a avfi^aXXeaOai iv 35 rfj avvovaia to 67]Xv 8td to yiveadai TrapaTrXt] aiav T€ -^apav evLore avTals ttj tcov dppevcov Kal dfjia vypdv aTroKpiatv, ovk eaTiv tj vypaaia avTTj 728 a aTTepjjiaTtKr) dAAa tov tottov lSlos e/cdcrrais'. ecrrt yap Twv vcTepoJv CKKpicns, Kal rats fjuev yiyverai Tols 8' ov. yiyveTai pikv ydp^ rat? XevKoxpoois Kal drjXvKals cos cttI to ttoXu elTrelv, ov ytVerat Se Tals fieXaivais Kal dppevcoTTols . to 8e TrXrjdos, als yi 5 yv€Tai, eviOTe ov Kara arreppiaTOS Trpoeaiv icrTiv, dXXd rroXv vnep^aXXei. €tl 8e Kal iSeapara eVe/aa ^ yap SZ : om. vulg.

° Aristotle's notion that the menstrual blood is the substance from which the embryo is formed reigned unquestioned for many centuries. (It appears in the Wisdom of Solomon, vii. 2, " In the womb of a mother was I moulded into flesh in the time of ten months, being compacted in blood of the seed of man and the pleasure that came with sleep.") It can be seen pictured in 16th centurj' obstetrical books such as the De conceptu et generatione liominis of Jacob llueff (1,554.). Its falsity was decisively demonstrated by William Harvey, who in his Exercitationes de generatione animalium (1651) describes his dissections of the uteri of does in King Charles the First's forests, at diiferent stages after coitus. The expected mass of blood and seed was never found ; a source of great perplexitj' to Harvey himself, since the mammalian egg was not discovered until long after 100


ever, this is a morbid condition, and that is why it only occurs infrequently and in few subjects. It is what occurs generally that is most in accord with the course of Nature.

By now it is plain that the contribution which the female makes to generation is the matter used therein, that this is to be found in the substance constituting the menstrual fluid, and finally that the menstrual fluid is a residue.

There are some who think that the female con- XX tributes semen * during coition because women sometimes derive pleasure from it comparable to that of the male and also produce a fluid secretion. This fluid, however, is not seminal ; it is pecuUar to the part from which it comes in each several individual ; there is a discharge from the uterus, which though it happens in some women does not in others. Speaking generally, this happens in fair-skinned women '^ who are typically feminine, and not in dark women of a masculine appearance. Where it occurs, this discharge is sometimes on quite a diiFerent scale from the semen discharged by the male, and greatly exceeds it in bulk. Furthermore, differences of food his death. We know now that the menstrual bleeding is a phase in the sexual cycle, this phase being usually succeeded by the periodical liberation of the egg from the ovarj', and by its attachment (if fertilized) to the wall of the uterus.

  • The view that the female also contributed semen was apparently adopted by the Epicureans ; see Lucretius iv. 1229 semper enim partus duplici de semine constat ; cf. 1247, 1257-1258.

' This apparently refers to the so-called vaginal discharge, which is a natural secretion {cf. 739 a 37); but the latter part of the paragraph seems to describe leucorrhoea, which is pathological. The two have apparently been confused.

" Cf. H.A.BBSsL 11.


728 a

ARISTOTLE eripojv TTOiel TToWrjv 8ia(f)opav rod yiyveadai Tr]V €KKpiaiv r) eXdrro) 7) TrAetoJ rr^v TOLavrrjv, olov eVia Ta)V Sptfxecov eTTLSrjXov iroLel els TrXrjdog rrjv aTTOKpiaiv.

10 To 8e o-ujLijSatVetv -qSovrjV iv rfj avvovaia ov p.6vov Tov OTTepixaros Trpo'CefJievov eariv, aXka /cat rrvevfiaros, €^ ov avviara[X€Vov aTToaTreppuarit^ei. SrjXov 8' inl rwv nalScov tojv /xt^ttcd Swafievcov Trpoteadai, eyyvs Se r^s" rjXtKias ovrcov, /cat roJv ayovcov dvhpcov ytVerai yap Trdai rovTOis r)Sovr] ^vojxevocS' 15 /cat rots' ye hiecfidapixevoLS rrjV yeveaiv eanv ore dvaXvovrai, at KoiXiaL §ta to dTTOKpiveadai ireptTrajfia els rrjv KoiXiav ov hvvdp.evov 7Te(f)6rjvaL /cat yeveadai OTrepfxa.

"Eot/ce he /cat rr^v /Jiop(f>7)v yvvaLKi^ ttols, xai eanv rj yvvrj wairep dppev dyovov dhvvapiia yap rivL TO drjXv eoTL, to) ixtj hvvaadai ireTTeiv e/c tt^? 20 Tpo(j>7]s OTTeppia ttjs voTdTrfs {tovto 8' cgtIv t] aijLta rj to dvdXoyov iv tols dvat/xot?) 8ta ipv^pdrr^Ta TTjs (f>va€(x)s. warrep ovv iv raZs /cotAtat? 8ta ttjv dTrei/jtav ytVerat hidppoia, ovtcds iv Tats (f>XeipLv al t' d'AAat alpLoppothes Kal rj Tchv KaTap.r]VLOJV pvaris^' /cat yap avTT] alfxoppots ecTTiv, dAA' e/ce^^•at fxev 8td 25 voaov, avTrj he (jivaiKrj.

"Q.OTe cfyavepov otl evXoycos ytverat e/c tovtov rj yeveoLS. eoTL yap rd /cara/xr^vta anepfjia ov /cadapov dXXd heojjievov ipyaaias, cooTrep ev rfj irept ^ yvvaLKi Z : yvvr) koI Vlllg.

^ tJ TaJV K. pVOLS \ '• 0.1 TWV K. Vulg.



cause a great difference in the amount of this discharge which is produced : e.g., some pungent foods cause a noticeable increase in the amount.

The pleasure which accompanies copulation is due to the fact that not only semen but also pneuma " is emitted : it is from this pneuma as it collects together that the emission of the semen results. This is plain in the ease of boys who cannot yet emit semen, though they are not far from the age for it, and in infertile men, because all of them derive pleasure from attrition. Indeed, men whose generative organs have been destroyed sometimes suffer from looseness of the bowels caused by residue which cannot be concocted and converted into semen being secreted into the intestine.

Further, a boy actually resembles a woman in physique, and a woman is as it were an infertile male ; the female, in fact, is female on account of inabiUt}'** of a sort, \\z., it lacks the power to concoct semen out of the final state of the nourishment (this is either blood, or its counterpart in bloodless animals) because of the coldness of its nature. Thus, just as lack of concoction produces in the bowels diarrhoea, so in the blood-vessels it produces discharges of blood of various sorts, and especially the menstrual discharge (which has to be classed as a discharge of blood, though it is a natural discharge, and the rest are morbid ones).

Hence, plainly, it is reasonable to hold that generation takes place from this process ; for, as we see, the menstrual fluid is semen, not indeed semen in a pure condition, but needing still to be acted upon. It <• See 718 a 4, 738 a 1, etc. * Cf. 765 b 9.



728 a

Tovs KapTTovs yevecrei, orav fi [xt^ttoj SLrjOrjfiev)],^ eveart fiev r) Tpo^rj, Setrat 8' epyaata? npos ttjv 30 Kadapaiv. Sto Kal iXLyvvfxevq eKeivT] fiev rfj yovrj, avTTj 8e Kadapa Tpocjjfj, tj [xev yewa, rj he rpe^ei.

HrjlieLOV 8e tov to drjXv jxrj Trpoteadat anepfjia /cat TO yiveaOai iv rfj opuXiq. Tr]v rjSovrjv rfj a<j)fj Kara rov avrov tottov toIs dppeatv KairoL ov TTpotevrai. rrjv t/c/xaSa ravrrjv ivrevdev. €tl 8' ov 35 Trdat yiverai roXs di^XeaLV avrrj -q eKKpicrt?, dXXa TOLs aLfxaTLKOLS , Kal oi)8e rovTOLS TTaoiv, dAA' ogojv at varepai (jltj rrpos tr] nera ttjs Kadapds TTjv vdaav TTOvel xp^oipixaTepav rijs oXiyrjs. - For the two sorts of T|oo<^^, see 744 b 32 ff. Cf. 725 a 17.

" Cf. 739 b 15.

  • i.e., the extremity of the bent limb is moved towards the 104



is the same \^ith fruit when it is forming. The nourishment is present right enough, even before it has been strained off, but it stands in need of being acted upon in order to purify it. That is why when the former is mixed with the semen, and when the latter is mixed %\ith pure nourishment," the one effects generation, and the other effects nutrition.

An indication that the female emits no semen is actually afforded by the fact that in intercourse the pleasure is produced in the same place as in the male by contact, yet this is not the place from which the liquid is emitted. Further, this discharge does not occur in all females, but only in those which are blooded, and not in all of them, but only in those whose uterus is not close by the diaphragm and which are not oviparous ; nor again in those which have an analogous substance instead of blood (they have another composition which is for them what blood is for the others). Dryness of the body is the cause why neither these animals nor the blooded ones I mentioned (viz., those whose uterus is low down and which are not oviparous) produce this evacuation ; their dr}-ness leaves over but little residue, only enough in fact for generation, not enough to be emitted externally. Take next the animals which are \-i\iparous but not previously oviparous : this means man, and those quadrupeds uhich bend their hind legs inwards. The menstrual discharge occurs in all of these ; though if they are deformed ^ in any respect main bulk of the body and not away from it, so that the angle of the bent joint points away from the body. " Inwards" thus has no reference to "knock knees." See I.A. 704 a 19 flf.. Til a 8 ff. ; H.A. 498 a 3 ff. ; and my diagram in Partx of Animals (Loeb), p. 433. "* See Ihtrod. § U.


728 b

ARISTOTLE rat eV rfj yeveaei, olov opevs, ov /xrjv e7TnTo\at,ovai ye at Kaddpaeis (LoTTep dvdpcoTTOLS. §t' aKpi^etas Be, TTa)s avpL^aiveL ravra irepl eKaarov rojv i^cpcov, yeypaTTTai, ev rat? Trepl rd ^oja laropiais- TrXeLOTT] 15 8e yiverai Kadapais rcjv ^wcov rats yvvai^i, /cat TOis appeal TrXeioTrj tov aTrep/JLaros npoeaig Kara Xoyov TOV jxeyedovs. alnov S' tJ tov awfiaTOs avoTaats vypd /cat depfir] ovaa' dvayKoiov ydp ev TO) TOLovTO) ytveadai TrXeLaTrjv TrepLTTOiaiv. ert he ovhe Ta TotavT e';(et ev tco aco/xaTt [j^^epr) et? a 20 T/oeTrerai rj TrepLTTOjais, wcnrep ev tois aAAot?' ov yap ex^i- ovTe Tpi^o^v ttXtjOos Kara to acjfxa, ouVe ootCov /cat KepdTOiv /cat ohovTCJV e/c/cptaety.

'Lrjixelov 8' OTi ev tols KaTafjLrjVLOig to aireppia eoTLV a/xa yap, oiarrep e'iprjTai npoTepov, tols appeal, yiverat to TrepLTTcofia tovto /cat rot? drjXeai 25 TCt /cara/AT^vta eTnarjfxaLvet ev tjj avTjj rjXiKLa, ojs /cat a/xa SiLaTafievcov tcov tottcjov tojv heKTiKoiiv eKaTepov tov TreptTTco/xaro? • /cat dpacovixevcov eKaTepoJv tcov TrXrjaiov tottojv e^avdel rj ttjs 'fj^yjs Tptp^cuCTt?. fJieXXovTCov de hdaTaadai ol tottol dvolSovolv vtto tov TTvevpiaTos, TOLS p-ev dppeaiv emSrjXoTepov 776/31 Tovs 6p)(€LS, €7TLar)p,aLveL Se /cat 30 TTepl Tovs p^aoTOVs, tols 8e di^XeaL Trepl tovs ftaOTOVS fJidXXov OTav ydp Svo SaKTvXovs dpOdJai, TOTe yLveTai to. /cara/u-i^vta rat? TrAetarat?.^ Ev oaoLS fJLev ovv tcov C,corjv e-)(6vTCov p,r) /ceXaipiaTaL to drjXv /cat to dppev, tovtols /xev to ^ vv. 22-32 seel. Sus.

» See Book II, ch. 8. * H.A. 572 b 29 ff.



in their formation, as, e.g., the mule," the evacuation is not as ob^â– ious as it is in human beings. An exact account of this matter, as it concerns every sort of animal, is to be found in the Researches upon Animals.^ A larger amount of evacuation is produced by women than by any other animal, and a larger amount of semen in proportion to their size is emitted by men ; the reason being that the composition of the human body is fluid and warm, and that is just the sort of organism which of necessity produces the greatest amount of residue ; further, the human body does not possess the sort of parts to which the residue gets diverted, as other animals do : it has no great coat of hair all over the body,*^ and no secretions in the form of bones, horns and tusks.

Here is an indication that the semen resides in the menstrual discharge. As I said before, this residue is formed in males at the same time of Ufe as the menstrual discharge becomes noticeable in females ; which suggests that the places which are the receptacles of these residues also become differentiated at the same time in each sex ; and as the neighbouring ])laces in each sex become less firm in their consistency, the pubic hair grows up too. Just before these places receive their differentiation, they are swelled up by the pneuma : in males, this is clearer in regard to the testes, but it is also to be noticed in the breasts ; whereas in females it is clearer in the breasts : it is when the breasts have risen a couple of fingers' breadth that the menstrual discharge begins in most women.

Now in those li\-ing creatures where male and female are not separate, the semen (seed) is as it ' Or, in proportion to the size of the body.



728 b

anepfia oiov kutj/jLo, eariv. Xeyoj Se KvrjjjLa to 35 TTpcoTOV (jLiyixa^ dt^Xeos Kal dppevos. 8i6 /cat i^ evos (TTrepixaros ev awfxa yiverai, olov ef* eVo? TTvpov els TrvdjJiT^v, wairep i^ eVoj wov iv t,a)ov {to.

729 a yap StSy/^a rcvv waJv 8vo (La iariv) . iv ocrot? Se rcov yeviov SLcoptarai to drjXv Kal to dppev, ev* tov Tots a(f> ivos OTTepfiaTos ivSex^Tai ttoXXo. yiveadat 4<Sa, 6l>s" hi.a<^epovTos ttj cjivaec tov aireppiaTOS iv Tols (f)VTOLS T€ Kal l,cpois . OT^fMeXov Se, dvo pud's 5 yap ox^ias rrXeiOi ytVerat ev tols TrXeia) hvvapiivoLs yevvdv evos. fj Kal SijXov otl ovk aiTo iravTos epx^rai rj yovrj- ovTe yap dv Kexojpiapi.eva diro tov avTOV pLepovs evdvs aTreKpiveTO, ovTe dpba eXdovTa els Tas VGTepas eVet Ste^^co/ot^ero- aAAa avpi^aivei.

10 waTTep evXoyov, eTreLSrj to pLev dppev rrapex^Tai to re etSo? Kal ttjv dpx'^v Trjs Kivqaews, to 8e dfjXv to CTcD/xa /cat tt^i^ vXrjv, olov ev ttj tov ydXaKTog Tnfj^ei TO pLev acD/xa to ydXa eoTiv, 6 8e ottos' "q rj^ TTVTLa TO Trjv dpxrjv e^ov ttjv avvLOTaaav, ovtoj TO dno tov dppevos iv tm ^T^Aet pLepL^op^evov. St' 15 rjv 8' atTtav pLepit,eTai evda p,ev els TrXeiui evda 8' els iXaTTOJ evda 8e pLova^cos, eTepos earat Aoyo?.

dAAa 8ta TO pnqdev ye Sia^epeiv Ta> ecSei, dAA' e'di^ ^ eK add. PSY, om. vulg., Z*. * e^ YZ*, om. vulg.

  • eV Z : ev Se vulg. : eV S17 Y. * ^-q Platt, Btf. : ^ Z : Tj vulg.

» See Introd. §§ 56 ff. " Cf. 723 b 10, 728 a 27.

" Cf. above, 722 b 28, 723 b 14.

^ The " Formal " Cause, and the " Motive " (or " Efficient ") Cause, i.e., sentient Soul, ^ ' The " Material" Cause. See Introd. §§ 1 ff. With this passage cf. Met. 1014 a 34 dvdpanrov tls aiTia (Ls vX-q; to, KarafjiTjvia; ri 8' (hs kwovv; apa to airepfjua; 108


were a fetation.** (By fetation I mean the primary mixture of male and female.) This explains incidentally why one body only is formed from one seed - e.g., one stalk from one grain of corn, just like one animal from one egg (double-yolked eggs of course count as two eggs). In those groups, however, where male and female are distinct, many animals may be formed from one semen, which suggests that the nature of semen in animals differs from that in plants.^ We have as a proof of this those animals which are able to produce more offspring than one at a time, where more than one are formed as the result of one act of coitus. This shows also that the semen is not drawn from the whole body ; because we cannot suppose (a) that at the moment of discharge • it contains a number of separate portions from one and the same part of the body ; nor (b) that these portions all enter the uterus together and separate themselves out when they have got there. No ; what happens is what one would expect to happen. The male provides the " form " and the " principle of the movement," ^ the female provides the body, in other words, the material." Compare the coagulation of milk. Here, the milk is the body, and the fig-juice or the rennet contains the principle which causes it to set.^ The semen of the male acts in the same way as it gets divided up into portions within the female. (Another part of the treatise^ will explain the Cause why in some cases it gets divided into many portions, in others into few, while in others it is not divided up at all.) But as this semen which gets divided up exhibits no difference in kind, all that

Cf. 739 b 23. ' 771 b 14 ff.


729 a

ARISTOTLE fjiovov avfiixerpov fj to hLaipovfievov rrpos rrjv vXtjv, Kal fi-qre eXarrov ware fxr] irerTeiv fjLTjSe avvtardvat, jLti^re TrXelov ware ^rjpdvai, TrAeto) ovtoj 20 yewarai. e/c Se rov avvLardvTos irpcoTov, i^ ivos rj8r) €V yiver at fxovov.

"On jxev oiiv to OfjXv elg ttjv yeveatv yovrjv [xev ov Gup^aXXeTaL, avp^^aXXeTai 8e rt, Kal tovt* icTTiv 7] Tcov KaTapLrjVLOJV avGTaoLg Kai to dvdXoyov iv TOLS dvaipLOLS, €k t€ TOiV elprjp^evtov SrjXov /cat /caret TOP Xoyov KadoXov aKOTTOvp.ivoLS- dvayKT] 25 ydp elvai to yevvojv /cat (jo}^ e^ ov, /cat raur'" dv Kal ev rj, tw ye etSet Sta^epetv' /cat tco tov Xoyov avTcDv eivat eTepov, iv Se rots' K€)(ajpLap.€vas exovai ra? 8vvdp,€i.s Kal to. CTco/xara /cat tyjv <f)vaiv cTepav efrat tov re ttoiovvtos Kal tov TrdaxovTos. el ovv TO dppev IotIv d)s KLvovv Kal ttolovv, to 8e OrjXv, 30 ^ dijXv,^ CVS TTadrjTLKov , eis tttjv tov dppevos yovrjv TO di]Xv dv avpL^dXXoLTO ov yovrjv aAA' vXr^v. orrep Kal (^atVerat avp-^alvov /caret yap Trjv TrpuiTiqv vXrjv* ioTlv 7] TCOV KaTap,rjVLCOv (f>vaig.

' <To> Rackham.

^ ravr' Peck : tout' vulg.

» ^ d-qXv fort. seel, (ex 729 b 12 insertum ?).

  • /caret . . . vXrjv] 17 yap irpcuTrj vX-q Z.

» Cf. 772 a 12. * In one individual.

" i.e., specifically, in " form." ^ See Introd. § 10.

" At Met. 1015 a 8 {cf. 1014 b 27) Aristotle speal of " prime matter " in two senses: e.g., in the case of broni articles (o) the prime matter relatively to them is bronze, bj (l>) generally it is water (because all things that can be melted according to Aristotle, consist of water). And " prime matter " is one of the meanings of ^vais, both according to Met. (loc. cit.) and Phys. 193 a 28 : " one meaning of ^vai.s is Tj npioT-q e/caaro) vnoKeifievj] vXt] twv ixovTcov iv avTots o.px'fjv 110


is required in order to produce numerous offspring is that there should be the right amount of it to suit the material available - neither so little that it fails to concoct it or even to set it, nor so much that it dries it up." If on the other hand this semen which causes the original setting remains single and undivided, then one single offspring only is formed from it.

The foreffoinor discussion will have made it clear that the female, though it does not contribute any semen to generation, yet contributes something, viz., the substance constituting the menstrual fluid (or the corresponding substance in bloodless animals). But the same is apparent if we consider the matter generally, from the theoretical standpoint. Thus : there must be that which generates, and that out of which it generates ; and even if these two be united in one, at any rate they must differ in kind,*^ and in that the logos "^ of each of them is distinct. In those animals in which these two faculties are separate, the body- - that is to say the physical nature - of the active partner and of the passive must be different. Thus, if the male is the active partner, the one which originates the movement, and the female qua female is the passive one, surely what the female contributes to the semen of the male ^\ill be not semen but material. And this is in fact what we find happening ; for the natural substance of the menstrual fluid is to be classed as " prime matter." * KtvTqaecas koI /lerajSoA^s." In its lowest phase, " prime matter" is that which, united with the prime contrarieties (hot, cold, solid, fluid), produces the " elements " Earth, Air, Fire, Water; but, as the term "prime " itself suggests, " matter" is altogether a relative conception, and in its highest phase matter is one and the same as "' form " {Met. 1045 b 18).


ARISTOTLE 729 a XXI Kat 776/31 fxev tovtcdv hioipiadoi rov rporrov tov 35 Tov. dfxa 8' e/c rovrcov <j>avep6vy Trepl cLv €-)(6piev6v 729 b eariv eTTiaKeipaadai,, ttcos TTore avpif^aXXeraL els ttjv yeveaiv to appev, Kol ttcos atriov ioTL tov yivo fjievov TO orrepfxa to drro tov dppevos, rroTepov ws €VVTrdp)(ov Koi piopiov ov evdvs tov yivopidvov ao) fxaTos, p-Lyvvfjievov Trj vXr] ttj Trapd tov OrjXeos, 't] 5 TO pikv acbp^a ovdkv Koivcovel tov airepp^aTOs, rj S' iv avTO) Swa/xi? Kal Kivqats' avTrj p,ev yap ioTtv ■f) TTOiovaa, TO Se avvtaTdp,€VOV Kal XapL^dvov ttjv p,Op(f)rjV TO TOV iv TCp drjXcL TTepLTTd)p.aTOS XoLTTOV.

Kara re hrj tov Xoyov ovtcxj ^aiVerat /cat ctti tcov epyoiv. KaOoXov re yap intaKoirovaLV ov (f>ai.v€Tai 10 yiyvopievov ev e/c tov TradrjTLKov /cat tov ttocovvtos d)S ivv7Tdp)(ovTos €v TO) yivopLevo) tov ttolovvtos , ou8' oXojs Srj €/c TOV KLVovpiivov /cat klvovvtos. dXXd p-Tjv TO ye drjXv, fj drjXv, TradrjTiKov, to 8' dppev, f) dppev, ttol7]tlkov /cat odev rj dpx'f) tt^? KLvqaecos. woTe dv Xr]^dfj Ta a/cpa eKaTepctiv, fj 15 TO p,ev TTOLrjTLKov /cat KLVovv, TO 8e TTadrjTLKov /cat KLVovpievov, ovK eoTLV e/c tovtojv to yiyvojjLevov ev, aAA' rj ovTUis COS e/c tov tcktovos /cat ^vXov r) kXlvt], r) chs e/c tov Krjpov /cat tov eiSovs r] a<^alpa. SrjXov dpa otl ovt dvdyKr] aTrteVai rt " Aristotle now comes to grips with deciding between the alternatives stated at 726 b 18 ff.

  • i.e., that portion of the menstrual fluid which is not discharged externallv.

« Cf. 716 a 27 ff. 112


These then are the Unes upon which that subject XXI should be treated. And what we have said indicates generation. plainly at the same time how we are to answer the questions which we next have to conside?;, viz., how it is that the male makes its contribution to generation, and how the semen produced by the male is the cause of the offspring ; that is to say. Is the semen inside the offspring to start with, from the outset a part of the body which is formed, and minghng \vith the material pro\ided by the female ; or does the physical part of the semen have no share nor lot in the business, only the dynamis and movement contained in it ? " This, any^vay, is the active and efficient ingredient ; whereas the ingredient which gets set and given shape is the remnant " of the residue in the female animal. The second suggestion is clearly the right one, as is shown both by reasoning and by observed fact, (a) If we consider the matter on general grounds, we see that when some one thing is formed from the conjunction of an active partner \\ith a passive one, the active partner is not situated ^v'ithin the thing which is being formed ; and we may generalize this still further by substituting " moving " and " moved " for " active " and " passive." Now of course the female, qua female,*^ is passive, and the male, qua male, is active - it is that Avhence the principle of movement comes. Taking, then, the widest formulation of each of these two opposites, viz., regarding the male qua active and causing movement, and the female qua passive and being set in movement, we see that the one thing which is formed is formed /Vom them onlv in the sense in which a bedstead is formed from the carpenter and the wood, or a ball from the wax and the form. It is plain, then, 113

ARISTOTLE 729 b , , . . .,,.,,, . r .

arro rov appevos, ovr et ti aTrepx^Tai, ota tovto 20 e/c TOVTOV ojs evvnap^^ovros to yiyvop.evov eariv, aAA' COS" e/c KLviqaavTOS Kal rod eihovs, cos Kal drro rrjs larpiKrjs 6 vycaadeis. avpL^aiveL 8' ofJioXoyovfieva TO) Xoyo) Kal evrt twv epycxjv. hia tovto yap evia Tcxiv dppevcov /cat avvSvat,oiJ,€Vcov tols d-qXeaiv ovhe fxopiov ovOev ^atVerai Trpo'Ceixeva elg to drjXv, 25 aAAa TovvavTiov to OrjXv els to dppev, o avp-^aivet evLOLS TOJv ivTOfiwv. o ydp^ tols 7Tpo'iep.evoLS dir€pyd^€Tai TO OTTeppia iv to) d-qXet, tovtols^ r) iv TO) ^cpcp avTO) depfioT'qs^ Kal SvvapLis aTrepya^erat, eLa(f)epovTos tov dT]X€os to B€Ktlk6v TOV TrepLTTWju.aros' pLoptov. Kal 8td tovto to. TOiavra tojv 30 ^wojv <JvpiTrXeK€Tai p,ev ttoXvv xpovov, ht-aXvdevTa he yevva Ta^eojs. avvhehvaoTai piev ovv* pLexpi-S ov^ dv avGT'^arj, ojOTrep r) yovrf- hiaXvQevTa he TrpoteTai TO Kvrjpa Taxecos' yevva yap dreAe's" OKcoXriKOTOKei yap ndvTa rd ToiavTa.

MeyiaTOV Se arjpLeZov to avpL^alvov irepl tovs opvidas /cat TO t&v Ixdvcov yevos rcov cootokcov 35 tov pirjTe arro TravTOJV levaC to OTTeppia tcov pLoptiDV, 730 a pLt^TC TTpoteaOac to dppev tolovtov ti piopiov o earai evvTrdpxpv tw yevvrjOevTi, dAAd piovov rfj BvvdpLeL TTJ iv Trj yovfj ^ojoTrotetv, cooTtep etnopiev errl ^ yap Z : yap iv vulg. ^ rovrois Z : tovto vulg.

^ OfpfioTTjs Z : vypoTTjs vulg.

■* /A6V oiv\ yap Z. ^ t^^XP^ °^ f*^ * f^^XP vulg.

^ hie locus baud sanus videtur ; fortasse awSeSvaarai . . . Taxecos secludenda ; om. S.

' tVvai A.-M'^., Z* : exit S : etvai. vulg, " See above, ch. 16.

  • Probably the words " the copulation . . . discharge the fetation " should be deleted. 114.


that there is no necessity for any substance to pass from the male ; and if any does pass, this does not mean tfiat the offspring is formed from it as from something situated \\-ithin itself during the process, but as from that which has imparted movement to it. or that which is its " form." The relationship is the same as that of the patient who has been healed to the medical art. (6) This piece of reasoning is entirely borne out by the facts. It explains why certain of those males which copulate with the females are observed to introduce no part at all into the female, but on the contrary the female introduces a part into the male. This occurs in certain insects.** In those cases where the male introduces some part, it is the semen which produces the effect inside the female ; but in the case of these insects, the same effect is produced by the heat and dynamis inside the (male) animal itself when the female inserts the part which receives the residue. And that is why animals of this sort take a long time over copulation, and once they have separated the young are soon produced : the copulation lasts until (the dynamis in the male) has " set " (the material in the female), just as the semen does ; but once they have separated they soon discharge the fetation, ** because the offspring they produce is imperfect ; all such creatures, in fact, produce larvae.

However, it is the beha\'iour of birds and the group of o\iparous fishes which pro\ides us ^^^th our strongest proof (a) that the semen is not drawn from all the parts of the body, and (6) that the male does not emit anv part such as will remain situated within the fetus, but begets the young animal simply by means of the dynamis residing in the semen (just as 115

ARISTOTLE TO)v evTo/xajv, iv ot? to drjXv Trpoterai et? to appev. 5 edv T€ yap v7T7]V€^La tvxJ] Kvovaa rj opvtg, eav [xera ravra oxevrjrai, fJu-qTrco fxera^e^Xr) kotos tou (hov e/c Tov (L)(p6v oXov elvai et? to XevKaiveadai, yovLjJia yiv€Tai o-vtI VTrr^vepiicjv' idv tc V(j> eTepov <l)-)(€Vfi4vT] {fjY /cat eT4 (hxpov ovto?, KaTO. TOV vaTepov ox^vaavTa to yevos a.7roj8atVet Trdv to tcov veoTTOJV.

10 StO eVlOt, TOVTOV TOV TpOTTOV TCOV 776/31 TCLS OpVldaS TOLS yevvaias OTTovBa^ovTcov TTOiovaL, pieTa^dXXovTes Ta irpaJTa d;^eta /cat Tct voTepa, a>s" ov avpifiiyvvp,€vov /cat ivvTrdpxov, ovS^ aTTO TravTos eXOov to GTTeppia' aTT* dji^oZv yap dv -^Xdev, wot ^Ix^v dv St? TauTo. /xepiy. dXXd T-fj Svvdp.eL to tov dppcvos 15 aTTepfia ttjv iv tw d'qXei vXrjv /cat Tpocfirfv ttoiov TLva KaTaaK€vd^€L. tovto yap evSep^CTat Trotelv to voTepov iveiaeXOov e/c tou depfidvai /cat rreipaL' XafX^dvei yap Tpo(f)r)v to (hov ecog dv av^dvQTai.

To 8' a?3T6 ay/XjSatVei /cat Trepl ttjv tu)v l)(QvoiV yeveaiv tcl)v woTOKovyievcov . oTav yap aTTOTCKT] 20 Ta c^a rj d-^Xeia, 6 dpprjv eTTLppaivet tov dopov /cat wv fJL€v dv i(f)difjrjTaL, yovLp^a raura ytrcTat Ta (I)d, (Lv 8 dv pLTj, dyova, d>g ovk €ls to ttooov avp,^aXXopb€Vov Toig t,cpocg tov dppevog, dAA' • els TO TTOIOV.

"Otl [xev ovv ovT a.7ro TravTo? aTTepx^TaL to 25 OTTepixa tols TTpo'CefievoLS OTrippLa tcov t,a>ojv, ovTe 1 <^> Peck.

» See below, 757 b 2 f . 116


we said happened with those insects where the female inserts a part into the male). Here is the evidence. Supposing a hen bird is in process of producing wind-eggs, and then that she is trodden by the cock while the egg is still completely yellow and has not yet started to whiten : the result is that the eggs are not wind-eggs but fertile ones. And supposing the hen has been trodden by another cock while the egg is still yellow," then the whole brood of chickens w^hen hatched out takes after the second cock. Some breeders who speciaUze in first-class strains act upon this, and change the cock for the second treading. The implication is (a) that the semen is not situated inside the egg and mixed up with it, and (b) that it is not dra\vn from the whole of the body of the male : if it were in this case, it would be draw'n from both males, so the offspring would have every part twice over. No ; the semen of the jnale acts otherwise ; in virtue of the dynamis which it contains it causes the material and nourishment in the female to take on a particular character ; and this can be done by that semen which is introduced at a later stage, working through heating and concoction, since the egg takes in nourishment so lono^ as it is <jrowinff.

The same thing occurs in the generation of oviparous fishes. When the female fish has laid her eggs, the male sprinkles his milt over them ; the eggs which it touches become fertile, but the others are infertile, which seems to imply that the contribution which the male makes to the young has to do not with bulk but with specific character.

What has been said makes it clear that, in the case of animals which emit semen, the semen is not drawn from the whole of the body, and also that in generally

ARISTOTLE TO drjXv 77po? rrjv yeveoiv ovrco crujU-jSaAAerai rot? avvLaTaficvois ws to dppev, dXXa to [xev dppev dp)(rjv KLVTjaews, to 8e OtjXv ttjv vXtjv, SrjXov e/c Twv elp-qpuevcDV. Sta yap tovto out' auTO Kad avTO yewa to drjXv, SetTai yap dpxrjs Kal tov 30 KtvrjuovTos Kal diopLovvTos (aAA' ivioig ye twv ^cpcov, OLOV ToXs opvLGi, pi^XP 'T^'^O^ ^ (f)VaLS SwaTttt yevvdv avTai yap avviOTdai fxev, aTeXrj 8e avvXXII iOTaaL Ta KaXovfxeva VTrrjvepiia lod), rj tc yeveats ev TO) diqXei, avpu^atvei tojv yivofxevcov, aAA' ovk els TO dppev ovt* avTO to^ dppev TrpoteTai ttjv yov7]v 35 ovTe TO drjXv, dAA' dfxcfxo els to d'qXv avpL^dXXovTai 730 b TO Trap* avTOJv ytyvofievov, Sta to ev tw d-qXei elvai TTjv vXrjv e^ rjs eaTi to Srjpiiovpyovpievov, Kal evdvs TTjv fiev dOpoov vrrapxeiv dvayKalov e^ -^S crvviaTaTat, to Kvrjpia to TtpwTov, tt^v S' cttiylveadai del^ ttjs vXtjs, iv' av^dvr)Tat to Kvovpuevov.^ 5 WOT* dvdyKT] ev tw dr^Xei inrapxeiv tov tokov /cat yap TTpos TO) (vXcp 6 tcktcov Kal irpos tco irrjXcp 6 Kepapievs, Kal oAoj? Trdaa tj epyaaia /cat t) Kiviqats Tj eaxdrq Trpos ttj vXt), olov 'q otKoSopbrjais ev toIs olKohopLOVpLeVOLS. ActjSot S' dv TtS eK TOVTOJV Kal TO dppev 770)? ovpL^aXXeTai Trpos ttjv yeveaiv ovhe 10 yap TO dppev dnav TrpoteTai aireppia, oaa Te ^ appev ovt' airro to Buss. -Platt (Kal ovk avro to Z) : dppev ovt' av TO vulg. (<*<:at> our' Sus.).

^ aei SY : Set vulg. * Kvov^ievov SZ : Kvofjievov voilg.

" This is explained in the passage which follows (730 b 1 5 ff. ). 118


tion the contribution which the female makes to the embryos when they are being " set " and constituted is on different lines from that of the male ; in other words, the male contributes the principle of movement " and the female contributes the material. This is why (a) on the one hand the female does not generate on its own : it needs some source or principle to supply the material >rith movement and to determine its character (though in some (female) animals, as in birds, Nature can generate up to a point : the females of these species do actually " set " a fetation, but what they " set " is imperfect, xiz., what are kno^^^l as wind-eggs) ; (6) on the other hand, the formation XXII of the young does in fact take place in the female, whereas neither the male himself nor the female emits semen into the male, but they both deposit together what they have to contribute in the female - it is because that is where the material is out of which the creature that is being fashioned is made. And as regards this material, a good quantity of it must of necessity be available immediately, out of which the fetation is " set " and constituted in the first place, and after that fresh suppUes of it must be continually arri\'ing to make its growth possible. Hence, of necessity, it is in the female that parturition takes place. After all, the carpenter is close by his timber, and the potter close by his clay ; and to put it in general terms, the working or treatment of any material, and the ultimate movement ° which acts upon it, is in all cases close by the material, e.g., the location of the activity of house-building is in the houses which are being built. These instances may help us to understand how the male makes its contribution to generation ; for not every male emits 119

ARISTOTLE TTpoLerai ra>v appevcov, ovtfev pLopiov tout ecrTt Tov •yiyvop.evov Kv/jfiaTos, woTrep 01)8' oltto rov reKTOVos TTpos rrjv roJv ^vAcov vXiqv ovr' (XTrcpx^Tai, ovdev ouT€ fiopLov ovdiv iarcv iv roj yLyvofxevo) TTJs TeKTOVLKrjs, aAA rj piopcfir] Kal to eiSoj oltt^ 15 eKeivov eyytverai Sta rrj'S Kivqaecog iv rfj vXrf, Kai Tj [xev i/j^XV ^^ V '^^ elSos Kal rj iTnaT-rjp^r] klvovol TOLS x^^P^^ V '^^ p.6ptov erepov ttokxv nva KLvrjOLV, €T€pav /Ltev d(f)' (Lv to yiyvofxevov eTepov, Trjv avTTjv Se d^ wv TO avTO, at 8e ^j^eipe? to. opyava to. S' opyava Trjv vXrjv} o/xotojs' Se /cat 7] ^vats;^ iv to) 20 appevi tcov aTripfxa Trpo'Cep^evcov ;;^p7^Tat ro) aTrepp-aTi (1)S opydvip /cat e^ovTi Kivrjaiv ivepyeia, (Lairep iv Tols KaTOL Texyy]v yivoixevoLs to. opyava KtveiTat' iv e/cetVois yap ttcos t) Kivrjai's ttjs Te^vrfs. oaa jjiev ovv rrpoteTai, aneppLa, avp^^aXXeTaL tovtov rov 25 TpoTTOV et? Tr]v yiveaiv oaa he p,rj TrpoteTai OTTepfia, aAA' iva(f>irj<n to drjXv et? to dppev rcbv avrov ti pLopioiv, opLOLov eot/ce ttolovvtl (xianep dv el ttjv vXtjv KOfxiaeie tls TTpos tov SrjfiLOvpyov. St' dadeveiav yap row roiovrcov dppeva>v ovdev 8t' erepojv Ota Te TTOtetv 'q (f)vois, aAAa fxoXis avTrjg Trpoaehpevovarjs laxoovaiv at Kiviqoeis, /cat eoiKe rotg 30 TrXaTTOvaiv y ov toZs TeKTaivopLevots' ov yap 8t CTepov diyydvovaa hrjixLovpyel to avvtaTa/jLevov , dAA' avTrj TOLS avTrjs /xoptots". XXIII 'Ev [xev ovv Tols ^cools Traot TOt? TTopevTtKots ^ sic Z : at Se X^^P^^ "^"^ ^ opyava rr/v vXrjv vulg. ^ <l)vais Z : <f)vai,s rj vulg.

" Cf. p. A. 639 b 16- 641 a 14. 120


semen, and in the case of those which do, this semen is not a part of the fetation as it develops. In the same way, nothing passes from the carpenter into the pieces of timber, which are his material, and there is no part of the art of carpentrj' present in the object which is being fashioned : it is the shape and the form which pass from the carpenter, and they come into being by means of the movement in the material. It is his soul, wherein is the " form," and his knowledge, which cause his hands (or some other part of his body) to move in a particular way (different ways for different products, and always the same way for any one product) ; his hands move his tools and his tools move the material." In a similar way to this, Nature acting in the male of semen-emitting animals uses the semen as a tool, as something that has movement in actuality ; just as when objects are being produced by any art the tools are in movement, because the movement which belongs to the art is, in a way, situated in them. Males, then, that emit semen contribute to generation in the manner described. Those which emit no semen, males into which the female inserts one of its parts, may be compared to a craftsman who has his material brought to him. Males of this sort are so weak that Nature is unable to accomplish anything at all through intermediaries : indeed, their movements are only just strong enough when Nature herself sits watching over the business ; the result is that here Nature resembles a modeller in clay rather than a carpenter ; she does not rely upon contact exerted at second hand when fashioning the object which is being given shape, but uses the parts of her o^\â– n very self to handle it.

In all animals which can' move about, male and XXIII Conclusion.



730 b

KexojpLoraL to drjXv tov appevos, /cat eariv erepov 35 l^cpov drjXv Kal erepov appev, rep Se etSet ravTov, 731 a olov dvdpcoTTOs "^ lttttos^ ap^^orepa- iv 8e tols <J)VtoIs IJiep.Lyp.evai avrat at 8vvdp,eLg elai, /cat ov /ce;^oS piarai to drjXv tov dppevos. Sto /cat yewa aura e^ ayroiv, /cat Trpoterai ov yovrjv dXXd Kvr]p,a to.

KaXovpieva CTTrep/xara. /cat tovto KaXayg Xeyei 5 JLpLTTeSoKXrjs rroi'qaas ovTOi 8' (hoTOKeZ piaKpd SevSpea' npcLrov iXaias . . .

TO re yap chov KVT]p,d eoTi, /cat e/c Twog avTov yiyveTai to t,(x>ov, to Se Xonrov Tpo(f)Tj, /cat rov" GTreppLaros e/c' p.epovs yiyveTai to <f>v6p.evov, to Be XoiTTOv* rpo^Tj yiyveTai tw ^XaoTco /cat ttj piCj) 10 TTJ TTpojTrj. TpoTTov Si TLva TavTa^ avp,^aivei Kal ev Tois Kexcopiapievov exovai i^ioois to drjXv /cat to dppev. oTav yap 8e-qarj yevvdv, yiverai dxcoptf^rov, oiGTTep ev Tols (f)VTOLS, /cat jSoyAerat -q (f)vais avTOJv ev yivecrdai' direp epn^aiveTai Kara ttjv oijjiv piiyvvjievivv Kal avvSval^ofxevajv [ev tl ^wov yiyveadai ef ajLt^otr].* 15 Kat Ta p.ev pjrj tt po'iepieva aireppia ttoXvv xP'^vov avpLTTeTrXexdcLi rre(j)VKev, ecog dv avoT'^ar] to Kvrjpia, olov Ta avvSvat,6p.eva tojv evTopicov Ta 8', ea)g dv aTTOTTepnltrj tl tojv erreiadKTOjv avrov pLopiojv, o avarrjaei to Kvrjp,a ev rrXeiovi xpovcp, otov inl tcjv evaipiwv. Ta p,ev yap i)pLepas tl p,6piov arvvex^Tai, ^ ^iTTTroyZS: om. viilg. ^ yV.-\V. : toOPSY: /cai e/c tov vulg.

' eK A.-W., Diels : (k (non Kal) 7J-* : kol eV vulg.

  • ev axnCi) add it Z.

  • Tavrd Y : ravro A.-W. : ravTa vulg.

® seel. Rackhain.

« Empedocles, fr. 79 (Diels). 122



female are separate ; one animal is male and another female, though they are identical in species, just as men and women are both human beings, and stallion and mare are both horses. In plants, however, these faculties are mingled together ; the female is not separate from the male ; and that is why they generate out of themselves, and produce not semen but a fetation - what we call their '" seeds." Empedocles puts this well in his poem, when he says " : So the great trees lay eggs ; the olives first . . ., because just as the egg is a fetation from part of which ^ the creature is formed while the remainder is nourishment, so from part of the seed is formed the growing plant, while the remainder is nourishment for the shoot and the first root. And in a sort of way the same happens even in those animals where male and female are separate ; for when they have need to generate they cease to be separate and are united as they are in plants : their nature desires that they should become one. And this is plain to see when they are uniting and copulating [that one animal is produced out of the two of them].

The natural practice of those animals which emit no semen is to remain united for a long time, until <the male) has " set "the fetation : those Insects wliich copulate are an example of this. Other animals, however, remain united until the male has introduced from those " parts " '^ of himself which he inserts one which ^\-ill " set " the fetation but will take a longer time to do so : the blooded animals illustrate this. The former sort remain in copulation " See T33 a 29.

  • The use of " part " here to refer to semen is a good illustration of the meaning of this term in Aristotle.



731 a

20 rj Se yovrj iv rjfjL€pai,g crvvlarrjai TrXeioaiv Trpoe[xeva^ oe to tolovtov aTToXverai,. /cat dTe)(ua)s eoLKe ra C^^ coairep (j)vra elvai Statpera, otov el' rtg KaKeZva, ore aTrepfxa e^eviyKeiev, hiaXvaete /cat X^^pt^creiev et? to ivvTrdp)(ov drjXv /cat dppev.

Kat TavTa iravTa evXoyoig rj ^vais hrjpLtovpyel.

25 TTJg fxev yap tcov (jiVTcJov ovaiag ovdev eoTiv dXXo epyov ovhk Trpd^Ls ovSefxia ttXtjv tj tov OTrepfiaTO? yeveais, oiOT* eTrel tovto Slol tov drjXeos yiVerat /cat TOV dppevos avvSeSvaafxevcov, [XL^aaa raura SiedrjKe juer' dXXrjXcov Sto iv tol? (f)VTOLS d)(c6pLOTOV TO drjXv /cat to dppev. aAAa TrepX fiev <j>VTd)v 30 ev eTcpots erreaKeTTTai, tov Se t,cx)ov ov fiovov to yewrjaai epyov {tovto jxev yap koivov tcov t,d)VT(x)V TTavTCov), dXXd /cat yvcoaecos tcvos irdvTa p.eTi-)(ovaL, ra jLtev irXeiovos, Ta S' eXaTTOVOS , to. 8e TrdpiTTav fitKpds. a'iadrjaiv yap exovatv, 'q S' atadrjais yvdJaLg tls. TavTr^g 8e to TLpLiov /cat ari/iov 77oAu 35 Sta^epet aKOTTovai Trpos (f)p6v7]aLv /cat Trpos to tcov 731 b dipv^ctiv yevos. vpos /iev yap to (f)poveLv coGnep ovSev elvai 8o/cet to Koivcovelv d(f)7Js Kai yevaeojs jMovov, TTpos 8e dvaiadrjaiav^ ^eXTioTov dyaTTTjTov yap dv So^ete /cat TavTrjg Tvx^tv Trjg yvioaecos dXXd fjirj Keladai Tedveos /cat firj ov. . hia^ipei 8' ^ npoefieva coniecit Platt : Trpote'/ieva vulg.

^ dvaiad-qalav] (f>vr6v â– ^ Xidov Z, unde (J>vtov â– ^ Xldov addunt A,-W. ; pro -npos . . . /SeArtaTov inter ergo istud animal et necib est differentia inirabilis 2 {Oavfidaiov pro ^iXnoTov Z*).

" C/. above, 717a!20. 124


for a fair part of a day ; whereas semen takes several days to " set " fetations, and when the creatures have emitted this they free themselves. Indeed, animals seem to be just like divided plants : as though you were to pull a plant to pieces when it was bearing its seed and separate it into the male and female present in it.

In all her workmanship herein Nature acts in every particular as reason would expect. A plant, in its essence, has no function or activity to perform other than the production of its seed * ; and since this is produced as the result of the union of male with female. Nature has mixed the two and placed them together, so that in plants male and female are not separate. Plants, however, have been dealt \nth in another treatise ; here we are concerned with animals, and generation is not the only function which an animal has - that is a function common to all things living. All animals have, in addition, some measure of knowledge of a sort (some have more, some less, some very little indeed), because they have senseperception,* and sense-perception is, of course, a sort of knowledge. The value we attach to this knowledge varies greatly according as we judge it by the standard of human intelhgence or the class of hfeless objects. Compared with the intelligence possessed by man, it seems as nothing to possess the two senses of touch and taste only ; but compareH mth entire absence of sensibility it seems a very fine thing indeed. We should much prefer to have even this rt of knowledge to a state of death and non-existence. Now it is by sense-perception that animals See 732 a 13, n. With this passage (731 a 29-b 3) cf. tie whole Protrepticus passage there referred to.


731 b

ARISTOTLE 5 aiadijaet ra ^coa roJv t,owrcov ^ovov. €7ret S' avayKT] /cai t,7]v, iav^ rj ^coov, orav Se-rjaj) oiTTOTeXeZv TO rov t,ci)vros epyov, rore avvSvdl^eraL Kal [itywrai /cat ylyverai (LaTrepavel <j>vr6v, Kaddrrep €L7TO[jL€V.

To. S' oarpaKoSeppba roJv t^atcov fxera^v ovra rcov ^cpcov Kal Tojv <f)vrcdv, ws iv dp,(f>or€poLS ovra Tot? 10 yeveoLV, ovherepcov TTOiei to epyov ws piev yap (f)VT6v^ ovK ex€i TO drjiXu Kal to dppev Kal ov yewa els erepov, co? he ^ojoi^ ov cf}epei e^ avTOV KapTTov ojOTrep Ta (f>VTd, dAAd uvviaTaraL Kal yewdrai €k tivos avoTdaea)? yeoeiSovs Kal vypds. dAAd nepl p,€v rrjs tovtcov yeveaewg varepov XcKTeov.

^ iav] o av A.-W. * tfitrrov Z : (fyvrov ov vulg.

" i.e., to reproduce itself, because to dpe-uriKov, which all




differ from the creatures which are merely alive ; since, however, if it be an animal, its attributes must of necessity include that of being alive, when the time comes for it to accompUsh the function proper to that which is aUve," then it copulates and unites and becomes as it were a plant, just as we have said.

The Testacea stand midway between animals and plants and so, as being in both groups, perform the function of neither : as plants, they do not have male and female and so they do not generate by pairing ; as animals they bear no fruit externally Uke that borne by plants ; but they take shape and are generated out of a certain earthv and fluid coagulation. The manner of generation of these creatures, however, mxist be described later.* living things must possess, is also to yewrjriKov irepov olov avTo (735 a 17, 18). » InBk. Ill, ch. 11.


B 731 b 18 I To Se drjXv /cat to dppev on fiev elaiv dpxo-l yeveaeojs etp-qTac irporepov, xrat ri? rj Svvafiig /cat 20 o Adyo? rrjs ovaiag avTwv Sid tC Se ytVerat /cat eart to /xev 9rjXv to S' dppev, ojs fiev i^ dvdyKTjs /cat TOU^ 7Tpd)TOV KLVOVVTOS /Cat OTTOMS vXtjS^ TTpo'CovTa 7T€LpdadaL Set <^pdt,eiv tov \6yov, a»s" Se Std TO ^cXtlov /cat ti^i' atTtav tt^i' eveKd twos, dvcodev^ ex^i ttjv dpxrjv eTrel ydp ioTi Ta jxev 25 atSta /cat ^eia tcov ovtcdv, Ta 8' evh^xopLCva /cat eiP'at /cat yu,!] ctvat, to Se /caAov /cat to deZov oltlov del /caTo, ti^v avTOV (j>vaLV tov jSeATiovo? ev TOt? evSe;^o/LieVot?, to Se /x.')7 atSiov evSep^Ojaevdv eoTt /cat ^ TO TOV Z. ^ /cai . . . vX-qs fortasse secludenda.

^ CLTTO rod iravTOS addit P, Aldus ( ^dvcoOev).

" See Introd. §§ 25, 30, etc. » See Introd. § 10.

t ' The sense, though perhaps not the syntax, of the following sentence is clear. The contrast is between (a) causes c'f dvdyKTjs {i.e., mechanical causes, viz., the " motive " and " material " causes, the operation of which in the production of male and female individuals Aristotle describes in detail in Bk. IV. 765 b 5- 766 b 26 ; cf. 767 a 36- 768 b 36) ; and (6) the " final " cause, the better purpose or " end " for the sake of which male and female individuals are produced.

•^ See Introd. § 7 (ii).


BOOK II I HAVE already said that the male and the female are I "principles" of generation, and I have also said ^J^'g'^^j what is their dynamis ° and the logos ^ of their essence. '^ As for the reason why one comes to be formed, and is, male, and another female, (o). in so far as this results from necessity,^ i.e., from the proximate motive cause and from what sort of matter, our argument as it proceeds must endeavour to explain ; (6) in so far as this occurs on account of what is better, i.e., on account of the final cause (the Cause " for the sake of which "), the principle is derived from the upper cosmos.* What I mean is this. Of the things which are, some are eternal and divine, others admit alike of being and not-being, and the beautiful and the divine acts always, in virtue of its own nature, as a cause which produces that which is better in the things which admit of it -^ ; while

  • And this principle Aristotle proceeds to explain at once, since it is really beyond the normal scope of the present treatise which is concerned chiefly with the " motive " and " material " causes of g^eneration. avojOev (cf. to avco autfia, App. B § 26) = r/a the " heavens " from the Unmoved Mover, " (tod." The best commentary on the passage which follows is afforded by Aristotle's own statements in other treatises, of which the pertinent passages will be found in App. A (esp. §§ 1:2-18), and I have therefore thought it unnecessary to provide full annotations here.

^ Cf. Met. 1013 a 23 -noXXiLv yap Kal tov yvwvai KaX rijs <(tvijff€a>s o-px^l rayadov koI to koXov.

F 129



eii'at (^Kal fiYj eti^at)^ /cat ixeraXafi^dveiv /cat tov X^i-povog /cat tov ^eXriovos , ^eXriov Se i/'UX? i"-^ acofiaros, to 8 e/jupvy^^ov tov oupvxov Sta t?]v 30 ijjvxriv, Kal to etvat roi; jLti^ eti^ai /cat to ^rjv tov fjLT] ^r]v, Sta TavTag Tag atria? yeWcrt? l,a)OJV iaTiv erret yap aouvaTOS" t) (pvaig tov tolovtov yevovs ai'Sto? etvai, Ka^' ov' ivSex^Tat Tpovov, /cara royrov' ecTTtv at'Stov to yivop-evov. dptdp,a) fxev ovv dSvvaTov, rj yap ovaia tcov ovtojv ev tw /ca^' eKaoTov 35 TOLOVTOV 8' etVep tJv, dtStov av t^v etSet 8' ev732 a Sep^erat. Sto yevos del dvOpcoTTcuv Kal }^a)a>v cotI Kal (f)VTCOV. €7761 Sc TOVTCOV dpX'Tj TO drjXv Kal TO dppev, eveKa ttj? yeveaecog dv e'lrj to drjXv Kal to appev ev toIs ovaiv cKdTepov tovtcov.^ jSeArtovos" ^ supplevit Platt. ^ SKOLTepov TovTuiv Z : om. vnlg.

" i.e., this is the Final Cause, which can be equated with " the better," as opposed to the mere mechanical sort of causation. See above 731 b 23.

    • The reader may at first .be confused in this passage owing to the fact that Aristotlfe uses dt'Sio? in two senses : (a) in the true and full sense, as applicable to tiie d4>dafrra and dela, as in line 731 b 26, in which sense it can lie applied only to the things which ovk evBexfrai elvac Kal fj-r) elvai, i.e., which always are ; but then he goes on to use it in a modified sense (6), and applies it to that which evSexerai ehai Kal ^T) elvai, i.e., to to yi.yv6iJ.evov, and says that to yiyvofievov is d(8t.ov in the way which is open to it. (Aristotle seems to regard this extension of the use of diSios as justifiable, since, as he states in the passage of De anima quoted in App. A (§ 17), TO. yiyvofieva, although they are not eternal, do partake in eternity.) These two modes of l)eing dlhiov he then describes more exactly as diSiov dpidfiu) (the eternity of individual identity) and diBiov etSet (the eternity of specific 130




that which is not eternal admits of being (and notbeing), and of acquiring a share both in the better and in the worse ; also. Soul is better than body, and a tiling which has Soul in it is better than one which has not, in virtue of that Soul ; and being is better than not-being, and U\ing than not li\ing. These are the causes on account of which generation of animals takes place," because since the nature of a class of this sort is unable to be eternal, that which comes into being is eternal in the manner that is open to it. Now it is impossible for it to be so numerically, since the " being " of things is to be found in the particular, and if it really were so, then it would be eternal ** ; it is, however, open to it to be so specifically. That is why there is alwavs a class of men, of animals, of plants ; and since the principle of these is " the male " and " the female," it will surely be for the sake of generation that " the male " and " the female " are present in the individuals which are male and female. And as the form). Hence, in the present sentence roioOrov means dpidfiw tuSiov ; and the sense of the statement is that if an animal really were dpidful> di'Siov, its oiaia would be dt'Scos-, i.e., a(f>6apTos ; in other words, it would no longer be a <f>dapr6v or a yiyvd/xevoi'. The translation might be expanded as follows to bring out the meaning : " Now it is impossible for it to be so mimerically, since the " being " of things is in the particular <:i.e., in the individual concrete object consisting of matter and form ; and obviously no such particular <f>6apT6v - animal or plant - can be numerically eternab ; and if it really were so, then it would be eternal <in the full and proper sense of the term, viz., it would be d<f>dapTov, and no longer a yiyvofioov at all> ; it is, however, open to it to be eternal specifically."' It is useful to note that at Met. 999 b 33 Aristotle states that there is no difference between the terms dpddyiu) €v and Kad' CKaarov (to dpidfuu ev rj to KaO' eKoorov Xeyeiv 8ia<f€p€i ovBev). - See further, App. A ^§ 15-lB.


732 a

ARISTOTLE Se Kal 6eLOT€pas t7]V (f)vaiv ovarjs Trjs aiTLas rrjs 5 KLVovarjs Trpojrrjg, fj 6 Xoyo? V7Tdp)(€L Kal to etSo?, rrjg vXr]s, ^^Xtlov Kal to Kexojpiadai to KpeiTTOv Tov x^'-P^^'^^- S'-c"- tout' eV OCTOi? evhex^rai Kal Kad' oaov ivSex^Tai, /ce^^copto-rat tov di/jXeos to appev PcXtlov yap Kal detoTepov fj'^ ^PX^ V^ KLvrjaecos [tj dppev vTrapx^i]^ '^^Xs yivopiivoLg- vX-q 10 06 t6^ dijXv. avvipx^Tai Se /cat p.iyvvTai rrpos Trjv epyaaiav ttjs yeveaecos tu) ^ijAet to dppev avTT] yap koivt] afx^OTepoLS.

  • [KaTa jxev ovv to /xeTe;^etr tov ^i^Aeo? /cat tov dppevos t,f}, 8to /cat Ta (f)VTd fieTex^L ^corjs' /card Se TTjv alaOrjOLV to twv ^cocvv effTt yevo?. tovtojv he ox'^hov ev rrdai tol? jropevTiKols /ce;^aiptCTTat to

15 drjXv Kal TO dppev 8td tols elprip^evag atrta?* Kat TOVTOJV Ta fJiev, CDCTrep eXex^f], TrpoteTai aTrepp-a, Ta 8' ov TTpoteTat ev tw avvSvaafxcp. tovtov 8' avTLov OTL Ta TLpLiciiTepa Kal avTapKeoTepa ttjv ^vaiv eGTLV, a>aT€ p^eyedovg jxeTeiXritfjevai. tovto 8' ovK dvev depp^oTTjTOS ilfvxtKrjs' dvdyKTj yap to 20 pieil^ov VTTO TrXeiovos KivelaOai hvvdpLeoJS , to he depfMov KivrjTiKov. hioTTep, d)S em to Trdv jSXe ^ ■§ Peck : -q vulg. * om. S.

' TO Y : TO ^ vulg. : uAijs ^ to drjXv coni. A.-W., to <dr]Xv> ^ 6^Xv Btf. : sed fortasse haec verba secludenda. scr. Platt j) TO dppev VTrdpxei rois yivofievois t] rj vXrj â– ^ to drjXv.

  • vv. 11-23 secludenda.

« Cf. 716 a 5.

  • i.e., the Material Cause, C/. 716 a 5. " See Introd. §§ 1 ff., 10, 50.

"^ This paragraph seems to be out of place, consisting of various remarks which are irrelevant here. Cf. 715 a 18 ff., and parts of Bk. I, ch. 23. 132


proximate motive cause," to which belong the logos and the Form, is better and more divine in its nature than the Matter,** it is better also that the superior one should be separate from the inferior one. That is why wherever possible and so far as possible the male is separate from the female, since it is something better and more divine in that it is the principle of movement '^ for generated things, while the female serves as their matter. The male, however, comes together with the female and mingles \\ith it for the business of generation, because this is something that concerns both of them.

'^ [Thus things are alive in \irtue of having in them a share of the male and of the female, and that is why even plants have life. The class of animals, however, is <what it is) in virtue of its power of sense-perception.^ In practically all animals which can move about the male and the female are found separate, and the causes are the ones which have been stated ; and, as was said,^ some of them emit semen during copulation, some do not. The reason for this is that the higher animals are more self-sufficient in thennature, and so are large in size : this cannot be so ^^'ithout heat of Soul, since of necessity the larger a thing is, the greater the power required to move it, and heat acts as a motive power. Hence, if we take ' Cf. P. A. 666 a 34 to fj.ev yap l^wov aladTJaei (Lpiarai, and 651 b 4, 653 b 22. Aristotle seems to have perceived early the importance of this point, as it occurred in his early work Protrepfiriis. See lamblichus, Protreptleus 7 (44. 9 Pistelli; 37. 9 Walzer, .Iristof. Dial. Frag.), a passage which according to Jaeger (Aristotle, 69) comes from Aristotle's Profrepticus : aXXa fMrjv to ye i,TJv tJj aiaddvfoBai SiaKpiverai tov (it} t,fiv, and with that whole passage cf. 731 a 29-b 3 above.

  • Bk. I, ch. 17.



732 a

ijiavras elrreiVy ra evai/jLa jMet'^o) roJv dvatfjicov kcl Ttt TTopevTiKa Twv [xovificov Kiocov dnep Trpoterat'CTTTepfia Sta ttjv Oepixorrjra /cat to fjLeyedos.] Kat TTcpl fiev dppevos Kal d-qXeo^, hi fjv atrlav 25 ioTLV eKarepov, etp-qrai.

TcDv 8e ^wojv rd fxev reXeaiovpyel Kal eKTrefxTT€L dvpat,e ofJLOLOv iavrw, olov oaa t^cporoKel ets rovpi^aves , rd Se dhidpdpcoTov eKTiKrei Kal ovk dn€iXr](f)os rrjv avrov piop(f)T]V. rdjv Se rotovTCOv rd pi€v eVat/Lta cporoKei, rd S' avat/xa (^rj cporoKet 7})^ aKcoXrjKoroKel. 8iacf)epeL S coov Kal okcLXt]^- (hdv 30 /x€v yap ianv i^ ov yiverai rd yLvop-evov e'/c puepovs, ro 8e Xolttov iari rpocjyrj ra> yivopLevcv, okcjoXt)^ S' e^ ov rd yivop-evov oXov oXov yiverat. rd)V 8e els rd (jyavepdv dpLOiov aTToreXovvrcov ^coov Kal t^cporoKovvrcov rd puev evdvs ev avrols ^(poroK€L, olov dvdpcjoTTog Kal lttttos Kal ^ovs Kal rcov 35 daXarrliOV 8e* SeA^t? /cat raAAa rd roiavra, rd 732 b 8' ev avroLs (horoKrjaavra rrpaJrov ovrco ^ojoro/cet 6vpal,€, olov rd aeXdxrj KaXovp.eva. rdJv 8' oio roKovvriov rd pikv reXeiov TTpoterat rd ipov, olov dpvtdes Kal oaa rerpdiroha cporoKcl Kal oaa aTToSa, olov aavpai /cat ;;^eAajvat /cat rwv 6(f>ea>v rd rrXeiarov 5 yevos {rd ydp rovrivv (Ld orav e^eXdrj, ou/cert AajLtjSavei av^rjaiv), rd 8' dreXri, olov ol r' l)(dv€S 1 Platt. 2 g^ oj„ psY.

" See Introd. §§ 74 ff.

" Cf. 752 a 27, 758 b 10 fF., and H.A. 489 b 6 ff. The distinction which Aristotle makes here is that between the utilization of yolk as the raw material of embryonic develop 134


a general view, we may say that blooded animals are larger than bloodless, and mobile ones larger than stationary ; and they are the ones which emit semen on account of their heat and their size.] We have now stated the Cause why each of the two, male and female, is.

Some animals bring their young to perfection, and The various bring forth externally a creature similar to them- generation. selves - e.g., those which are externally \iviparous ; others produce something which is unarticulated and has not yet assumed its proper shape. In the latter class those which are blooded lay eggs, those which are bloodless produce (either eggs or) larvae.** The difference between an eg^ and a larva is this : an cg^g is something from part of which the new creature is formed, while the remainder is nourishment for it ; whereas in the case of the larva, the jvhole of it is used to form the whole of the offspring. Of the animals which produce externally a perfected creature similar to themselves, i.e., the \ ivipara, some are internally viviparous from the outset (as man, horse, ox ; and of sea-creatures, the dolphin and the other animals of that sort), others are internally oviparous at the first stage, and thereafter are externally viviparous (as what are called Selachia). Of oviparous animals, some lay their eggs in a perfected state (as birds, oviparous quadrupeds and footless animals, e.g., Hzards and tortoises, and the great majority of the serpents '")- eggs which on6e they are laid do not grow any more ; others lay their eggs in an imper ment, and the utilization of tissue-disintegration products in metamorphosis. The embryo feeds upon its yolk, but the pupa feeds upon itself.

' The viper is the exception ; see below, line 21.


732 b

ARISTOTLE Kal TO. jxaXaKoarpaKa kol to. fxaXaKia KaXovjxeva' TOVTCov yap ra wa av^dverai e^eXdovra.

Uavra Se ra ^aioTO/cowra [rj (horoKovvraY evaifxd eariv, /cat ra eVat/xa rj l^cporoKel rj (horoKel, oaa 10 p-T] oAoj? ayovd iariv. rOtv V dvaCfjicov rd evrofia aKCjXrjKoroKeZ, oaa rj e/c avvSvaajjiov yiver at rj avra avuSvdl^erai. eari yap evia roiavra rG)v evropLOJV d yiverai /xev avropiara, eart Se ^T^Aea /cat dppeva, /cat e/c avv8vat,ojJievojv yiverai ri avrcov, areXes puevrot rd yiyvopievov rj 8' alria etprjrat -nporepov ev irepois.

15 SwjLtjSatVei 8e rroXXrj eTrdXXa^ig rots ylvecriv. ovre ydp rd StVoSa Trdvra ^ojoro/cet (ot ydp opvides cporoKOvaiv) ovr (poroKet rrdvra (o yap dvdpcDTTOs ^a>OTO/cet), ovre rd rerpdrroha rrdvra cooroKeX (tTTTTos" ydp Kal jSou? /cat d'AAa jivpia t^cporoKel) ovre ^ojOTO/cet Trdvra {aavpoi^ ydp Kal KpoKoSeiXoi 20 /cat aAAa ttoAAo, (poroKovaiv). ouS' iv r<p TroSas" e;\;etv -^ jxtj e^^iv 8ta<^epef /cat ydp diroha ^cooroKel, OLOV ot e;^ets' /cat to. aeXd^rj, rd S' woroKel, otov ra rdJv l^dvcDV yevos Kal rd rcjv dXXa)v o(f)eojv /cat rojv rroSas e-)(6vro}v Kal choroKel TToXXd Kal ^otoTO/cet, olov rd elprjjiiva rerpdiroha. Kal ev 25 avrols Se ^cporoKel Kal TToSas exovra, olov dvdpco770?, /cat (XTToSa, otov (^dXacva Kal heX(f)is- ravrrj jxev ovv OVK eon hieXeZv, ouS' atriov rrj's hia<j>opd'S ^ seclusit Platt (idem Siis.). ^ aavpoL PSYZ* : aavpai O^, vulg.

« C/. 718 b 8 and note there. " See 721 a 3 fF.

•^ Aristotle may have in mind the method of dichotomy, against which he inveighs elsewhere (see P. A. 642 b 5 ff., 136


feet state, as the Fishes, and the Crustacea and the Cephalopods as they are called, whose eggs do grow in size after they are laid.^ All animals that are viviparous [or o\'iparous] are blooded, and animals that are blooded are either \'i\iparous or o\'iparous, apart from those which are completely infertile. Of bloodless animals. Insects produce a larva ; this holds good both for those which are formed as a result of copulation and those which themselves copulate. ** (A note of explanation : there are certain Insects which, although formed by spontaneous generation, nevertheless are male and female, and as a result of their copulation something is formed, though it is imperfect : the cause of this has already been stated elsewhere.) Actually there is a good deal of overlapping be- ciassificatween the various classes. Bipeds are not all \-i\d- a'^^ais. parous (birds are o\'iparous) nor all oviparous (man is viviparous) ; quadrupeds are not all oviparous (the horse and ox and heaps of others are \i\iparous), nor all viviparous (lizards and crocodiles and many others are oviparous). Nor does the difference lie even in having or not having feet : some footless animals are viviparous (as vipers, and the Selachia), some are oviparous (as the class of fishes, and the rest of the serpents) ; and of the footed animals many are oviparous, many viviparous {e.g., the quadrupeds already mentioned). There are footed animals which are internally viviparous (as man), and footless ones also (as the whale and dolphin). So we find no means here for making a division " : the cause of this difference and my note there), as used, though for a different purpose, by Plato in Sophist and PoUticus {e.g., the division into to ne^ov and to vevarucov at Sophist 220 a).


ARISTOTLE TavTTjg ovOev rcov rropevrLKcbv opydvcov, dAAa t,cx)oTOKei ix€v^ TO. reXecLrepa ttjv (f)vaLV rcbv t,d}(x>v /cat 30 fierexovra Kadapwrepag dpxrjs' ovdkv yap ^ojoroAcet iv avTO), pLTj hexop-evov to TTvevjxa kou dvavveov. reXecorepa 8e rd Oepp^orepa ttjv (f)vaLV /cat vyporepa /cat fJLrj yecoSr]. T'fjs Se depp.oT'qTO? rrjg cfivaiKrjg opos 6 TrXevjjLCOv, oacov evat/xd? eariv oXios fiev yap rd exovra TrAeu/xova rii)v fjur] ixdvrcov deppLorepa, 35 TOVTCOV 8' avrwv rd /xt] aop,^6v e^ovTa firjSe an(f)p6v /XT^S' oXtyatpLOV dXX' evaupLov /cat p^aXaKov. woTTep 8e TO puev t,cpov reAetov/ d 8e gkcoXt}^ /cat TO (l)dv dreAe?, ovrojs to reAetov ck tov TeXetoTepov yiveadai 7T€(f)VK€v. Td 8e deppLOTepa pcev Sid to ^x^i'V TrXevpiova, ^rjpoTepa 8e tt]V (j>vaiv, rj Td ipv5 XPOTcpa p,kv vypoTepa Se, Td /xev (hoTOKeX TeXeiov ' (i)6v, Td 8' (hoTOK-qaavTa t,a)OTOKeL ev avToXs. ol pi€V ydp opvides /cat to. ^oAt8ajTd 8id ptev deppLOTTjTa TeXeaiovpyovai, 8td 8e ^rjpoTTjTa (poTOKovoL, Td 8e creXdx'^ deppcd puev â– fJTTOV tovtcov, vypd Se jixaAAov, coare pueTex^t dpi(f>OT€pa>v /cat ydp 10 ipOTOKel Kal ^(poTOKel iv avTols, cpoTOKel piev otl ifwxpd, ^(poTOKeZ 8' OTL vypd- i,iOTiKov yap to vypov, TToppcoTaTOJ 8e tov ipufjvxov to ^rjpov. errei 8' OVT€ TTTepOJTd OVT€ ^oAtSoJTa OVT€ AeTTiSotTa ioTLv, a arjpLeZa ^rjpds pLaXXov /cat yecoSov? ^uaec/JS", ^ ev auTois add. Z*. * reXeiov PSY : reXeov vulg.

" See Introd. § 38. * Not a living creature.



does not lie in any of the organs of locomotion. No ; those animals are W^iparous which are more perfect in their nature, which partake of a purer " principle " ; in other words, no aninial is internally vixiparous unless it draws in breath - respires. The more perfect animals are those which are by their nature hotter and more fluid and are not earthy. (The test of natural heat is the presence of the lung, provided it has blood in it. Speaking generally, animals which have a lung are hotter than those that have none, and of the former those are hotter w'hose lung is not spongv nor compact nor poorly supplied M"ith blood, but well supplied with blood and soft.) And since an actual animal is something perfect whereas larvae and eggs are something imperfect, Nature's rule is that the perfect offspring shall be produced by the more perfect sort of parent. Those animals which are hotter (as their having a lung indicates), though of a more solid" consistency, or are colder but more fluid, either (o) are oviparous and lay a perfect egg, or (b) first lay an egg and then are viviparous internally. Thus, birds and the animals with horny scales, on account of their heat, produce something perfect, but on account of their solidity it is an egg only  ; the Selachia are less hot than these are, but more fluid ; hence they share in the characteristics of both - they are oviparous because they are cold creatures, and internally viviparous because they are fluid (the reason being that fluid matter is conducive to life, whereas solid matter and the living organism are at opposite poles) ; and as they have neither feathers nor horny plates nor scales, which are signs of a constitution that tends to be solid and earthy, the egg which they produce is 139

ARISTOTLE l^iaAaKov to d>6v yevvcbacv oiaTrep yap ovh' eV 15 avTO), oi)8' ev rw coo) eTn7To\dt,eL to yerjpov. Kal Sto. TOVTO els avTo} ojoTOKeZ' dvpat,e yap av lov hie(f)deipeTO to d)6v, ovk €)(ov Trpo^oXrjv, To, 8e i/jvxpa Kal ^rjpa pidXXov (LoTOKel fiev, areAes" Se to (hov, /cat aKXrjpoSeppiov 8e Sia to yerjpa etv-at /cat dreAes' Trpoteadai, Iva aco^rjTaL 20 (jjvXaKTjv e)(ov to oaTpaKOjSes. ol pbkv ovv l^dves AeTTtSojTot 6vT€s /cat TO, [xaXaKOCTTpaKa yerjpd oVra (jKXr]p6heppLa TO. (l)d yevva. to. 8e fiaXaKia, axjTrep avTOL yXlaxpa Trjv tov croj/LtaTos" ccttl (f)vaLv, ovtcos aa)t,€L OLTeXrj Trpoiefieva to. cod' Trpoterat yap yXiaxpoTTjTa TTepl to Kvrjpia ttoAAt^v. to, 8' evTOfia 25 rrdvTa aKOjXr]KOTOK€L. eoTi 8' diravTa dvaipia to. evTOjxa, 8to Kal^ aKcoXrjKOTOKovvTa dvpa^e. ra 8' dvaLfxa ov ndvTa aKO}Xr]KOTOK€L aTrXdJS' CTraAAdrTOVGL yap dXXrjXoLS [Td t eVro/Lta]' to. aKcuXrjKOTOKovvTa* /cat to. aTeAe? TtKTovTa to (pov, olov ol T L^dv^S OL AeTTiSajTot /cat rd //.aAa/cdcrrpa/ca 30 /cat rd jUaAd/cta. tovtcjv jJLev yap rd aid cr/ccuXr]Ka)8r] ioTiv {au^'qarLV yap Xajji^avet dvpat,e), €Keivo}v 8' ot GKcoXrjKes yivovTai irpo'CovTes (poetSet?" ov 8e Tponov, ev tols voTepov htopiovpiev. Aet 8e voT^crat d)s ev /cat i(f>€^rjs TTfv yeveaiv aTToBlSwaLV T^ (j)vaig. Ta pev yap TeXecoTepa /cat depfJLOTepa^ tcov t,cpiov TeXeiov d7ro8t8a>crt to TeKVOV /card TO Trotdv (/caTd 8e to Troadv oXcos ovdev tcov ^ avra P : avro vulg.

i* Krai ra PSYS. ='^ seclusi.

  • ra evTo/xa Kal to. aKcoXrjKOTOKOvvra ZS : rd t' evrofia vulg.

^ reXeiorara Kal depfiOTara P.

" Bk. Ill, ch. 9. 140


a soft one : the earthy substance does not come to the surface in the egg any more than it does in the creature wliich lays it. And that is why they lay their eggs internally : if the eggs emerged they would be destroyed through lack of protection.

Animals that tend to be cold and solid lay eggs, it is true, but their egg is imperfect, and it has a hard covering (a) because the animals themselves are earthy and (6) because it is in an imperfect state when laid, and the shelly exterior serves as a protection to keep it safe. Thus fishes, being scaly, and Crustacea, being earthy, produce eggs with a hard covering ; while the Cephalopods, which also lay imperfect eggs, keep them safe by a method in accordance with the sticky nature of their own bodies ; they exude a large amount of sticky substance over the fetation. Insects all produce larvae. Now all Insects are bloodless, and that actually is why they are externally larva-producing. But it is not true that all bloodless animals are larva-producing without qualification, because there is overlapping as between the larva-producing animals and those that produce imperfect eggs (e.g., the scaly fishes, the Crustacea and the Cephalopods), since the eggs of the latter are larva-like, in that they grow bigger after they have been laid externally, while the larvae of the former, as they develop, become egg-like : we shall explain later how this happens." We should notice how well Nature brings generation about in its several forms : they are arranged in a regular series, thus : (1) The more perfect and hotter of the animals produce their young in a perfect state so far as their quality is concerned (no animal brings forth young that are perfect in size, because 141

733 b

ARISTOTLE l,oj(i)v TTavra yap yevo/J^eva Xa^^dvei av^-qacu), Kal yevva S-q ravra ^coa iv avroZs evdvs. ra 8e Seu5 Tepa ev avrols /xev ov yevva reXeua evOvs {^cporoKel yap (hoTOKTiaavTa TTptorov), dvpat,€ Se ^ajoro/cet. TO. Se ^wov jxev ov reXeiov yevva, coov Se yevva, Kat TOVTO reXeLOV to coov. to. S' ert tovtwv ipvXporepav e^ovra rrjv (f)vaiv d>6v jxev yevva ov reXeiov Se coov, aAA' e^co TeXeLovrat, Kaddnep to 10 Tcbv Xe7Ti,Sa>T(jL)v l)(dv(x)v yevos Kal to. jxaXaKooTpaKa Kal TO. jxaXaKLa. to Se TrepLTTTOv yevos Kal ifjvxpoTaTov ovS' cpoTOKel e^ avTov, dXXd Kal t6^ tolovtov e^co avpL^alvei irddos avTW, wanep etprjTat,- to. yap evTopia OKcuX'qKOTOKeL to irpcoTov TrpoeXdcov 8' wu)S7]s yiveTai 6 okcoXt]^ {tj yap ^^/aucraAAt? Ka 15 XovpLevrj Swa/xtv (Lov ex^t) ' etr' €k tovtov yiveTai ^a)ov, ev Tj] TpiTTj p,€Ta^oXfj Xajiov to ttj^ yeveaeojs TeXog.

To, piev ovv ov yiveTai tojv t,a)cov aTTO aTreppiaTO?, axTirep eXe^dr^ /cat TTpoTepov to. S evaipia TrdvTa yiveTai arro aTreppuaTOS, oaa eK avvSvaapiov yi 20 veTai, Trpoiepievov tov dppevos ei£ to drjXv yovqv, rjs elcreXdovarjs to. ^(pa avvioTaTai Kal Xapi^dvei Trjv oiKeiav p.op(j)riv, to. piev ev avTOis Toig t,a>oig oaa t,tpoTOKei, to. S ev (hois [Kai oTreppiaai Kal ToiavTaig aAAat? aTTOKpiaeoiv].^ Ilepl cov eaTlv dnopia TrXeioiv, ttcos ttotc yiveTai ck ^ TOV Bekker per typoth. err.

  • seclusit Platt (om. 2), sed monet quaedam de plantis fortasse excidisse.

" Above, 733 a 31. 142


they all grow in size after they have been produced), and these young which they generate are hving creatures inside them from the outset. (2) The second class do not generate perfect animals within themselves from the outset : although they are viviparous, they lay eggs first of all ; externally however they are viviparous. (3) Others produce not a perfect animal, but an egg, which is perfect. (4) Those whose constitution is still colder than this produce an egg, but it is not a perfect one : it reaches its perfection outside the parent. Examples are the scaly fishes, the Crustacea and the Cephalopods. (5) The fifth class of creatures, which are the coldest of all, do not even lay an egg directly themselves, but the formation of their egg takes place outside the parent, as has been said." What happens is that Insects first produce a larva, then the larva develops till it becomes egg-hke (what is called the chrysalis is really equivalent to an egg ^) ; then out of this an animal is formed, and it is not until this third stage in its series of changes that it reaches the end and perfection of its generation.

There are, then, some animals which are not formed from semen, as I have in fact said already. All blooded ones, however, are formed from semen, so many as are formed as the result of copulation, that is to say, the male emits semen into the female, and upon the entry of the semen the young animals are " set " and constituted and assume their proper shape ; with the xiviparous animals this stage takes place within the parent, with others in the eggs [and seeds and other such secretions].

And on this subject we are confronted by no small How utiie " Lit., " has the dynamis of an egg " : see Introd. § 2Q.


733 b

ARISTOTLE Tov aTrepixaros rcov (f)vra>v^ t] riov l,a)a)v otlovv. 25 dvdyKT] yap to ytyvofxevov /cat €k tlvos yivectOai /cat VTTO TLVOS Kat Tt. e^ oi) [xev ovv iarlv vXt], t^v evia jxev ^oia e^^i TrpcoTrjv iv avrots, Xa^ovra" e/c tov uT]Xeos, olov oaa fir] t^cooTOKelTat aAAa OKCoXrjKo TOKeLTai T^ U)OTOK€LTaL, TO. Se pi^XP^ TTOppUi €K TOV 30 drjXeos Aa/xjSavet 8ta to d7]Xdt,€LV, warrep oaa t,cpo~ TOKeiTai p.rj p,6vov e/CTO? aAAa /cat ivTos. i^ ov p,ev ovv yivcTaL, r] Toiavrq vXrj iaTiv ^T^TeiTai Se vvv ovK i^ ov aAA' v(f)' ov ytVeTai to, piopia. tJtoi yap Twv e^codev tl ttolcZ, 'q ivvTrdp^pv^ Ti iv Trj yovfj /cat CTTTe/jjLtaTt • /cat tout eoTtv r] p-epog Tt ipvx"^? ^ ^^XV 1 ^X"^^ ^^ ^'^'^ ^^XW- "^^^ H-^^ °^^ e^oidiv TL TTOLeZv eKaoTov i] tcov GTrXdyxycov r) Ta>v aAAoJV piepojv dXoyov dv So^etev KLveZv tc yap pur] dirTop-evov dhvvaTov /cat pirj klvovvtos Trdax^tv tl vtto 5 TOVTOV. iv avTO) dpa tco KV-qpuaTL ivvTrdpx^L tl tJStj â– /}* auTou pLopLov T] Kexo^p^crpevov . to /xev ovv ^ TcDv <f)VTcx>v Z : TO (f>vT6v vulg.

  • AajSdvra S : Xafi^dvovra vulg.

^ evvTrdpxov Peck : evvndpxei vulg.

  • rj8rj ^ Y : fj 8-q vulg.

" The discussion which follows shows that Aristotle fully appreciated the greatest problem of embryological theory, a problem which gave rise to centuries of controversy. Does the embryo contain all its parts in little from the beginning, unfolding like a Japanese paper flower in water (" preformation "), or is there a true formation of new structures as it develops (" epigenesis ") ? Aristotle was an epigenesist, I but he was not vindicated till the time of C. F. Wolff and K. E. von Baer, at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. The history of the controversy will be found in J. Needham's History of Embryology and A. W. 144


puzzle." How, we ask, is any plant formed out of the embryo seed, or any animal out of the semen ? That which is formed by means of a process must of necessity be formed (a) out of something (b) by something (c) into something. " Out of something." This of course is the material or matter. Some animals have thenprimary matter ^ within themselves, having derived it from the female parent, e.g., those animals which are produced not viWparously but out of larvae or eggs. Others derive it from the mother for a considerable time by being suckled. These are the animals which are produced \iviparously not externally only but also internally.*^ So then, that " out of which " the parts are formed is material of this sort. The problem now before us however is not Out of what, but. By what, are they formed ? Either something external fashions them, or else something present in the semen or seminal fluid ; and this is either some part of Soul, or Soul, or something which possesses Soul. Now it would appear unreasonable to suppose that anything external fashions all the indi\idiial parts, whether they be the viscera or any others, because unless it is in contact ** it cannot set up any movement, and unless it sets up a movement no effect can be produced upon anything by it. Hence it follows that there must be something already present inside the fetation itself, which is either a part of it or separate from it.

Meyer's The Rise of Embryology. Like many erroneous theories, preformationism contained some truth, for we know to-day that the course of the embryo's development is predetermined by its genetic constitution.

" Cf. 729 a 33 note.

  • This excludes the Selachia.

" Cf. Bk. 1. 730 b 5 ff., and see App. B § 22, n.


734 a

ARISTOTLE d'AAo Tt elvai Ke)(0)piaiJuevov dXoyov yewrjdevrog yap Tov ^a)ov TTorepov (fideiperaL rj ifJLjxeveL; dAA' ovSev TOLOVTOV (f)ai,veraL evov o ov fJiopLOV rod oXov 7) (f}VTOU rj ^a)ov earlv. dAAd [JLrjv Kal ro ^deipeadai 10 ye TTOtrjaav etre iravra ra jJ^eprj e'lre rcva drorrov rd XoL-nd yap ri voL'qaeL; el yap eKelvo fiev ttjv Kaphiav, elr* €(f>ddprj, avrrj 8' erepov, rov avrov Xoyov 7) Trdvra ^deipeadai r^ vavra fieveiv. aco^erai dpa. avrov dpa fMopcov eariv, o evdvs ivvTrdpx^iev to) aTTeppLari. el he Srj jx-q eari rrjs 4'^XV^ 15 1X7)6 ev o fiT) rov awjxaros eariv ev rivi fiopicp, Kal epupv^ov dv rt e'vr] piopiov evdvs.

Td ovv dXXa Tru)s; rj yap rot ct/xa Trdvra yiyverat rd fxopia, olov /capSta rrXevpiajv rJTrap 6(fjdaXfjLos Kal rd)v dXXojv eKaarov, t) e(f)e^i]s, axjTrep ev rols KaXovfievoL? 'Op^ecu? eTreaiv eKel yap 20 opLoiojs <f>T]crl yiyveadai, ro l,a)ov rfj rov SiKrvov TrXoKjj. on [J.€V ovv ov^ d'/xa, Kal rfj aladrjaei earl (f)avep6v rd fxev ydp (fyaiverai evovra rj8r) rdjv pLopicjv, rd 8' oij. on 8' ov 8id puKponqra ov cfyalverai, SrjXov pLeit,cov . ydp ro pueyedos d)V 6 7Tvevp.a)v rrjg KapSlas varepov ^alverai rrjs Kaphlas 25 ev rfj e^ ^PXV^ yeveaei. CTrel 8e ro piev rrporepov ro 8' varepov, Tvorepov ddrepov rroiel Odrepov, Kal

" It would be inconsistent to say that the disappearance was arrested at some arbitrary stage in the process.

" Apart from rational Soul, the connexion is reciprocal: and Aristotle often remarks that there is no part of the bodv which has no Soul in it ; see 726 b 22 and 735 a 6 ff.



To suppose it is some other thing, and separate from it, is not reasonable. If it were, the question arises : When the animal's generation is completed, does this something disappear, or does it remain ^\â– ithin the animal ? We cannot detect any such thing, something which is in the plant or the animal and yet is no part of the organism as a whole. And again, to say that it fashions all the parts or some parts of the organism and then disappears is ridiculous. If it fashions only some of the parts, what will fashion the rest ? Supposing it fashions the heart, and then disappears, and the heart fashions some other part : to be consistent we must say that either all the parts disappear or all the parts remain." It must, then, persist. And therefore it must be a part of the whole, existing in the semen from the outset. And if it is true that there is no part of the Soul Avhich is not in some part of the body,^ then it must also be a part which contains Soul from the outset.

How, then, are the other parts formed ? Either they are all formed simultaneously - heart, lung, Uver, eye, and the rest of them - or successively, as we read in the poems ascribed to Orpheus, where he says that the process by which an animal is formed resembles the plaiting of a net. As for simultaneous formation of the parts, our senses tell us plainly that this does not happen : some of the parts are clearly to be seen present in the embryo while others are not. And our failure to see them is not because they are too small ; this is certain, because although the lung is larger in size than the heart it makes its appearance later in the original process of formation. Since one part, then, comes earlier and another later, is it the case that A fashions B and that it is there on 147

ARISTOTLE eari Sta to exofxevov , r] iiaXKov fiera roSe ylverat robe; Xeyco S' olov ov^ 17 Kaphia yevofxevrj TTOcel TO rjirap, rovro 8' erepov ri, aXXa roSe [jLera roSe, [ojarrep fiera to Trals dvrjp ytVerat]/ dAA' ovx ^tt 30 cKeLvov. Xoyog 8e tovtov, otl vtto tov ivTeXex^io. i oj/To? TO 8uva/xet 6V ytVerat ep* toi? (f)vaeL 7) t^X^ yivofievois, tocrre bcoi av to elSos kou ttjv pbOp^7]v ev €Keivcp etvat, olov ev tjj /capSta to tov rjTraTos. /cat aAAoj? 8' ctTOTTos Koi TrXaapbaTias 6 Adyo?. dAAo, priv /cat to eV to) aireppLaTi evdvs ivvTrapx^LV 35 Ti piopLOV TOV t,(pov ri (j)VTOv yeyevqpievov, etre 8yjdjU.evov Trotetv rdAAa etre /X17, d8waTOV, et ttoLv €K aireppLaTos /cat yov^? ytyverat. hr^Xov yap otl VTTO TOV TO OTTcppia TTOiTjaavTos eyeveTO, elnep evdvs ivvTrapx^L. dXXa airepp-a Set yeveadai rrpoTepov, /cat tout' epyov tov yevvwvTOS. ovOev dpa olov T€ fiopiov vTrdpx^iv. ovK dpa epj^et to ttolovv TCt piopia iv avTO). dAAd pLrjv ov8' e^w dvayKt] Se TOVTOJV elvai OaTepov. 5 HeipaTeov 817 TavTa Xveiv tcrcos yap tl tcov elpi)pievojv iaTLV ovx drrXovv, olov ttcjs TroTe vtto , j TOV e^o) OVK ivSex^'TaL ycveadai. cctti p,ev yap ws ivSex^Tat, €gtl 8' d)s ov. to piev ovv to aTTeppia ^ seclusi ; velit secludere Platt.

" As argued already, 734 a 2 ff .



account of B which is next to it, or is it rather the case that B is formed after A ? I mean, for instance, not that the heart, once it is formed, fashions the liver, and then the hver fashions something else ; but that the one is formed after the other [just as a man is formed after a child], not by it. The reason of this is that, so far as the things formed by nature or by human art are concerned, the formation of that which is potentially is brought about by that which is in actuality ; so that the Form, or conformation, of B would have to be contained in A,' e.g., the Form of the liver would have to be in the heart - -which is absurd. And there are other ways too in which the theory is absurd and fondly invented. But besides, for any part of the animal or plant to be present from the outset ready foi-med within the semen or seed, whether it has the power to fashion the other parts or not - even this is impossible if everything is formed out of semen or seed ; because it is plain that it was formed by that which fashioned the semen if it is present within the semen from the outset ; but semen must be formed before (any part), and that is the business of the parent. Therefore no part can be present within the semen. Therefore it does not contain in itself that which fashions the parts. And yet this cannot be external to the semen either " : and it must be either external to it or inside it.

Well, we must endeavour to solve this difficulty. Maybe there is some statement of ours, made without qualification, which ought to be qualified : e.g., if we ask, in irhat sense exactly is it impossible for the parts to be formed by something external ? we see that in one sense it is possible, though in another it is not.


734 b

ARISTOTLE Xeyeiv t] dcf)^ ov to andpfMa, ovOev Siacfyepei fj e;^et T7]v KLV7)attV €v iavTO) rjv e/cetvo CKLvei. ivSex^rai 10 Se ToSe fj,€v roSe Kivrjcrai,, rdSe 8e roSe, Kar etvat oiov ra avTOfxaTa rojv davixarojv. €)(ovTa yap ttcos VTTap)(ei SvvajjiLV ra pcopta rjpe[jiovvTa- Sv to TrpcoTov OTav TL KLvr^arj tcov k^ojdev, €v6vs to exopi^vov yiyvcTai^ ivepyeia. woTrep^ ovv^ iv tols avTop^aTois , TpoTTov pi€v riva eKeXvo klv€l ovx arrTopLevov vvv 15 ovdevog, dipapievov /xeWot, op^oicog [Se]* Kal (roY dcf)' ov TO arrepp^a rj to TTOirjaav to aireppua, dijsd p,€VOV pi€V TLVOS, OV^ aTTTOpieVOV 8 €TL- TpOTTOV Se Tiva -q ivovaa KLvqais, coaTrep 'q olKohopuqais ttjv OLKiaV.' "On pL€v ovv ecrrt tl o ttolcI, ov^ ovTCog 8e cos ToSe Tt, ovS' ivvrrdp^ov^ d)s TereAecr/xeVov to TTpuJTov, SrjXov.

20 ITa)? Se TTore exaaTOV yiyverai, evTevdev Set Xa^elv, dpx'qv TTOirjaapievovs irpwTov piev otl oaa 1 Kivetrai. coni. A.-W. ^ wcrre P.

= KaBd-nep PS, om. Z. ^ * seel. A.-W._ ^ ^^^y Yec\i.

® sic A.-W. : ot5Sev VTrapxov P : ovS' evvwdpxei vulg.

" It will be noticed that the passage which follows sounds surprisingly modern ; this is largely due to the great emphasis which Aristotle here gives to the role played by the Efficient (or Motive) Cause. - See however App. B § 5.

  • Cf. 741 b 9 ; and G. c\- C. II, chh. 10 and 11. At Mech. 848 a, there is a description of the mechanism by which these may have been worked.

" Kivelrai (" is set in movement ") has been suggested for ylyverat (" comes to be "). But perhaps yiyveadai ivepyeia is the inceptive form of etvat ivepyeia, as in the phrase ovros ivepyeia, line 31 below. 150



Now it makes no difference whether we say " the semen " or " that from which the semen comes," in so far as the semen has within itself the movement which the generator set going. " And it is possible that A should move B, and B move C, and that the process should be like that of the " miraculous " automatic puppets ^ : the parts of these automatons, even while at rest, have in them somehow or other a potentiality, and when some external agency sets the first part in movement, then immediately the adjacent part comes to be "^ in actuality. The cases then are parallel : just as ^^ith the automaton (1) in one way it is the external agency which is causing the thing's movement - \iz., not by being in contact with it anywhere now, but by having at one time been in contact \vith it, so too that from which the semen originally came, or that which fashioned the semen, (causes the embrj-o's movement) ** - \\z., not by being in contact with it still, but by having once been in contact with it at some point ; (2) in another way, it is the movement resident â– \vithin (which causes it to move), just as the acti\ity of building causes the house to get built.* It is clear by now that there is something which fashions the parts of the embryo, but that this agent is not by way of being a definite indi\idual thing,' nor is it present in the semen as something already perfected to begin with.

To answer the question. How exactly is each of the parts formed ? we must take first of all as our <* i.e., development ; see Introd. §§ 47 fF.

• Cf. above, 730 b 8.

' ToSc Ti : rf. Met. 1030 a 7 to roh^ rt rals ovaiais virapxei Itovov. A ToSe Ti is often equated with an ovaia. Also cf. P. A. 641 b 31 ye'veffts ftev yap to oTrepfxa, ovaia 8c to reXos.


734 b

ARISTOTLE (f)va€L yiyveraL r) Texvj], utt' ivepyeia ovros yiverai €K Tov SvvdjJieL TOiovrov. TO fiev ovv airepiia roLOvrov, /cat e;!^et KLvrjaLV /cat o.px'rjv roiavrriv, axTTe TTavojjLevqs^ ttjs KLvqaecos yiveaQai eKaarov 25 T(x)v ybopiuiv Kol epLipv^ov. ov yap ean irpocroiTTOv {.iTj €xov ipvxiqv, ouSe adp^, d\Xd ^dapeina oficovv(Jicos Xexd-qaerai to fiev elvai irpoacxiTTOv to Se crdp^, (Larrep Koiv el eyiyvero XiQ iva rj ^vXiva. d/xa 8e Tct ojJjOLopiepri yiverai /cat rd opyaviKa' Kat wairep ou8' dv rriXeKw ou8' dXXo opyavov (f)r]aaifxev dv TTOLrjaat to rrvp jxovov, ovTwg ovSe iroha 30 ovhe x^^p(^' "^dv avTov Se Tpoirov ovhe adpKa- /cat yap TavTTjs epyov tL ioTiv. oKXrjpd p-ev ovv /cat IxaXaKa kol yXtcrxpa /cat Kpavpa, Kal oaa dXXa TOtauTa' Trddr] vTrdpxeL Tots if.Li/jv)(OL'; /xoptot?, depjLtoTT^S" /cat i/jvxpoTTjs TTOL'qaeLev dv, tov 3e Xoyov to Tjhrj TO {xev adp^ to 8' ootovv, ovkItl, dXX rj KLvrjacs' 35 7] dno tov yewrjaavTos tov ivTeXex^ia ovtos o eoTt SvvdfJLei t6^ i^ ov yiveTai, aymrep /cat eiru TCJbv ytvo ^ quieverit S : Auo^e'viy? coni. Platt. ^ Toiavra P, om. vulg. 3 TO Y : ij vulg. : om. P, A.-W., Platt.

" Cf. below, 734 b 36 and 735 a 4. Also see Introdj §§ 34 flf.

" i.e., the principle of movement.

" If the text is sound, this can only refer to the oiigina " movement " imparted by the generating parent whic' produced the semen ; and this would be comparable wit the initial movement imparted to the automaton mentione above. 152


starting-point this principle. Whatever is formed either by Nature or by human Art, say X, is formed bv something which is X in actuality out of something which is X potentially.'^ Now semen, and the movement and principle ** which it contains, are such that, as the movement ceases '^ each one of the parts gets formed and acquires Soul. (I add " acquires Soul," because there is no such thing as face, or flesh either, without Soul in it ; and though they are still said to be " face " and " flesh " after they are dead, these terms will be names merely (" homonyms "),'* just as if the things were to turn into stone or wooden ones.) And the formation of the " uniform " parts* and of the instrumental parts goes on simultaneously. And as in speaking of an axe or any other instrument, we should not say that it was made solely by fire, so we should not say this about a foot or a hand (in the embryo), nor, similarly, of flesh either, because this too is an instrument with a function to perform. As for hardness, softness, toughness, brittleness and the rest of such qualities Avhich belong to the parts that have Soul in them - - heat and cold may very well produce these, but they certainly do not produce the logos ^ in direct consequence of which one thing is flesh and another bone ; this is done by the movement which derives from the generating parent, who is in actuality what the material out of which the offspring is formed is potentially. Exactly the same happens with things â– * See note on 726 b 24 (and 721 a 3). They have merely the name in common with the living face and flesh, but not the essential nature. Cf. line 34 below.

  • See Introd. § 19. Note that the non-uniform parts are here called the instrumental parts.

f See Introd. § 10.


ARISTOTLE [xevwv Kara Te^viqv UKXrjpov fxev yap /cat [xaXaKOV rov alSrjpov TroieZ to depjjiov Kal to ipvxpov, aAAo. ^icfjog 7] KivTjai,? T] Tcov opydvow, ep^ouaa Xoyov tov TT]s Tex^^s. r) yap Te^vr] dpxr) Kal ethos tov yivojxivov, dAA' iv eTepco' rj 8e ttjs (f)va€a}s Ktvrjais iv avTO) d^' eTepas ovaa (f)va€(vs ttjs ixovarjs to 5 etSos ivepyeia. TTOTcpov 8' exct ijivx^jv to avepfia ^ ov; 6 avTos Xoyos Kal Trepl tcov pbopioiv ovt€ yap fjfvx'f] €v ttAAo) ouSe/xta earat ttXtjv iv eKeLVCo ov y' icTTLV, ovT€ {xopLov ecTTat /at) f.L€Texov dAA' 7) o/JicovvpiCDS, woTTep TedvecoTos 6(j>daXp.6s . hrjXov ovv OTL Kal e;^ei /cat ecrri Svvdjjiei. iyyvTepo) Se 10 Kal TToppcjTepoj avTo avTOV evSex^Tai etvai Swafxei, axjTTep 6 KaOevSojv yea)[X€Tpr]s tov iyprjyopoTOS TToppojTepoj , Kal ovTos TOV deojpovvTog. TavTTjs fxev ovv ovdev fiopLov atrtov rrj? yeveaecog, dXXa to rrpcoTov Kivrjaav e^wdev. ovdev yap avTO eavTO yevva- OTav he yevrfTai, av^ei rjSr] avTO eavTO.

15 StoTTep TTpcoTov Tt yiyveTai, Kal ovx dpua iravTa. TOVTO Se yiyveadai dvdyKT) npcoTov, o av^rjoeoig dpx'^v ex^i' e'iTe yap (fvTov e'lTe t,a>ov, opioiios tovto TTaaiv vTTdpx^t to dpeiTTLKov. tovto o eOTl TO

" See Introd. § 11. * See above, 734 b 25.

' See note, 726 b 24.

â– * The argument now resumes from line 4 above.

  • Cf. I)e anima 416 b 16, and context.



formed by the processes of the arts. Heat and cold soften and harden the iron, but they do not produce the sword ; this is done by the movement of the instruments employed, which contains the logos of the Art ; since the Art is both the principle " and Form of the thing which is produced ; but it is located elsewhere than in that thing, whereas Nature's movement is located in the thing itself which is produced, and it is derived from another natural organism which possesses the Form in actuality. As for the question whether the semen possesses Soul or not, the same argument * holds as for the parts of the body, viz.. (a) no Soul will be present elsewhere than in that of which it is the Soul ; (6) no part of the body \\i\\ be such in more than name ^ unless it has some Soul in it (e.g., the eye of a dead person). Hence it is clear both that semen possesses Soul, and that it is Soul, potentially. And there are varying degrees in which it may be potentially that which it is capable of being - it may be nearer to it or further removed from it (just as a sleeping geometer is at a further remove than one who is awake, and a waking one than one who is busy at his studies). So ** then, the cause of this process of formation is not any part of the body, but the external agent which first set the movement going - for of course nothing generates itself,* though as soon as it has been formed a thing makes itself grow.^ That is why one part is formed first, not all the parts simultaneously. And the part which must of necessity be formed first is the one which possesses the principle of growth : be they plants or animals, this, the nutritive, faculty is present in all of them alike (this also is the faculty f Cf. below, 735 a 22, 740 a 19 ff.


ARISTOTLE 735 a , , , ,« , , « ^ yevvTjTiKov erepov oiov avro' rovro yap Travros (f)va€L reXeiov epyov /cat t^cpov koI (^vtov. dvdyKrj 20 Se 8ia ToSe, otl orav tl yiviqrai, av^dveadai dvd yK7). eyevvrjcre fiev roivvv to avvoivvpiov, olov dvdpcoTTos dvdpcoTToVy av^€Tai Se 8t' iavrov. iaxrro^ apa TL ov av^ei.' el Srj ev ti /cat tovto irpaJTOv,^ TOVTO avayKT] yiyveadai TrpwTOV. wot el rj /capSta TTpaJTOv ev TtCTt t,(x)Ois yiyveTai, ev he tois fJirj exovat 25 Kaphiav to TavTrj dvdXoyov, e'/c TavTr]s dv elrj rj o^PX") Tois exovGL, Tols 8' d'AAot? e/c tov dvdXoyov .

Tt piev ovv eoTLV aiTiov d)s dp)(rj ttjs irepl €Ka OTOV yeveaecDS , klvovv TrpcoTOV Kal Sr]piiovpyovv, etprjTaL Trpos Ta StarroprjdevTa rrpoTepov II 30 Ylepl Se TTJS" TOV aneppLaTO? ^vaecos dTTop-qaeiev dv Tt?. TO yap arreppLa e^epx^Tai p.ev e/c tov t,ipov naxv Kal XevKov, ipvxdpLevov Se ytVerat vypov warrep vhwp, /cat to xpdJP'O. vSaTOs. aTorrov hrj dv ^ eavTo Peck : ai;T6 vulg.

^ eatrro . . . av^ei] eariv dpa ti o av^CL Z, ' TrpaJTOv om. PS : A..~W .cxini. ev movro, Kal rovro avdyKij.

" Cf. De anima 41.5 a 26 ff., and for identity of nutritive and generative faculty, 416 a 18 If., and note on 744 b 36 below.

See note on 721 a 3.

" This seems to be the meaning of this phrase ; cf. the^ twice-repeated remark above, that once a thing has be brought into being, it makes itself grow : Aristotle now sajT " now that it is making itself grow, it is something - bi what ? Some one thing - it is so far just that one thing whic is al)le to cause growth, which contains the principle 156


of generating another creature like itself, since this is a function which belongs to every animal and plant that is perfect in its nature)." The reason why this must of necessity be so is that once a thing has been formed, it must of necessity grow. And though it was generated by another thing bearing the same name ^ {e.g., a man is generated by a man), it grows by means of itself. So then, since it makes itself grow, it is something '^ : and if indeed it is some one thing, and if it is this first of all, then this must of necessity be formed first. Thus, if the heart is formed first in certain animals (or the part analogous to the heart, in those animals which have no heart), we may suppose that it is the heart (or its analogue) which supplies the principle. The queries raised earher have now been dealt with. We have answered the question. What is the cause (in the sense of principle) of the generation of each individual - what is that which first sets it in movement and fashions it ? A puzzle which may now be propounded is, WTiat II is the nature of Semen r Semen when it leaves the Semen, animal is thick and white, but when it cools it becomes fluid Uke water and is of the colour of water. This nutritive Soul, viz., the heart- And that is why the heart is the first thing to be formed." Cf. 740 a 21 (where there is no need to alter the text).

The meaning of this passage seems to be that the semen, though it must have (and be) Soul, can have (and be) Soul potentially only ; and the realizing of this potentiality, which is the process of formation or generation (of which the parent is the agent), goes on gradually - thus, the first part of the Soul to be formed, generated, or realized, is the part which produces growth (to dpeTrriKov), and with it the part of the body in which that part of the Soul resides, viz., the heart. (See 763 b 25, n.) 157


735 a

So^etev ov yap 7ra;^ui'eTat vScop dep/Jiip, to 8' eacodev eK O^pfxov i^epx^rat TTa)(y, ^v)(6[ji€vov 8e yiverai vypov. Kalroi Trriyvvrai ye to. vSarcvSr]' 35 TO 8e aTTcpfxa ov Tn^yvvrai, Tidefjievov iv toX? Trayois viraidpiov, dAA' vypaiverai, to? vtto rov ivavriov TTa^vvdev. dAAd pirjv ouS' vtto depfxov 7Ta)(vv€adaL 735 b evXoyov. oaa yap yij? ttXclov ex^L, ravra avv lararai KaX TTaxvverai iipofieva, otov /cat to ydXa. e8ei ovv ifjvxop'^vov arepeovadai. vvv 8 ovdev ytverai arepeov, dAAd ttoLv axnrep vScup. r] jxev ovv aiTopia avrrj iarCv. ei fxev yap vScop, to vScop 5 ov (f)aiv€Tai Traxwop-evov vtto rov depp^ov, to 8' i^ipX^Tai TTaxv Kal depp-ov /cat e/c • depfwv tov ad)p,aTOS' et 8' e/c yris^ ^ piKTOv yrjg /cat uSaTO?, ou/c e8et vypov Trdv yiveadat, Kal vhcop. rj ov TTavTa TO. avp^aivovTa ^Lr]pi^Kap,€V ; ov yap p.6vov TTaxvv€Tat, TO i^ vSaTOS /cat yeaySovs avvioTapievov 10 vypov, dAAd /cat to i^ vSaTO? Kal TTvevp^aTog, otov Kal 6 d(f)p6s yivcTai TTaxvrepos /cat XevKos, /cat oau) dv iXaTTOvs Kal dSrjXoTepai at TTop(f)6Xvyes (Lai, ToaovTCp Kal XevKOTepos Kal aTL<f)poTepos o oyKos (jiaiveraL. to 8' auTO /cat to eXaiov Traop^ef TTaxvveTaL yap tco irvevpiaTi pnyvvpievov' 8t6 /cat 15 TO XevKatvopievov TraxvTcpov yiveTat, tov cvovtos vSaTcohovs VTTO tov 6epp,ov hiaKpivopuevov Kal yi 1 el U yfjs P, A.-W.



may seem strange, because water is not thickened by heat, vet semen is thick when it leaves the inside of the animal, which is hot, and becomes fluid when it cools. Moreover, watery substances freeze, but semen does not freeze when exposed to frost in the open air ; it becomes fluid, which suggests that it was heat that thickened it. And yet it is not very probable that it is thickened by heat, because it is substances that contain a large proportion of earth which " set " and thicken when boiled - milk, for example ; hence it ought to soUdify when it cools, but in fact it does not solidify at all ; the whole of it becomes fluid like water. This then is the puzzle. Suppose that semen is water. Water is never observed to be thickened by heat ; whereas semen is both thick and hot, and the body it comes from is hot. Or suppose it consists of earth, or is a mixture of earth and water. In that case the whole of it ought not to become fluid and turn to water. Perhaps then after all we have not distinguished all the cases that occur. Other fluids thicken beside those which are composed of water and earthy matter, viz., those composed of water and pneuma,'^ for instance, foam, which becomes thicker, and white ; and the smaller and more microscopic the bubbles are, the whiter and more compact is the appearance of the bulk. Oil behaves in the same way ; it thickens when it gets mixed with pneuma ; and that is why (oil) when it becomes whiter is thickening, since the watery substance in it is separated out from » Pneuma is defined below (736 a 1) as " hot air " ; see, however, 736 b 35 ff . below. Rather than attempt a misleading or inadequate translation of the word {e.g., spirit, breath), I have decided to keep the original term, as elsewhere. See further. Appendix B.


735 b

ARISTOTLE vofievov TTV€vyiaTOS. koI -q fioXv^Saiva ixiyvvfievrj vBan Kal^ iXaiqj i^ oXiyov re ttoXvv oyKov Trotet /cat e^ vypov axK^pov /cat e/c fxeXavog XevKov. aiTLOv 8' oTt iyKarafibyvvraL TTvevfJia, o rov re 20 oyicov TTOLei /cat ttjv XevKOTrjTa Sta^atVet, oicnrep €v rep a(f)pcp /cat rfj ;^tovf /cat yap i^ ;^tcov iariv acjipos. /cat ayro to vhcup^ iXaicp fxiyvvp^evov ytverat 7Ta)(v Kal XevKov /cat yap utto t-^s TpLipews ey/cara/cAeterat 7TV€vp,a, /cat auro to eXaiov e;(et 25 TTvevpia ttoXv eari yap ovre yr^s ovre vSaros aAAa TTvevfiaros ro Xnrapov. Sto /cat eTrt to) vhari eTTLTToXd^ef 6 yap iv avro) ojv drjp, djoTrep €V dyyeto), cf)€p€L dva> /cat eTTiTToXdl^ei /cat atVio? tt^s" KOV(f>6r'r]T6s ear IV. /cat ev- TOt? i/jvxecrt 8e /cat TrdyoL? TraxvveraL ro eXatov, ir-qyi-vrai 8' ov' 8ta 30 jLtev yap Oeppiorrjra ov TT-qyvvrai (o yap ai^p depp,6v /cat aTTrjKrov), 8ta Se to avviaraadat avrov /cat TTVKvovadai [c5o-7rep]^ wtto to£? i/jv^ovs rra)(vrepov yiveraL ro eXaiov. Sid ravras rds air lag /cat to (TTrep/xa eacodev fxev i^epxerai arL(j)pdv /cat Aey/coi', U7TO TTj? evrog deppborrjros TTvevfia ttoXv e)(ov Oep "^ Kal PS : ^ Kal vulg. ^ vScop P : v8a>p ru) vulg.

' seel. A.-W. ; fortasse avrov TrvKvovrai [tucrTrep . . . eXaiov] scribendum (haec om. 2). lac. post uxmep stat. Sus.

" This is no doubt galena (lead sulphide), the chief ore found in the Attic mines at Laurium, although these were more famous for their silver output. The reference to the mixing of the ore with Mater and oil, which heretofore seems to have passed unnoticed, must imply an early process of " flotation," a stage which follows the mechanical crushing of the ore and precedes the metallurgical extracting of the metal, its object being to separate the metalliferous from the non-metalliferous constituents of the ore by means of thtproduction of a froth. The first practically successful 160


it by the heat and becomes pneuma. Lead ore," too, when it gets mixed with water and oil, increases its bulk, and whereas it was fluid and black it becomes tliick and coherent and white. The reason is that pjieuma gets mixed in with it, and this produces the increase of bulk and lets the whiteness show through, precisely as it does with foam, and also with snow (because snow too is a foam). Even water itself when it gets mi;xed with oil becomes thick and white, the reason being that some pneuma is left behind in it owing to the friction of mixing, and also that oil itself contains a good deal of pneuma - for of course shininess is a quaUty of pneuma, not of earth or water. And that too is why oil floats on the surface of water ; air is contained in it, as though in a vessel, and this air buoys it up and causes it to float ; thus the air is the cause of its lightness. Further, in time of cold and frost, oil thickens, but does not freeze. Its failure to freeze is due to its heat - because the air is hot and is impervious to frost. But it thickens because the air is coagulated and compressed [as] by the cold. These reasons explain the behaviour of semen as well. It is coherent and white when it comes forth from within, because it contains a good deal of hot pneuma owing to the internal heat of the animal.

attempt at flotation in modern times was made by the brothers Elmore at the Glasdir gold-mine in Wales (patent 1898), though suggestions for the use of oil had been made by William Haynes of Holywell some years earlier (patent 1860). For details see S. J. Truscott, Text-book of Oredressing ; T. A. Rickard, Man and Metals, id.. Concentration by Flotation (which includes two essays on the flotation of galena at Broken Hill, N.S.W.). The term crruf>p6s corresponds exactly to the "' thick coherent froth " mentioned by Truscott {op. cit. 392, etc.). - For a full account of the mines at Laurium see E, Ardaillon, Les Mines du Laurion (1897).

G 161

735 b

ARISTOTLE 35 /Jiov, e^eXOov^ 8e orav aTTOTrvevar) to depfxov Kal 6 drjp ifjvxdjj, vypov ytverai Kal fJieXav AetTTerai yap TO vScop Kal et tl puKpov yetoSe?, oiOTrep iv (f>XeypLaTL, Kal ev to) arreppbaTL ^ripaLvofxevcp.

"Ecrrt /Jiev ovv to airepiia kolvov TTveu/xaro? /cat vhaTOS, TO Se TTvevfjid ecrri depfios drjp- Sto vypov TTjv <f)vai,v, OTL i^ vSaTOS. KxT^crtas' yap 6 KvtSlos a TTepl Tov OTrepfiaTOS tcov iXecjidvTiov ei-'pTjKe, (j>av€p6'S eoTLV eipevafxevo^. ^i^CTt yap ovtcd 5 aKXrjpvveadaL ^rjpaivofxevov cbare yiveadai rjXeKTpq) opiOLOv. TOVTO 8' ov yivcTaf pidXXov p.ev yap €T€pov eTepov GTrepfxa yecxjSeaTepov dvayKalov elvat, Kal p^dXioTa tolovtov oaois ttoXv yeoiSe? VTTapx^i' KaTa tov oyKov tov tov acv/JLaTos. rraxv 8e Kal XevKov 8ia to fJLepuxdoLi' TTvevpua. Kal yap 10 XevKov ecrrt to OTreppLa iravTcov 'HpoSoTOS yap ovk dXrjdrj Xeyei, (f)daKa}v fieXaivav elvat ttjv tcjv AWlottojv yovrjv, djCTTvep dvayKalov ov tcov ttjv Xpdav p^eXdviov elvai TrdvTa pbiXava, Kal Tavd^ opojv Kal Tovs oSovTas avTchv ovTas XevKovs. atTiov 8e TT^S" XeVKOTTITOS TOV aTTepfXaTOS OTL eUTLV Tj yOVTj 15 d(f)p6s, 6 8' d(f>p6s XevKov, Kal jxaXiGTa to i^ ^ eieXdov Peck : f^eXOovros vulg.

" See 725 a 15 ff.

  • " Ktesias of Knidos in Caria, a contemporary of Xenophon, belonged to an old medical family, and was physician to the Persian king Artaxerxes Mnemon (405-362 b.c). His chief work was his JlepoLKo., in 23 books, containing the history of the East down to 398-397 b.c. Most of his zoological matter, however, seems to have been contained in his 'IvhiKo., judging from this reference and three others in the History of Animals. Abridgements of both these works by Photius are extant. * Herodotus III. 101.

"* The view that semen was foam was held by Diogenes of 162


Later, when it has lost its heat by evaporation and the air has cooled, it becomes fluid and dark, because the water and whatever tiny quantity of earthy matter it may contain stay behind in the semen as it soUdifies, just as happens ^^•ith phlegma.^ Semen, then, is a compound of pneuma and water (pneuma being hot air), and that is why it is fluid in its nature ; it is made of water. Ktesias of Knidos ^ is obviously mistaken in his statement about the semen of elephants : he says that it gets so hard when it sohdifies that it becomes Uke amber. It does not. It is, of course, true that one semen must of necessity be earthier than another, and the earthiest v^ill be in those animals which, for their bodily bulk, contain a large amount of earthy matter ; but semen is thick and white because there is pneuma mixed with it. WTiat is more, it is white in all cases. Herodotus '^ is incorrect when he says that the semen of Ethiopians is black, as though everything about a person with a black skin were bound to be black - and this too in spite of their teeth being white, as he could see for himself. The cause of the whiteness of semen is that it is foam,<* and foam is white, the whitest being that Apollonia ; see Vindicianus, § 1 (Diets, Vorsokr.^ 64 B 6) Alexander Amator veri ( = $tAaAijffijs) . . . libro primo De semine spumam sanguinis eius essentiam dixit Diogenis placitis consentiens : and cf. § 3. See Jaeger's discussion of the subject in l>iokles von Karystos, 198-:311. Cf. also Hippocrates, it. yovfji ktX. 1 (vii. -tvO Littre) d-noKpiveTai airo rod vypov a<f>pf.6vTos to laxvporarov. In modern times a similar idea has been put forward, e.g., by Butschli (UnterKnrhnngen iiber mtkroskopi.<sche Schiiume vnd das Protoplasma, Leipzig, 1893), who " thought of protoplasm as a foam, or rather as an emulsion composed of two liquids, one in the form of droplets, the other as lamellae [i.e., films) between the droplets " (Heilbrunn, An Outline of General Physiology, 1938, p. 25).


ARISTOTLE oXLyiarcov avyKctfJicvov fxapiajv Kal ovtco fJbtKpoiv waTTcp eKaanqs dopdrov rrjg 7rojU,</)oAu)/o? ovarjg, OTTep avpL^aivei /cat e77t tov vSarog Kal tov eXaiov pnyvvixevcov Kal TptjSo/AeVoif, Kaddrrep i\€)(dy] Trporepov.

"Eot/ce Se ouSe tovs dpxo.LOVS )^avddveLi> dcfjpcoSrjs 20 7] TOV arrep/jiarog ovcra ^ucti?" TrjV yovv Kvpiav deov T7J? fiL^eoig 0,770 Trjg SvvdfJLews ravrrjs TT poaiqyopevaav .

'H /Ltev ovv alria rrjs \e-)(Oeicn)s dTTopias eLp'qrai,, (fiavepov 8e otl Sid rovr' ovSe TTrjyvvraL- 6 yap drjp aTTrjKTOsIII Tovrov S' ixdfJi€v6v iariv^ aTToprjaaL Kal eiTTetv, 25 et Tcov TTpo'Cepi€va>v els to OrjXv yovrjv p^ridev /Jioptov icTTL TO elaeXdov tov ycyvofxevov Kir/jfiaTos, ttov^ Tp€7T€Tai TO aoj/xaraiSes' avrov, eiVep epya^erat Trj Svvdfiet TTJ ivovoT] iv avro). Sioptaai Se^ Set ttoTepov fJL€TaXafji^dv€L to avvLOTdpievov iv Tip d-qXei aTTo TOV elaeXdovTo? tl tj ovOev, Kal rrepl ^v^t]? 30 Kad' -i^v XeyeTac ^coov {^cpov 8' eorrt /cara to fiopiov rrjs '^vx'TJS TO aladrjriKov) iroTepov evuTrapp^et T(p (TiripixaTi Kal tw KVt^ixari rj ov, Kal rroOev. ovTe yap d>s difjvxov dv deir] tls to Kviqpia Kara iravra rpoTTOv earepripiivov l^corjs' ovSev yap rjrrov ra re 1 iariv Kal PSY, Galen. » nol Btf. » 8e P : re vulg.

" Lit., "called after this substance (dynamis).'" Aphrodite, after aphros. Cf. Galen, tt. anepfiaTos I. 5 (iv. 531 KUhn) ; and Clem. Paedag. I. 6. 48 (Diels, Vorsokr.^ 64 A 24) nvej 8e Kal TO OTrep^a tov twov d<f>p6v etvat tov aifJLaTOS kot ovaiav VTroTiOevraL . . . ivrevdev yap 6 ' ATroXXcovMTTjS Aioyevtjs Ta d(f)po8iaia KeKXijadai ^ovXeTai. Cf. preceding note.

  • See note on meaning of KWjfxa, Introd. § 56.




which consists of the tiniest particles, so small that each Lndi\'idual bubble cannot be detected by the eye. An instance of such a foam, mentioned earlier, is that produced by the mechanical mixing of water and oil.

That the natural substance of semen is foam-like was, so it seems, not unknown even in early days ; at any rate, the goddess who is supreme in matters of sexual intercourse was called after foam." We have now given the reason which solves the puzzle that was stated. And this also shows, incidentally, why semen does not freeze : it is because air is imper\'ious to frost.

The next puzzle to be stated and solved is this. Ill Take the case of those groups of animals in which g*â„¢,®" *"^ semen is emitted into the female by the male. Su|>posing it is true that the semen which is so introduced is not an ingredient in the fetation ^ which is formed, but performs its function simply by means of the dynamis '^ which it contains. Verj- well ; if so, what becomes of the physical part of it ? First of all we shall have to decide (a) whether that which takes shape within the female does or does not incorporate into itself any portion of that which was introduced (from the male) ; and (6) whether Soul - and it is in ^•irtue of Soul that an animal has the name of " animal " : it is in fact in virtue of the sentient part ** of Soul that it is an animal ^ - whether Soul is or is not in the semen and in the fetation to begin \^ith, and if so where it comes from. No one, of course, would maintain that the fetation is quite without Soul, completely devoid of life in every sense, ' See also 726 b 18 ff., 727 b 15, 16, 738 b \2. and Bk. I, ch. 21. " See Introd. § 43. 'See 732 a 13, n.



736 a

aTTepfxara /cat ra Kvrjfjiara tcov ^ojtov t,fj rcov 35 (jjvrow, Kal yovLjxa fJi^XP t^^os eariv. on fxev ovv TTjv dpeTTTiKrjV €)(ovai ipv)('i^v, <f)av€p6v (8t' on 8e ravr-qv TTpcbrov dvayKaXov ioTL Xa^elv, Ik rcbv nepl 736 b ^VXT]S SuopLGfxevcov iv dXXots (f>av€p6v) • Trpo'Covra Be Kal rrjv alodrjnKriv, Kad^ t^v ^coov. ov yap d'/Aa yiverat i,a)ov Kal avd pcnTTO'S ovhe ^wov Kal lttttos, ofiotw^ 8e Kal irrl twv dXXcov t,cl)a>v vararov^ yap ytverai to reAos", to 8' i8iov ian to eKaoTov ttjs 5 yeveaeojg reAo?. 8to Kal rrepl vov, ttotc Kal ttcos jU.eTaAa/XjSaret Kal Txodev to. fxcTexovTa TavTij^ Trjg apx^js, €^€1 t' OLTTOpiav TrAetcrrrjv, Kal Set npo OvfJieLadaL /card Svyajxcv Xa^elv Kal Kad^ oaov evhex^Tai .

T77V iiev ovv dpeTTTiKTjV ifjvx^v TO. cmepfJiaTa Kal TO. KvripLaTa to. <(d);)(;6tjptcrTa^ 8^Aov otl Swdfiei fiev 10 exovTa BeTeov, ivepyeia 8' ovk e^ovTa, rrpiv rf KadoLTTep TOi ;;^a)/[)t^o/zep'a tcov KviqpiaTWv eAwret Tr^v Tpo(f)r]v Kal TTOiel to ttJs TOiavTrfs 4'^Xl^ epyov 7Tpa)TOV fiev yap drravT eoLKe ^'f]v to. ToiavTa ^ vararov P : varepov vulg. ^ Buss. : ovra x^picra Platt. * wXriv el Platt.

"e.g., wind-eggs, Bk. III.

  • De anima, Bk. II, ch. 4 ; and see 735 a 13 ff. above. . ' These are two instances of the rule that there are definite stages in the development or formation of living things. Nutritive Soul (the mark of a living thing) is acquired before sentient Soul (the mark of an animal), just as the formation of an animal precedes the formation of any particular species of animal. Cf. von Baer's " biogenetic law," that the character of the class is acquired before that of the genus, and that of the genus^before that of the species. (K. E. von Baer,



for the semens and the fetations of animals are just as much alive as plants are, and up to a point they are fertile.^ Thus it is clear that they possess nutritive Soul (vide my remarks on Soul in another treatise * for an explanation of why nutritive Soul must of necessity be acquired first). It is while they develop that they acquire sentient Soul as well, in virtue of which an animal is an animal - I say, " while they develop," for it is not the fact that when an animal is formed at that same moment a human being, or a horse, or any other particular sort of animal is formed, because the end or completion is formed last of all, and that which is peculiar to each thing is the end of its process of formation.'^ That is why it is a very great puzzle to answer another question, concerning Reason. At what moment, and in what manner, do those creatures which have this principle of Reason acquire their share in it, and where does it come from ? This is a very difficult problem which we must endeavour to solve, so far as it may be solved, to the best of our power.

As regards nutritive Soul, then, it is clear that we must posit that semens and fetations which are not separated (from the parent) possess it potentially, though not in actuality - i.e., not until they begin to draw the nourishment to themselves and perform the function of nutritive Soul, as fetations which get separated* (from the parent) do ; for to begin with it seems that all things of this sort live the life of a Vher Entxoicklungsgesctiirhte der Thiere, Beohachtung und Reflexwn (1828), i. 2i4, Scholion V (1) Dass das Gemeinsame einer grossern Thiergruppe sich friiher im Embryo bildet, als das Besondere. et seqq.)

    • The solution begins by resuming the argument from 736 a 32-34. • e.g., seeds of plants.


736 b

ARISTOTLE (f)VTOv ^iov. inofxevcos 8e SrjXov otl /cat Trepl rrjs atadrjTLKTjs XcKreov ^V)(fjs kol nepl rrjs vorjrtKfjs 15 TTaaas yap dvayKalov Svvdfjiei rrpoTepov €)(€lv r) eve py eia. dvayKalov Be tJtol [x-rj ovaas vpoTepov eyyiveadaL Trdaas, rj irdaas Trpov-nap^^^ovaa? , ■^ rds jxev rds 8e /iij, Kal eyyiveadai 7) ev rfj vXr) [mt] eiaeXdovaas ev rep rov dppevos aTTepfjuart, •^ evravda puev eKeWev eXOovaas, ev Se ro) dppevL r^ 20 dvpadev eyyivofievag drrdaas r^ pLTjSejJiLav r) rds fxev rds Be pLTj. OTL fiev roivvv ovx olov re Trdaas irpovTrdp^eiv, (fyavepov eartv e/c tcDv tolovtcov. oaiov ydp iariv dp^o^v^ rj eve py eia acoiiariKi], SrjXov on ravras dvev acoixaros dhvvarov VTrdpxeiv, olov ^a- | Si^etv dvev ttoScov ware Kal dvpadev elaievai " 25 aBvvaTOV ovre ydp avrds KaO^ avrds elaievai \ olov re dxojpiarovs ovaag, ovr^ ev aiop^ari elaievai'

irpd^ecDv coniecerunt A.-W.

" This elaborate scheme of possibilities is not really so overwhelming as it looks, though the argument would have been more lucid if Aristotle had explicitly named the several sorts of Soul involved. It will be seen, however, that of the first three possibilities, the last, (c), is the operative one ; in fact, it is nutritive Soul which the material of the female (more specifically, the fetation) possesses (see 736 a 32 ff., 737 a 23 ff ) ; thus it remains for the other two, sentient and rational Souls, to be feiipplied by the male (Aristotle explains in ch. 5 below that the reason why a fetation can grow yet is unable to develop fully into an animal is that it lacks sentient Soul, which only the male can supplj^). Hence in the second series of possibilities it is again the last one, (c), which is the operative one : sentient Soul is present inside the male (i.e., the semen), and it remains that rational Soul comes into being inside the male (i.e., the semen) from some outside source, for it alone is not afifected by the two considerations which preclude the entry from outside of the other parts of Soul, whose activity 168




plant. And it is clear we should follow a similar line also in our statements about sentient Soul and rational Soul, since a thing must of necessity possess every one of the sorts of Soul potejitially before it possesses them in actuality. And necessity requires either (a) that none of them exists previously, and that they all come to be formed in <the fetation) ; or (b) that they are all there beforehand ; or (c) that some of them are there and some are not ; and further, that they come to be formed in the material supplied by the female either (a) without having entered in the semen of the male or (6) after having so entered - that is, ha\"ing come from the male, and if so, then that either (a) all of them or (6) none of them or (c) some of them come to be formed within the male from some outside source." Now the following considerations plainly show that they cannot all be present beforehand. Clearly, those principles whose activity is physical cannot be present mthout a physical body - there can, for example, be no walking without feet * ; and this also rules out the possibiUty of their entering from out side, since it is impossible either that they enter by themselves, because they are inseparable (from a physical body), or that they enter by transmission in some body, because the is essentially physical (see also below, T37 a 9 f.). Thus, sentient Soul, and a fortiori rational Soul, are supplied by the male, through the semen, to the material provided by the female. Aristotle does not, however, give any fuller solution than this to his own "very difficult puzzle" how and when rational Soul, which is thus supplied in a potential state by the male, is actualized in the oflFspring.

•" Aristotle takes the " locomotive Soul," the highest of the " parts " or " faculties " of Soul apart from " rational Soul," and shows that this cannot enter by itself ; a fortiori therefore none of the lower " parts " can do so.


ARISTOTLE TO yap OTTepixa Trepirrcoixa pbera^aXXovarjs rrjg Tpocfjrjg eariv. AeiVerat Si^^ rov vovv piovov dvpaOev eTTeiatevai /cat deXov elvai pbovov ovOkv yap avTov TTJ ivepyeia Kocvcovel (JiopiarLKrj ivepy eta. 30 Ildarjs ptev ovv ipvxrjs hvvapLLS irepov aayp-aros €OiK€ KeKoivojvrjKevai /cat deiorepov roJv KaXovpievcov aroix^^^v' (hs 8e Sta^epoyat npLLor'qri at ijiv^oX /cat drt/ita aXX-qXcxiv, ovrco /cat rj roLaurrj Sta^epet (fjvacs- Trdvrojv piev yap iv rqj airippiari ivvTTapxit,, OTTep TTOtel yovipia etvat to. airippiara, 35 TO KaXovpuevov deppuov. tovto 8' ov TTvp ouSe Toiavrr] Svvapitg ecrrtv, aAAa to ipbTrepiXapL^avopLevov iv TO) (jTreppLaTL /cat iv tw a.(f)pa)Sei TTvevpta /cat T) iv Tw TTvevpiaTL (/)vat,s, dvdXoyov ovaa tco 737 a Tcbv daTpoiv crrotp^e ta>. Sto rrvp piev ouOev yevva i,ci)ov, ovde (f>aiV€Tai avviaTdpievov iv' TTvpovpbivois ovT iv vypols ovT iv ^rjpol^ ovOiv rj Se tov rjXcov deppbOTTj^ /cat rj Ttov t,ipojv ov pLovov rj Sto. tov ^ 8rj Platt, Zeller, Btf. : Se vulg. * eV P : om. vulg.

" i.e., it is not a body possessing the parts necessary in order to give eifect to the activities involved, such as legs for walking. Cf. P. A. 641 b 31 yeveaLS /u.ev yap to anipixa, ovata 8e TO re'Ao?.

  • Cf. De anlma 413 a 4 ff.

« Cf. 762 a 20. '^ See 736 a 13 ff.

  • This is the so-called " fifth element," {i.e., over and above the four " elements " foimd in the sublunary regions, viz., earth, air, fire, and water), though Aristotle's own name for it is " the first of the elements " (to npcoTov tu>v oTotxeiojv, De caelo 298 b 6, to Trpayrov awfia, 270 b 21), owing to its pre-eminent qualities. The arguments for its existence will be found in De caelo, Bk. I ; it is ungenerated, indestruct170


semen is a residue of the nourishment that is undergoing change." It remains, then, that Reason alone enters in, as an additional factor, from outside, and that it alone is divine, because physical activity has nothing whatever to do with the activity of Reason.* Now so far as we can see, the faculty of Soul of every kind has to do with some physical substance which is different from the so-called " elements " and more divine than they are ; and as the varieties of Soul differ from one another in the scale of value, so do the various substances concerned with them differ in their nature. In all cases the semen contains within itself that which causes it to be fertile - what is known as " hot " substance,*^ which is not fire nor any similar substance, but the pneuma which is enclosed within the semen or foam-like stuff,'* and the natural substance which is in the pneuma ; and this substance is analogous to the element which belongs to the stars.® That is why fire does not generate any animal,^ and we find no animal taking shape either in fluid or solid substances while they are under the influence of fire ; whereas the heat of the sun ' does effect generation, and so does the heat of animals, ible, and divine (269 a 31 flF., 270 a \2 fF., 270 b 10 ff.)- Aristotle claims that it was va^ely recognized by the ancients, as is suggested by the name (aither) they gave to " the uppermost place " (270 b 16 if.) : d-rro rov 9eiv del tov dlSiov â– )(p6vov Be/xevoi T^v iirojwfjiiav avTu>. {Cf. Hippocrates, tt. aapKcov 2 (viii. 584 Littre) SoKeei 8e pot o KaX4oy.ev depfiov, dOdvaTov re ttvai . . . rovTO ovv . . . i^e\(Lpnqo€v els Trjv dvarraTOj irepit^prfv Kal avTO /xot So/cc'ct aldepa toIs TroAatois elpfjadax.) Its motion is circular ; so is that of the stars, which are composed of it (289 a 15). It is not found in the sublunary regions, but pneuma is its " counterpart " (see Introd. §§ 70 if., App. A §§ 7 if., and B). ' But see 761 b 15 flF., and note. » See App. A §§ 7 ff., B §§ 7-17.


737 a

ARISTOTLE aTTepixaros, dXXa kov tl TTepirrcofxa rvxTi "^V^ 4*^' 5 aecos ov erepov, opLcos e;^et /cat tovto l,a>Ti,Krjv ^PXW- ^"^^ f^^^ ^^^ 1 ^^ TOts" ^(pois deppLOTTjs ovre TTvp ovre aTTo irvpos €)(eL ttjv ap')(iqv, eK twv tolovrcxiv earl ^avepor.

To Se rrjs yovrjg aajfia, ev at avva7Tep\erai \r6 anepixoY ro rrjs ifjv)(^LKrj^ ap)(fis, ro [lev )(<optcrr6v ov 10 ocofiaros, oaots ep,TTepiXap.^averai ri^ deiov{roiovros S earlv 6 KaXovpievo^ vovs), ro S' axojpKJrov, rovro ro acbfJia^ rrjs yovrjs SiaAuerat /cat rrvevp-arovrai, (f)VGLV e)(ov vypav /cat vharchhrj. bioTrep ov Set ^rjrelv del dvpa^e avro e^ievai, ovhe piopiov ovOev elvai rfjs Gvardcnjs fiop(f)7Js, utaTrep ov8e rov 15 OTTOV rov ro ydXa avviardvra' /cat yap ovro? jLterajSaAAei /cat [xopiov ovdev can rwv avvicrrafievajv oyKOJV.

Yiepl fxev ovv i/jvx'rjs, ttcos e-^ei rd Kvqjxara /cat r] yovTj /cat 7TWS ovk €)(€t, SicopLarai' SwajieL puev yap ej^et, evepyeia S' ovk exei.* Tov he GTrepfxaros ovros Trepirro) pharos Kat /ctvovfxevov KLvrjcnv rrjv avrrjv Kad rjVTrep ro aa>p,a 20 av^dverat pepit^opevrfs rrjs eaxdr-qs rpo(f)rJ9, orav eXOrj elg rrjv vcrrepav, avviarrjat Kal /civet ro neptrrojfxa ro rov di^Xeos rr^v avrrjv Kivrjaiv rjvTrep avro Tvyxdvei Kivovp-evov /ca/ceti'o. /cat yap e/cetvo ^ TO a-nepfia om. P, secl. A.-^\^ : to irvevfia Platt, S.

  • XI P : TO vulg.

3 au)fia A.-W. : anep^ia vulg. * haec seclusit Platt.

° The " ultimate nourishment." Cf. 726 b 1 fF., and P. A. 650 a 34, 651 a 15, 678 a 8 ff. This is nourishment in its final form, viz., blood. 172


and not only the heat of animals which operates through the semen, but also any other natural residue which there may be has witliin it a principle of life. Considerations of this sort show us that the heat which is in animals is not fire and does not get its origin or principle from fire.

Consider now the physical part of the semen. (This it is which, when it is emitted by the male, is accompanied by the portion of soul-principle and acts as its vehicle. Partly this soul-principle is separable from physical matter - this appUes to those animals where some divine element is included, and what we call Reason is of this character - partly it is inseparable.) This physical part of the semen, being fluid and watery, dissolves and evaporates ; and on that account we should not always be trying to detect it leaving the female externally, or to find it as an ingredient of the fetation when that has set and taken shape, any more than we should expect to trace the fig-juice which sets and curdles milk. The fig-juice undergoes a change ; it does not remain as a part of the bulk which is set and curdled ; and the same applies to the semen.

We have now determined in what sense fetations and semen have Soul and in what sense they have not. They have Soul potentially, but not in actuality.

As semen is a residue, and as it is endowed with the same movement as that in wtue of which the body grows through the distribution of the ultimate nourishment," when the semen has entered the uterus it " sets " the residue produced by the female and imparts to it the same movement with which it is itself endowed. The female's contribution, of course, is a residue too, just as the male's is, and 17S


737 a

TreptTTCOjua, /cat rravra to. yuopia €)(eL Svvdixei, evepyeia S ovdiv. /cat yap ra roiavr' e;^ei fiopta 25 Sym^ei, t^ Sia^epet to ^t^Ai; tou dppevos. coajrep yap Kai e/c 7TeTTripcop.evoiv ore fxev yiverat 7T€7Tr)pcofxeva ore 8' oy, outoj Kai ck B-^Xeos ore /Ltev drjXv ore 8' oy, aAA' appev. ro yap OrjXv cSctttc/j appev eari TTeTTripcx>p.evov , /cat to, KarapirjVLa aTrepfia, ov Kadapov he. ev yap ovk e;^et p,6vov, rrjv rrjs ipvxrjs 30 ap)('qv. /cat 8ia rovro oaois VTTrjvepua ylverac rcov t,cpo)v, apL^orepayv e)(ei ra fieprj ro avviardfxevov d)6v, aAAo. rriv apx^jv ovk e^^ei, 8t6 ov yiverai efjiipvxov ravrrjv yap ro rov dppevos e7rLcj>epeL OTTepfia. orav he p^erdaxv roiavrrjs dpx'^S ro TTepLrrcojxa ro rod dn^Xeos, Kvrjfia yiverai.

35 ^[Tots 8' vypots piev acopLarcoheai, Se deppbaivopievots TTepuararai, Kaddnep ev rols iip-qpiaai, ijjv737 b ;^o/ueVots' to rrepi^rjpov. irdvra he rd aojpara cFvvex^i' TO yXiaxpov oirep /cat rrpo'Covai /cat pi,eit,oai yiyvop,evoLg rj rov vevpov Aa/xjSaret ^uat?, rjirep avvexei rd p,6pia tcDv t,cpojv, ev pLev rols ovaa vevpov, ev he rols ro dvdXoyov. rijs 8' avrrjg 5 piop(f)rjs earl /cat hepp-a /cat 0Aei/r /cat vpLrjv /cat Trdv ^ vv. 34-b 7 secluserunt A.-W.

° Other attempts to bring out the meaning of this word would include " imperfectly developed," " underdeveloped," " malformed," " mutilated," " congenitally disabled." i.e., as appears later, sentient Soul (ch. 5).

" i.e., as above (11. 23-25), potentially.



contains all the parts of the body potentially, though none 171 actuality ; and " all " includes those parts which distinguish the two sexes. Just as it sometimes happens that deformed " offspring are produced by deformed parents, and sometimes not, so the offspring produced by a female are sometimes female, sometimes not, but male. The reason is that the female is as it were a deformed male ; and the menstrual discharge is semen, though in an impure condition ; i.e., it lacks one constituent, and one only, the principle of Soul.* This explains why, in the case of the wind-eggs produced by some anknals, the Ggg which takes shape contains the parts of both sexes, '^ but it has not this principle, and therefore it does not become a Uving thing with Soul in it ; this principle has to be supplied by the semen of the male, and it is when the female's residue secures this principle that a fetation is formed. ^ [WTien substances which are fluid but also corporeal are heated, an outer layer forms round them, just as we find a solid layer forming round things that have been boiled, as they cool. All bodies depend on something glutinous to hold them together ; and as their development proceeds and they become larger, this glutinous character is acquired by the substance known as sinew, which holds the parts of animals together (in some it is actual sinew which does this, in others its counterpart).-'^ Skin, blood-vessels, membrane and all that class of substances are of the

    • Or, " it becomes a fetation," i.e., a perfect fetation ; see 7.S7 a 10.

  • The following paragraph, which consists partly of remarks taken from elsewhere, is irrelevant here.

' Sometimes, as here, " counterpart " could be represented by the modern term " analogue " ; cf. P. A. 653 b 36.


737 b

ARISTOTLE TO TOLovTOV yevo^' Bi,a(f)€p€i yap ravra rat jHoAAov /cat rJTTOv Kal oXios^ vTrepoxfj Kal eAAei^et.] IV Ta»v Se iC,ct)Oiv ra /xev dreXecrrepav e^ovra rrjv (f)vaLV, orav yevqrai Kviqyia reXeiov ^a»ov Se jlit^ttoj 10 TcXeLov, 6vpat,€ Trpoterai- St' a? 8' atria's e'lprjrai ■nporepov. reXetov 8' T^h-q ror' icrriv, orav ro fxev dppev fi ro 8e driXv rajv Kvqixdrcov, iv oaois larlv avrT] rj Bia(f>opd rcov yivofievcov evLa yap ovre OrjXv yevva ovr dppev, oaa firjS^ avrd yiverai eK d-qXeos /cat dppevos /X7y8' e/c ^ojcov fJbLyvvfxevcov. /cat Trepl 15 jjiev rijs rovrcov yeveaecos varepov ipovfxev Ta 8e t,cporoKovvra iv avrols rd re'Aeta rwv t^(x)(xiVy P'^xpi' TT^p dv ov yewrjarj t,wov /cat dvpal^e €K7T€fjnprj, ey^ei avfX(f)V€S iv avrols^ rd yiyvofxevov ^cpov.

"Oaa 8e dvpat,e jxev ^cporoKel, iv avroZg 8' <horoKel TO TTpcorov, orav yewqar) ro (l>6v reXetov, 20 rovrcov ivioiv fxkv dnoXverai ro (hov ojOTTCp rdJv 6vpat,€ (horoKovvroiv , /cat rd t,cbov iK rov (hov yiverat iv rep 6'qXei, ivicov 8' orav KaravaXcudfi rj iK rov (hov rpo^Tj, reXeiovrai (xtto tt^s" varipas, Kal 8ta rovro ovk diroXverat ro (hov dTTO rrjg varepag. ravrr]v 8' €)(ovaL rrjv 8ia(f)opdv ol aeXaxdihet? tp^ 25 dv€S, TTepl (Lv varepov Kad^ avrd XeKreov.

Nw 8' avro rdiv Trpdircjv dpKriov Trpdjrov. kari ^ oXcos PS : oAwj iv vulg. ^ avTols Rackham : avTu> vulg.

« Cf. P. A. 644 a 17, and note there; also Introd. § 70. * For the meaning of " perfect " animals, see below, 737 b 15, 16, and the fuller definition given at 732 b 28 ff. " i.e., a "perfect" egg; for another sense, see 776 b 1. ^ For Selachia, see Bk. Ill, ch. 3.



same stamp ; they diflPer only by the " more and less," or putting it generally, by excess and deficiency."] So far as those animals whose nature is more im- IV perfect are concerned, as soon as a perfect fetation *â– has been formed, though it is not so far a perfect animal, they expel it. The reasons for this I have already stated. A fetation is perfect by the time it is either male or female. (This applies to those animals whose offspring have this distinction of sex, for there are some which generate offspring that are neither male nor female ; these are the animals which are not themselves produced by male and female parents - not produced in fact as the result of the copulation of a pair of animals. We vriW speak later of the way in which these are generated.) The perfect animals, the ones which are intei-nally viviparous, retain \Aithin themselves the animal which is forming, and it remains joined to them until it is brought to birth and expelled.

With regard to those which are internally oxiparous in the first stage although they are externally vi\"iparous, the egg, when it has been perfectly formed, in some cases (a) is released, just as it is in the externally o\"iparous animals, and the animal is produced out of the egg inside the female ; in other cases (6), when the nourishment in the egg has been used up, the supply for the creature's perfecting is derived from the uterus ; and that is why the egg is not released from the uterus. This distinguishing feature belongs to the Selachian fishes, which will have to receive special mention later.** For the present, however, we must begin first of &*neration all with the animals that come first. These are the '° ^•p*'* 177

737 b

738 a

ARISTOTLE 8e TO. re'Aeta ^a>a TrpaJra, rotavra Se to, ^cx)otoKovvTa, Kal TovTcov avdpoiTTOs rrpoJTov.

'H fjL€V ovv CLTTOKpiais ytVcTat TTttcrt rod (nrepfxaros (xiairep aXXov rivo^ TreptTrdjjuaro?. ^eperai yap eKaarov ei? rov olkcXov tottov ovOkv aTTo^ia30 t,opuevov Tov TTvevjJLaTOs, ouS' dXXrjs alrias TOLavrrjs avayKa^ovcrr]s , coaTrep rtves (f)aaLV, e'A/ceiv to, atSota (fidaKovres ojoTrep Tct? aiKvas, ro) re nvevfiarL ^ta^o/xevcov, woTTep ivhe^ofJievov aXXodi ttov iropevdrjvai fxr) ^laaapiivcov -tf ravrrjv rrjv TrepLrrojatv rf rrjv rrjs vypds rj ^rjpd? rpo^rjSy on ra? e^oSoy? 35 avrihv r^dpoiapuevo) ro) 7TV€vp,ari ovveKKpivovaLV . rovro he kolvov Kara rravroiv oaa Sei KLvrjaai, Sta yap rov ro rrvevfia Karacrxelv rj la^vs eyyiveraf €7761 Kal avev ravrqg rrjg jSta? eKKpiverai rd rrepirrcop-ara Kal KaOevhovai, dv dveroi re Kal nXi^peis TTepirrcofjLaros ot rorroL rv)(a>aiv eyre's, ofjioiov Se Kav et ris (ftaL-q rots' (f)vrois vtto rov TTvevfiaros 5 eKaarore rd arrepfJiara aTTOKpiveadai Trpog rov? roTTOVs TTpds ovs etcode (j)epeLV rov Kapirov. dXXd rovrov jxev a'iriov, warrep elprjrai, ro Trdaiv elvac piopia SeKrLKa rols TTepirrajpiaoi roZg r dy^p-qarois (Kal rots ;i^p')7crt)U.otS'>^ [olov rfj re ^rjpd Kal rfj vypa, Kal rw aL/xari rds KaXovjxevas (^Ae'/Sa?]. 10 Tot? p^ev ovv diqXeaL rrepl rov rcbv varepwv rorrov, axi'^ofievwv dvwdev rwv hvo ^Xe^a)v, rrjg re pce ^ ^ P : om. vulg. * ^ P : om. vulg.

  • supplevi, cetera seclusi ; vid. p. 562, infra.

» Cf. Hippocrates, tt. apx- l-qrpiKfjs 22 (i. 626-628 Littre), where the action of the bladder, the head and the uterus in drawing fluid to themselves is compared to the action of atKvai,.



perfect animals, which means the viviparous ones; and the first of these is Man.

In all of them the semen is secreted in precisely the (<») The same way as any other residue. Each of the residues residues. is carried to its proper place without the exertion of any force from the pneiima and without compulsion by any other cause of that sort, although some people assert this, alleging that the sexual parts draw the residue like cupping-glasses " and that we exert force by means of the pneuma, as though it were possible for the seminal residue or for the residue of the liquid or of the solid nourishment to take any other course unless such force were exerted. The reason given for this view is that our discharge of these residues is accompanied by the collecting of the pneutna (the holding of the breath). But this is a phenomenon which is common to all cases where something has to be moved, because holding the breath is the way in which the required strength is obtained. Besides, even without the exertion of this force residues are actually discharged during sleep, if the places concerned are relaxed and full of residue. Such statements are on a par with saying that the seeds of plants are on each occasion secreted to the places where they commonly bear their fruit by means of pneuma. No, the real reason for this, as has been said, is that in all animals there are parts for the reception of the residues, both for the useless (and for the useful ones) [e.g., both for the solid and the fluid ; and for the blood there are the blood-vessels as they are called]. The region of the uterus in females. - Higher up in the body the two blood-vessels, the Great Blood

  • This phrase is an interpolation. See p. 562.


738 a

ARISTOTLE ydXrjs Kal rrjs doprrjs, rroXXal Kal XeTrral ^Ae'jSe? reXevTOJaLV els rds varepas, Sv VTrepTrXrjpovfMevojv €K TTJs rpo(f)rjg, Kal rfjg ^vaecos Sta ifjvxpoTrjra TverreLV ov Swajxev-qg , eKKptverai Sid XeTTTordrcov 15 (fyXe^cbv els rag varepas, ov hvvayievajv Sta tt^v arevo-)(a}plo-v Se)(ecrdaL rrjv V7Tep^oX7]v rod TtX-qdovg, Kai yiverai to Tradog olov alpioppotg. aKpi^cbg pbev ovv 7] TTeploSog ov reTa/crat rat? yvvai^l, ^ovXerac Se (f)div6vTa)v yiveadai t6jv fi7]va)v evXoycog' ipvXpdrepa yap rd ad)p,ara rcov t,cpa>v orav /cat ro 20 TTepiexov avjJi^aivri yiyveadai tolovtov, at Se rcov firjviov avvohoi ipv^poil Sta tt^v Trjg aeX-qvrjg dnoXeii/jLv, hioirep Kal -x^eipiepiovg avpL^aCvei rdg avvoSovg elvat rcov [jirjvdJv puaXXov rj rdg fxeaorrjrag. fiera^e^X-qKorog fxev ovv elg alfia rod 7repirr(Iipi,arog ^ovXerai ylyveadat rd Karapurivia Kard rr]v elpr] 25 fievrjv rrepiohov, p.7] TrerrepipLevov he Kard p,iKp6v del ri aTTOKpiverai' Sio rd XevKd puKpoZg eri} Kal iraihioig overt ylverat, rolg d-qXecrLV. pierpidt^ovaai /xev ovv ap,(f)6repaL avrai at drroKplaeig rcov irepirrcopidrcov rd acopara adi^ovaiv, are yiyvop.evr]g Kaddpaecog rwv 7Tepi,rra>p,dra)v a rov voaelv atria 30 Tots' acopaaiv p.r] ytvopievajv he -^ rrXeLovaJv yiyvo p,evcov jSActTTTef Troiet ydp rj voaovg r} rcov acopudrcov Kadalpeuiv, 8to /cat rd Aeu/ca avvex^og yivopceva Kal TrXeovdl^ovra rrjv av^rjaiv d^aipelrai rcov iraihlcov.

E^ dvdyKTjg p,€v ovv yj Treplrrcoaig avrrj ylverai

fUKpots €TtJ fjLiKpa crrjfieia


" i.e., the vena cava and the whole venous system, and the aorta and the whole arterial system.

  • The moon has no real connexion with menstruation. Various notions on this subject will be found in H. M. Fox, 180


vessel and the Aorta,** branch out into many fine blood-vessels, which terminate in the uterus. When these are overfull of nourishment (which owing to its own coldness the female system is unable to concoct), it passes through these extremely fine blood-vessels into the uterus ; but oAnng to their being so narrow they cannot hold the excessive quantity of it, and so a sort of haemorrhage takes place. In women the period is not accurately fixed, but it tends to happen when the moon is waning,* which is what we should expect, since the bodies of animals are colder when their en\-ironment is colder, and the time of new moon is a cold time on account of the disappearance '^ of the moon : the same thing explains why the end of the month is stormier than the middle.'* When the residue has changed into blood, the menstrual discharge tends to occur in accordance ^^^th the period just mentioned ; but when the residue has not been concocted, small quantities are secreted from time to time, and this is why " whites " occur in females, even while they are still quite small children. These two secretions of residue, if moderate in amount, keep the body in a sound condition, because they constitute an evacuation of the residues which cause disease. If they fail to occur, or occur too plenteously, they are injurious, producing either diseases or a lowering of the body ; and that is why continuous and abundant discharge of " whites " prevents young girls from gro^^•ing.

Thus the production of this residue by females is, Selene. For other references see F. H. A. Marshall, " Sexual Periodicity," in Phil. Tram. Royal Soc. (B), CCXXM (\o. 539), p. 442, n. "^ i.e., complete waning.

•^ See 777 b 35, n.



738 a

TOLs B-qXeai 8ia ra? elpr^fievas atria's' fJirj hvvayiivr)s 35 re yap Trerreiv rijg (Jivaecos avdyKT] TreptTTCo/xa ytyveadaL fir] fxovov ttjs axpr]arov rpocfirjg, dXXa /cat €v rals (jiXeijjiv, vrrep^dXXeiv re rrXi^dvovra^ Kara 738 b TO.? XeTTrordras ^Ae'^a?. eveKa Se rov ^eXriovog /cat rod reXovs rj (f>vais Kara)^prjraL rrpos rov rorrov rovrov rrjg yeveaecos )^dpt.v, ottcos olov efxeXXe roLOvrov yevqrat erepov tJSt] yap VTrdp^ei Swa/xei ye ov roiovrov olov vep eon (Tco/xaro? dTTOKpiois. 5 Tot? jxev ovv drjXeaiv dnaaLV dvayKalov yiyveadai TrepirrajpLa, rolg jxev aifxariKols TrXelov, /cat rouroiv avdpcoTTO) TrXelarov dvdyKTj Se /cat roXs aAAoi? adpoL^eadai riva avaraaiv els rov varepiKov rorrov. ro o aXriov, on rots B^ alp,ari,Kols TrXeiov Kal rovrwv on TrXelarov rots dvOpcoTTOts, elprfraL vporepov . 10 Tou S' ev p.eV rois d-qXeat rrdaiv vrrdp^eiv irepirTojjua roLovrov, ev Se rot? appeal jx-q Trdaiv, evta yap ov npoterat yovT]v, aAA' warrep rd Trpoie/j^eva^ rfj ev rfj yovfj Kiviqaei Sr]p.Lovpy€L ro avviardjxevov e/c rrjs ev rols drjXeaiv vXrjs, ovro) rd roiavra [ev]^ rfj ev avrols KLvqaet ev rd) ixopicp rovrco, odev 15 aTTOKpLverai ro aTrep/Jia, ravro Trotet /cat avvLarrjaLV . rovro S' iarlv 6 rorros 6 Trepl rd virot^ajp^a rrdai TOLS e)(ovaiv dpx'q yap rijs (f>vaea)s rj /capSia /cat ^ TrXrjdvovra Z : TrXrjBvvovTa vulg.

^ â– npolijxeva PS : Trpoeiprjfieva vulg.

  • secluserunt A.-W.

" <Sc., from the useful nourishment, viz., blood.

  • At 727 a 21 ff., and 728 a 30 ff.

" This sentence has been remodelled in the translation, since in the Greek the construction is not carried through. 182


on the one hand, the result of necessity, and the reasons have been given : The female system cannot effect concoction, and therefore of necessity residue must be formed not only from the useless nourishment, but also " in the blood-vessels, and when there is a full complement of it in those very fine bloodvessels, it must overflow. On the other hand, in order to serve the better purpose, the End, Nature diverts it to this place and employs it there for the sake of generation, in order that it may become another creature of the same kind as it would ha^e become, since even as it is, it is poteniiallt/ the same in character as the body whose secretion it is.

In all female animals, then, some residue must of necessitv be formed : a greater amount of it in the blooded ones, and the greatest of all in human beings, though some substance must of necessity collect in the region of the uterus in the other animals too. The reason why a larger amount is produced in the blooded animals, and the largest amount of all in human beings, has already been stated." But although a residue of this sort occurs in all females, it does not occur in all males. Why is tills r '^ Some males do not emit semen, but, just as the ones which emit semen fashion the creature that is taking shape out of the material supplied by the female by the agency of the movement resident in the semen, so these fashion it into shape by the agencv of the movement which resides in that part of themselves whence the semen is secreted ; thev produce this same effect of causing the material to set."^ (The part to which I refer is the region around the diaphragm in all those animals which have one, because

    • Cf. above, 736 a 27 and references there given.


ARISTOTLE 738 b , , ^ S^ ' n. . , TO ovaAoyov, to oe Kara) TrpoaorjKT] /cat rovrov X<ipi-v- aXriov Srj rod rots j^tev appeal fxr] rrdaiv elvai TTeplrroifjia yevvrjrLKov, rols Se dijXeai Trdaiv, 20 OTt TO t,<x)ov acofia epupvxov iariv. del Se TTape^^i ro fiev drjXv rrjv vXrjv, ro S' appev ro hrjfjuovpyovv. ravrrjv yap avrcbv (f}aiJiev exeiv rrjv ^vvafxiv eKoirepov, /cat ro etvat ro jxkv OrjXv ro S' appev rovro. ware ro puev OrjXv dvayKalov rrapex^i-v acbpia /cat or/Kov, ro 8' appev ovk dvayKalov ovre yap rd 25 bpyava avayicq evvTrapx^iv ev rols ytyvojxevois ovre TO TTOLOVV. ear I he ro [xev aajfxa e/c rov ^TjAeoj, r] Be fpvx"^ e/c rov dppevos' rj yap 4'^XV ovaia aojfiaros rivos eariv. /cat Sta rovro oaa rajv prj ojJLoyevcJbv payvvrai, drjXv /cat appev [puiyvvrai he div iaoL OL ;^pdvot Kat iyyvs at Kviqaeis, /cat rd fieyedr] 30 Tcov acofiarcov jxtj ttoXv hiearrjKev) , ro fiev Trpwrov Kara rrjv opLoiorrjra yiyverai kolvov d[X(f>OTepa)v, otov rd yiyvopbeva e^ oXwireKos /cat Kvvds /cat TTephiKos /cat dXeKrpvovos, rrpoiovros he rov xpovov /cat i^ erepcov erepa yiyvopbeva reXog diro^aivei /card ro drjXv r'r]v' p.op(f)rjV , cjaTrep rd aveppiara rd 35 ^eviKd /card rrjv p^copav. avrrj ydp rj rrjv vXtjv " Or " reality." Cf. De anima 415 b 7 ff., where the Soul is said to be the Cause and principle of the body (a) as the source of its movement, (6) as its Final Cause, that " for the sake of which " the body exists, {c) as being the essence of living bodies. The last is explained thus : the cause (or ground) of the being of anything is its essence ; the being of living things is to live ; and the Cause and principle of their being and living is Soul. Cf. also Aristotle's repeated 184


the first principle of any natural creature's system is the heart or its counterpart, while the lower parts are an appendage added for the sake of that.) Why does this generative residue, then, not occur in all males, although it occurs in all females . The answer is that an animal is a living body, a body with Soul in it. The female always pro\ides the material, the male provides that which fashions the material into shape ; this, in our view, is the specific characteristic of each of the sexes : that is what it means to be male or to be female. Hence, necessity requires that the female should provide the physical part, i.e., a quantity of material, but not that the male should do so, since necessity does not require that the tools should reside in the product that is being made, nor that the agent which uses them should do so. Thus the physical part, the body, comes from the female, and the Soul from the male, since the Soul is the essence " of a particular body. On this account, when a male and a female of different species copulate (which happens in the case of animals whose periods are equal and whose times of gestation run close, and which do not differ widely in physical size), the first generation, so far as resemblance goes, takes equally after both parents (examples are the offspring of fox and dog,* and of partridge and common fowl), but as time goes on and successive generations are produced, the offspring finish up by taking after the female as regards their bodily form, just as happens when seeds are introduced into a strange locahty - the plants take after the soil, the reason being that statements that no part of the body can be such in anything but name unless it has Soul in it ; see also P. A. 641 a 25 ff.

  • Viz., the so-called Laconian hound ; see H.A. 607 a 3.



738 b

7Tap€)(ovaa Kai to crcofxa tols' avepixauLV eariv. kul Sia rovTo rots' /x.ev OtjAeai to (xopiov to heKTiKov ov 739 a TTopos €otlv, aXX e^ovaL StdaTaatv at voT^paf Tolg 8 appeal Tropoi toIs cnreppLa tt po'CepbivoLS , avaLpLoi 8' o^Tot.

TcDr 8e TTepLTTOipLOLTOiv eKaoTov a/xa eV re rots' OLKeioi-s TOTTOLS €<jtI Kol ylyv€TaL 7T€pLTTa>[Ma- Ttpo Tepov 8 ovdev, av pbrj tl j8ta ttoXXtj /cat rrapa ^vaiv.

5 At r^v jxev ovv atrtav aTro/cptVerat ra TreptTTCo /nara ra yevvrjTLKa tols t,q)ois, eLpT]Tai,.

"OTav 8' eA^T] TO aTTeppua OlTto tov dppevos tcvv airippia irpo'Cefxevoiv, avvLaTTjai to KadapcoTaTov tov TTeptrrco/Liaros - to yap TrXelaTov dxp'f]OTOv Kal iv TOLS KaTapLTjVLOLS ioTLV vypov (pvy^, wairep /cat ttjs 10 TOV dppevos yovrjs to vypoTaTov Kal ttjs elaaTra^ TTpoeaecos l/cat]^ r] npoTepa ttjs vaTepas dyovos fxdXXov TOLS TvAetCTrots"" eAarrcD yap ^X^ ^^pP'OTTjTa iJjvxt'Krjv Bid TTjv aTTeipLav, to 8e TTeTT€p,pL€.vov Trd^os ex^L Kal aeawpLaTOJTaL fxdWov.

"Oaats Se pur^ ytVerat dvpa^e tls Trpoeais, rj tow yvvaiKcbv •^ tcov dXXcov ^djojv, 8ta to pirj evvrrdp-^eLV 15 axpT](TTOv rrepi'TTOJjjLa ttoXv ev ttj aTTOKpLaei Tjj TOLaVTYj, TOGOVTOV ioTL TO €yyLv6pL€VOV OGOV TO VTToXeLTTOpLCVOV TOLS dvpat,e TTpo'CepLeVOlS t^CpOLS, o avvLOTiqaLV rj tov dppevos SvvapiLS rj ev to) CTTrep/xart ^ <ov> supplevi. * seclusi.

<• See Bk. I. 718 a 10 ff.

  • Cf. Hippocrates, tt. aapKuiv 13 (viii. 600 Littre) ij 8e Tpo<f>ri eTTfiSdv acfyiKTjraL es eKaaTOV, Toiavr-qv arreBcoKe ttjv eiBerjv eKaarov okoicl -nep r)v.

" The 'â– concoction " of the semen in viviparous landanimals takes place actually during copulation (see 717 b 24 186


the soil provides the material - i.e., the physical body - for the seeds. And on this account the part in females which receives the semen is not a passage, but it - i.e.. the uterus - is fairly \\ide, whereas the males that emit semen have passages only, and these have no blood in them." It is only when it occupies its own proper place that each of the residues becomes that particular residue *• : before that time none of them can do so without great violence exerted contrar}- to nature.

We have now given the reason for the secretion of the generative residues in animals.

In those species which emit semen, when the semen from the male has entered, it causes the purest portion of the residue to " set " - I say " purest portion," because the most part of the menstrual discharge is useless, being fluid, just as the most fluid portion of the male semen is, and in most cases the earlier discharge during any one emission is less fertile than the later, because it has less soul-heat owing to its being unconcocted, whereas that which has been concocted is thicker and has more body in it."^ In those cases (whether women or other female animals) where there is no external discharge (due to there being no large amount of useless residue in the generative secretion), the amount of stuff which is produced within them corresponds in quantity to that which remains behind in those animals which discharge externally. This stuff gets " set " by the dynamis of the male (a) present in the semen which and 718 a 5 above), which explains the phenomenon here mentioned. In fishes and serpents the semen is already concocted before the time of copulation (ibid.).



739 a

Toi anoKpivoficvcp, 7^, elg to dppev iXdovros tov dvdXoyov fxoptov raXg vurepais, MOTrep ev riai tcDv 20 ivrop^cov ^aiverat avpL^aXvov.

"On S' rj yivofjievr} vyporrjs fierd r-qs rjSovrjg rots d-qXeaiv ovhev ay/i^SaAAerat ei? ro KV7]p,a, etprjTai rrporepov. fidXicrra 8' dv So^eiev, on Kaddirep tols appeal, yiyverai. /cat ratS" yvvoLL^l vvKTCop o KaXovaiv i^oveipcoTTeiv. dXXd rovro arjiJietov ovOev yi 25 verat ydp koX toZs veois rdJv dppevcov roZs {jieXXovai p,€v (JLTjOev Se TTpo'Ceixevois, t) tols en^ TrpoCepievoLS dyovov.

"Avev fxev ovv rfjs tov dppevos Trpoiaeoi'; ev ttj (Tvvovaia dhvvaTov avXXa^eiv, /cat dvev Trjg tu)v yvvaiKeiuiv TrepLTTCoaecog rj dvpat,€ TrpoeXdovarjs rj ivTos iKavrjs ovarjg. ov avfx^aivovarj? /xeWoi tt^s 30 elcudvlas yiyveaOai rot? 6i]Xeaiv rjSovrjs rrepl Tr]v o/xtAtW Tr]v TOLavTTjv GvXXap^dvovaLV , dv tvxj) 6 TOTTos <(y') dpycov^ /cat KaTa^e^riKvlai at voTepac evTos-^ dXX d)S em to ttoXv avfji^aivet, eKetvoJS §ia TO puTj avpLp^epLVKevat to aTOfia yLvopievrjs ttjs eKKpiaeios, p-ed^ rjs e'icode yiyveadaL /cat rots' appeatv 35 rj r]8ovrj /cat rat? yvvai^LV ovtco S' e-)(ovTo? euoSetrat p^dXXov /cat TO) TOV dppevos OTreppiaTL.

  • H 8' d(f)eaLs ovK evTos yiyveTai, Kadarrep otovrat

Ttves {oTevov ydp to CTTO/xa tojv voTepdyv), oAA' et? 739 b TO TrpouBev, ovirep to drjXv TTpoteTai T'171' ev eviais avTcov LKp^dSa yivofievqv, evTavda /cat to dppev TrpoteTai [edv Tig e^iKfxdar]].* otc p.ev ovv pevei ^ en TTpo'Cefxevois corr. P : emrrpo'CeiJ.evois vulg.

^ TOTTos y' opyojv A.-\V. : tottos 6 yeoipyoiv P : y' om. vulg.

^ evTos P : eyyvs '^^ilg.

  • seel. A.-W., Platt.



is secreted, or (b) when the part of the female analogous to the uterus is inserted into the male (as is observed to take place in certain insects)." I have said already that the fluid which is produced in females and accompanies sexual excitement contributes nothing at all to the fetation. The strongest reason for believing that it does is that the phenomenon of night effusions occurs in women just as in men ; but this is no proof at all, because it occurs with young men who come almost to the point but in fact emit nothing, and also with those who as yet emit infertile semen.

Conception cannot occur without (a) an emission from the male during copulation and without (b) the presence of the menstrual residue either externally discharged or available in sufficient quantity internally. Conception takes place, however, even if the pleasure which women usually experience during sexual intercourse fails to occur, if the part concerned happens to be in heat and the uterus has descended within. Generally, however, pleasure does occur, because when the secretion, which is usually accompanied by pleasure in man and woman alike, takes place, the os uteri has not closed, and in these conditions a better passage is afforded for the semen of the male.

The discharge does not (as some suppose) take place within the uterus, because the os uteri is narrow. The discharge of the male takes place in front of it, at precisely the same spot where the female discharges the moisture which is produced in some instances.*^ Sometimes it remains in this place, « Cf. 738 b 12. Bk. I, ch, 20.

' Cf. 727 b 33 ff.


739 b

ARISTOTLE rovTov exov^ rov tottov^ ore Se, av Tvyy] avjxfxerpco? exovaa /cat depfjurj 8id Tr]V Kadapaiv rj v6 arepa, eLcrco aird.. arjuelov 8e- Kal yap ra TrpoadeTO? vypa TTpoaredevra d(f)aLp€Lrai, ^rjpd. en Se oaa rojv ^(pcov Trpos" rep VTTot^iLpari e^ei ra? vcrrepas, Kaddrrep opvts Kal tcov l^Qvcov ol ^cooroKovvres, aovvaTOV CKel pur] airdadai ro aneppia, dAA' dcjiedev eXdelv. eXket, Se rrjv yovrjv 6 tottos Sid Tr)v dep 10 pLOTTjTa TTjv VTrdp^ovoav . Kal rj rcov KarapLrjviwv Se CKKpLOLs Kal avvdOpoLGLs ifXTTvpcvei deppoTTjra €V TO) pLoplcp TovTip, [tScTTe]* Kaddivep Ta KcoviKa^ roiv ayyeiwVy orav deppbco hiaKXvadfj , ana to vSwp et? avTOL Karaarpe<f>opLivov rov aroparos. Kal rovrov p.ev rov rponov yiyverai aTrdaig, (Ls Se' rives 15 Xeyovai, roZs opyavLKols Trpos rrjv avvovaiav pLOpiois ov yiverai /car' ovdeva rponov. avdnaXtv Se avpL^aivei Kal tols Xeyovac Trpoteadat, Kal rrjv yvvacKa OTTeppLa. Trpo'CepLevaLS yap efco avpL^aivet rals varepais TraXiv etaco airdv, e'liTep pt)(diqaeraL rfj yovfj rfj rov dppevos. ro 8' ovrco yiyveadai 20 TrepUpyov, r] Se <f)vat,s ovBev Trotet irepiepyov.

"Orav Se avarfj rj iv rats" varipais aTTOKpicFis rov 6-qXeog vtto rrjs rov dppevos yovrjs, rtaparrXr^aiov TTOiovar]? cooTrep evl rov ydXaKTog ri]s TTvertag- Kal yap rj TTveria ydXa earl deppLorrjra ^(vriKriv e)(ov, tJ ro opioiov els ev dyec Kal avvlarqai, ^ exov Y : Ip^ovra vulg. ^ tottov Platt : rponov vulg, ' -npooOeTa P : Ttpoadev vulg. * cSore seclusi.

  • KtDviKo. Platt: aKovira vulg. : van quod non est plenum S ( = Ktva ?).

« Gf. 728 a 31 ff.

sometimes, if the uterus happens to be in a suitable condition and hot owing to the evacuation of the menses, the uterus draws it in. Evidence for this is the fact that pessaries though wet when applied are dry when removed. Also, in those animals (such as birds and \iviparous fishes) whose uterus is close by the diaphragm there is no alternative : the semen must be drawn in ; it cannot enter at the moment of discharge. This region, in \irtue of the heat present in it (the discharge and aggregation of the menstrual fluid also produce fiery heat in this part) draws up the semen in the same way that conical vessels which have been washed out with something warm draw water up into themselves when they are turned mouth downwards. And that is the way in which the semen is dra\\Ti in ; it is certainly not done, as some allege, by the parts that are instrumental in copulation." We find the situation reversed in the theory that the woman as well as the man emits semen, since if the uterus emits any semen outside itself, it will have to draw it back inside again if it is to mingle with the semen of the male. Such a performance is superfluous, and Nature does nothing which is superfluous.

The action of the semen of the male in " setting " the female's secretion in the uterus is similar to that of rennet upon milk.* 'Rennet is milk which contains vital heat, as semen does, and this integrates the homogeneous substance and makes it " set." As the ' Cf. 755 a 18. This is a remarkable intuition of the essential role played by ferment action in embrjonic development. Cf. ako Job X. 10 " Hast thou not poured me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese ? Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and knit me together with bones and sinews " (R.V.).



739 b

25 icat 7] yovrj irpos rrjv rojv KarafxrjVLCDv (^vaiv ravro^ TTeTTOvdev rj yap avrrj (f)vais earl ydXaKTOs Kal KarajXTjVLWv . gwlovtos §17^ tov crco/xarcoSoys" e/cKpiverat to vypov, Kal TrepdaTavrai kvkXco ^rjpaLvojxevctiv rajv yerjpcov vfieves, Kal i^ dvayK-qg Kal €V€Ka rivos' /cat yap depixatvopiivoyv ^TjpaLveadaL 30 avayKalov rd ea)(ara Kal ^vxofJ-evojv, Kal Set p.r] €V vypcp TO ^wov elvai dXXd Ke)(a)piaiX€vov. /caXovvTai 8e TOVTCDV ol fji€v vfxeves Ta Se ■)(opLa, OLacpepovTa tco fxdXXov Kal tjttov ojuotoj? 8' ivuTrdp■)(ovaiv kv T€ Tols (hoTOKois TavTa Kal tols ^wo TO/COtS".

"Orav 8e avoTfj to Kvrjfxa tJSt], TrapaTrXrjaLov 35 TTOcet tols aTreipofievoLS. tj jxev yap dp)(rj Kal iv TOLS aireppiaoLV ev avTols iorlv rj TrpcoTrj- orav 8' avTy aTTOKpLdfj ivovaa 8ut'a/xei trpoTepov, dTTO Tav TTjs dcf)i€TaL 6 T€ jSAttCTTO? Kal 7] pti^a. aUTT) 8' 740 a eoTLV fj tt^v Tpo(f)rjv Xajx^dvei' SeXraL yap av^rjueajs TO (f)VTOV. OVTW Kal €V TOJ KVqfjLaTL TpOTTOV TLvd TTavTCDV evovTOJV TOJV fJLopLwv SvvdjjLeL Tj dp)(rj TTpd ohov /xaAicrra evvTrdp-^eL. Sio diroKpiveTaL rcpcJOTOV Tj Kapdla evepyela. Kal tovto ov p,6vov em ttjs 5 alad'qaews SrjXov {avpi^aiveL yap ovtcos), dXXd Kal em tov Xoyov. OTav yap q-tt^ dp^^olv dTTOKptOfj, Set avTO avTO SioiKelv to yevofievov , Kaddrrep 0.77 ^ ravTO P: tovto vulg. ^ S^ A.-W., O* : 8e vulg.

" <j>vai,s, as often, refers specially to the substance of the thing. The substance of milk and the menstrual lluid is identical, because they are both residues of the useful nourishment.


nature " of milk and the menstrual fluid is one and the same, the action of the semen upon the substance of the menstrual fluid is the same as that of rennet upon milk. Thus when the " setting " is effected, i.e., when the bulky portion " sets," the fluid portion comes off ; and as the earthy portion solidifies membranes form all round its outer sui'face. (This is the result of necessity ; but also it is to serve a purpose : (a) Necessity ordains that the extreme surface of a thing should sohdify when heated as well as when cooled ; (b) it is requisite that the young animal should not be situated in fluid but well away from it.) Some of these are called membranes ; some choria ^ : and they differ by the " more and less." '^ They are found in Ovipara and Vivipara aUke.

Once the fetation has " set," it behaves Uke seeds (6) The sown in the ground. The first principle (of growth) nfeTit of is present in the seeds themselves too, and as soon '^^ embryo, as this, which at first was present potentially, has become distinct, a shoot and a root are thrown out from it, the root being the channel by which nourishment is obtained, for of course the plant needs material for grovrth. So too in the fetation, in a way all the parts are present potentially, but the first principle has made the most headway, and on that account the first to become distinct in actuality is the heart. This is plain not only to Heart. the senses (for after all it is a matter of fact), but also to the reason. Once the fetation which has been formed is separate and distinct from both the parents, it must manage for itself, just like a son who has set up a house of his own independently of his » See also H.A. Bk. VI, ch. 3. ' See 737 b 7, n., and Introd. § 70.

H 193

740 a

ARISTOTLE OLKLodev reKvov arro Trarpos . ware Set dp)(7jv €)(€lv, a<p rjs /cat voTepov rj SiaKoafi'qais rod aajjuaro? yLverai rots ^cools. et yap e^codev TTor earai kol 10 varepov eveaofjuevrj, ov jJiovov SiaTropijaeLev dv ris ro nore, dAA' on dvdyKrj, orav eKaarov )((jopL^rjrat, rojv fjLopLOJv, ravr'qv inrapx^LV Trpcorov, i^ ■j^? Kal rj av^7]ais vrrapx^L Kal -f] KLvrjois rols aXXois [xopiOL'S. hiorrep oaoL Xeyovatv, uJOTrep Ar][ji6KpLros, ra k^co Trpcvrov htaKpiveaOai roJv l^cpcov, varepov 15 06 rd evros, ovk opddjs Xeyovaiv, wairep ^vXlvojv T] Xidivoiv ^(Lcov. rd fiev yap roiavr' ovk e^^et ap'XTfv bXios, rd he t,cpa rrdvr* e;)(et Kal evros e;)(et. Old Trpdjrov rj Kaphia (jyaiverai, Siojptanevr] rrdai rots evaipots' dpx"^ ydp avrr] Kal rcbv ojJLOiojJiepcbv Kai ra)V avopLOiopepcov. rjSrj ydp dpx^v ravrr^v 20 d^tov dKovaai rod iC,<l)ov Kal rod avarrjfjiaros, orav BerjraL rpocjyrjS' ro ydp Sr] ov^ av^dverai. rpo(f)rj 8e t,cpov rj iaxdrrj aifxa Kal ro dvdXoyov. rovrcov o' dyyelov at (f)Xe^es' Sto tj KapSia Kal rovrcov ^ ov] la)ov Y.

« See Diels, Vorsokr.^ 68 A 145.

" See Introd. § 19.

" The point is that by this time the fetation is definitely constituted - it is an individual - it exists, and that which exists can correctly be said to have an dpx'i]- Also, that which exists needs nourishment, and in animals nourishment means blood, of which the heart is the apx^]- (As Aristotle says elsewhere, 735 a, the heart supplies the principle of growth, and the nutritive faculty of Soul operates through the heart.) This, then, is why, as soon as the fetation is definitely constituted, the heart is formed - otherwise no growth could take place.

It is unnecessary to read ^oJov for ov : 6v gives better point to the argument, with which compare the passage 194


father. That is why it must have a first principle, from which also the subsequent ordering of the animal's body is derived. Otherwise, supposing this principle is to come in at some moment from outside and take up its position inside later on, then we may L'U be puzzled at what moment this is to happen, iid also we may point out that of necessity the first principle must be present at the outset, at the time when each of the parts is being separated from the rest, since the growth and movement of the other parts are derived from it. That is why those people are wrong who, like Democritus," hold that the external parts of animals become distinct first, and then the internal ones. They might be speaking of animals carved out of wood or stone, the sort of things which have no first principle at all, whereas living animals all have such a principle, and it is inside them. On this account in all blooded animals it is the heart which can first be seen as something distinct, as this is the first principle both of the " unif(jrm " and of the " non-uniform " parts ^ - since this is justifiably designated as first principle of the animal or organism from the moment when it begins to need nourishment,'^ for of course that which exists grows,'^ and, for an animal, the ultimate form of nourishment is blood or its counterpart. Of these fluids the blood-vessels are the receptacle,^ and therefore T:>5 a 13-26 (where again the reading with Sv should be kept in 735 a 23). Here the point is clearly made that, once a thing has come into being (yenjrai), it must of necessity grow. See also note on 744 b 36.

' The blood-vessels distribute the " ultimate nourishment " to the parts of the body, which, as Aristotle says (743 a 1), are moulded round them like a wax figure round a core or foundation, and are formed out of them.



740 a

o.p)(7]. SrjXov Se rovTO ck rcov laropiajv Kal rcJiJv avaroiichu.

'Ettci 8e dvvdfjiei jxev tJSt] l,a)ov dreXeg Se, aA 25 Xodev dvayKalov Xajx^dveLV rrjv rpocfirjv Sto ^^pT^rat Tjj varepa /cat rfj ixovcrr), cooTrep yfj ^vrov, rod Xap,^dv€LV Tpo(f)7Jv, ecus dv reXecodfj Trpos to elvat rjSr] ^(pov Svvdp.€L TTopevrcKov. Sio €k rrjg KapSlas rds 8vo (^Xe^as rrpcoTov^ rj (j}vcns vneypaipev aTTo' Se Tovrojv (j)Xe^La dv^prrjrat Trpo? rrjv varepav o 30 KaXovfievog d/ii^aAds". eari yap 6 o/Lt^aAds' ^Ae'i/r, Tols /x€v /xta, TOLS 8e TrXelovs ratv t,cpajv. irepl 8e ravras K€Xv(f)os heppiariKov [d KaXovpevos d/x^aAd?]^ Sid, TO SeZadai acor'qpLas Kal aKeTTTjs rrjv rwv (fiXe^wv daOevetav. at Se ^Ae^Se? otov pit,at, irpos 35 T7}v varepav avvdrrrovcn, 8t' (Lv Xap^jBavet ro Kvrjfxa rrjV rpocf}iijp. rovrov yap X^P^ ^^ rals varepais jLteVet TO ^a>ov, dAA' ovx d>? ArjfxoKpiros (jyrjOLV, Iva ScaTrXdrrrjraL rd fxopia Kara rd pLopia rrjs exovarjg. 740 b rovTO ydp €7rt rwv woroKovvrwv (f)av€pov eKelua ydp iv roLS (pois Aaju.j3avet rrjv 8ta/<:ptcrtv, Kexojptafieva rrjs fjL-qrpag.

^ ArropiqaeLe 8' dv ris, et to alfxa [xev rpo(/)r} iariv, 7] 8e KapSla TrpcLrr) yiverai erat/xo? ovaa, [ro 8 at/xa rpo(f)i^,f 7] 8e rpocfii] dvpadev, TToOev eiaTjXdev 5 7] TTpcor7j rpo<j>7i; •^ rovr* ovk dXTjoeg, cos" Trdaa ^ TTpdiTas p. ^ seclusit Bekker.

' secluserunt A.-W. : pro to 8' ai/xa . . . dvpaOev et sanguis est ex extrinseco S.

» H.A. Bk. Ill, ch. 3.

Or, " sketches in," " traces out." Cf. 743 b 20, and a different metaphor at 743 a 2.

" Cf. 745 b 25 if. "^ vSee Diels, Vorsokr.^ 68 A 144.



the heart is the first principle of them as well. This !•- clearly brought out in the Researches " and in the Dissections.

Now since the fetation is already an animal potentially, though an imperfect one, it natist get its nourishment from elsewhere ; and that is why it makes use of the uterus, i.e., of the mother, just as a plant makes use of the earth, in order to get its nourishment, until such time as it is sufficiently perfected to be a potentially locomotive animal. That is whv Nature prescribes * first of all the two blood-vessels that run from the heart ; and attached to these are some small blood-vessels which run to the uterus, forming what is known as the umbilicus, the umbihcus ^ being of course a blood-vessel - a single blood-vessel in some animals, and consisting of more munerous ones in others. Round these blood-vessels there is a skinlike integument, because the blood-vessels being weak need a protective covering to keep them safe and sound. The blood-vessels join on to the uterus as though they were roots, and through thenx the tation gets its nourishment. And that of course - the reason why the young animal stays in the uterus (not as Democritus ^ alleges, in order that its parts may be moulded after the fashion of the parts of its mother). This is manifest in the case of the 0\ipara, whose parts become distinct in the egg, i.e.,

"ter they have been separated from the matrix. Here is a puzzle which may be raised. If (1) the blood is nourishment, (2) the heart is the first thing to be formed, and when formed contains blood, and (3) the nourishment comes from outside, from whence did the first nourishment * enter ? Well, perhaps
  • i.e., the blood which is in the heart to begin with.


740 b

ARISTOTLE uvpadev, aAA' evdvs, wairep iv Toig tcov (J>vt(jl)v CTTTepfiaaLv eveari tl toiovtov to (fjaivoixevov TrpojTov yaAa/CTtoSes", ovtcl> koI iv rfj vXrj rwv ^ojcuv TO TrepcTTCOfxa Trjg crycrTacrecD? Tpo(f>ri ioTiv.

H ixkv ovv av^Tjots tw KvijfiaTi ytVerat Sia tov 10 ofi(f)aXov TOV avTov Tpoirov ovrrep 8ta tcJov pi^cbv Tols (fiVTOLS [koL tols t,a>ois aVTOLS, otov (XTTOAvda)aLV, ck ttjs €V avTols Tpo(f)rjsj^ • rrepl Sv voTepov AeKTeov /cara tovs oIkclovs tcov Xoyojv Kaipovs. 17 oe ScaKpLons yiyveTat tCjv fxopLOJV ovx u>s Tives v-TToXafi^dvovaL, Sta to rre(f)VKevai ^ipeadai to 15 o/xoLov Trpos TO o/xoiov {TTpos yap TToAAat? d'AAais" ais" o Xoyos ovTos ex^i, Svax^p^iats, CFvp-Paivei XOip? eKaoTOV yCveadat tcov [xopuov tcov ojxolofxepcov, oLov oaTo. Kad avTO. Kal V€vpa, /cat rd? aapKas Kad aurd?, el' tis dnoSe^aiTo TavTrjv ttjv aiTtav), dXX OTi to TrepiTTCopia to tov drjXeos 20 Svvdfiei TOLOVTOV ecrrtv otov (f)vaei to t,cpov, Kal eveoTL SvvapieL to. f.i6pia, evepyeia S' ovdev, Std TavTTjv T7]v atTtav ytVerat eKaoTOV avTcov, Kal otl TO TTOLrjTlKOV /fttt TO TTaOr^TLKOV, OTav diycooLV, ov TpoTTOv eoTL TO pkv TTOnqTiKov TO Sc vadrjTiKov [tov Be TpoTTov Xeyco to a)s Kal ov Kal oTe), evdvs to 25 jxev TTOLCL TO 8e -ndax^i. vXrjv p,ev ovv Trapejs^et to ^ seclusi : suspicatus est Platt : tov avrov . . . rpot^'^s om. S.

" This phrase seems to be an interpolation, connected perhaps with II. 29-31 below.

  • This commonplace of thought in Greek philosophy and medicine is a pseudo-scientific form of a proverbial maxim (c/. " birds of a feather "), specially alluring to the Greeks. Cf. especially Hippocrates;, n. <j>vaLos ttmSlov, ch. 17 init. and Jin. (vii. 496-498 Littre). See quotation \n note on 742 a 1.



after all it is not true to say that all the nourishment comes from outside. In the seeds of plants there is some nutritive matter, which at first has a milky appearance ; and it may be that in the same way, in the material of the animal, the residue left over from its construction is present as nourishment for it from the outset.

So then, the fetation's gro^vth is supplied through the umbilicus in the same way that a plant's growth is supplied through its roots [and also as that of animals is, when they have been separated, from the nourishment which is in themselves]." Of these matters we shall have to speak later at the appropriate occasions in our discussions. As for the ditferentiation of the various parts : this is not due, as some suppose, to any natural law that " Uke makes its way to Uke." * This theory involves quite a number of difficulties, one being that if you accept it as stating a valid reason, it follows that each of the " uniform " parts, such as bones, and sinews, and flesh, is formed separately, each one all on its own. The true reason why each of these parts is formed is that the residue provided by the female is potentially the same in character as the future animal will be, according to its nature : and although none of the parts is present in actuality in that residue, they are all there potentially. A further reason is this. When a pair of factors, the one active and the other passive, come into contact in the way in which one is active and the other passive (by " way " I mean the manner, the place, and the time of the contact), then immediately both are brought into play, the one acting, the other being acted upon. In this case, it is the female which provides the matter, and the male which provides the 199


740 b

drjXv, Tr)v 8' apxrjv rrjs KLv-qaeais to dppev. CiiOTTcp 8e ra vtto ttj? rex^rjs yivopieva yiverai 8td rcbv opyavcov, eart 8' aXridiarepov eiTreiv Sia ttjs Ktv-qaecos avTWv, avrr] 8' iarlv 7] evepyeta rrjs rex^rjs, r/ 8e rex^T] l^opcf)r] rcvv ytvopuevcov iv dXXcp, ovrojs 30 7] TTJs OperrrLKT^s 4'^Xl'^ SvvafJLCs, (Zaircp /cat eV avTols rols t^cpoL's koI tols (f)VTOLS varepov e/c ttjs rpo(f)rjs TToiel ttjv av^rjaiv, xP^I^^vt) olov opydvois depixoTrjTi, /cat i/jvxporrjri {iv yap tovtols tj KLvrjacs eK€LV7]s, /cat Xoyo) tlvl eKaarov yiverat), ovrco /cat i^ oLpxrjs avviarrjaL to <j)va€i yiyvofievov rj yap 35 auTTy eariv vXr) fj av^dverai /cat e^ t^s" avviaraTaL TO TTpwroVy oj(TT€ /Cat 7^ TTOLOvaa SvvajjLts ravTO [ro) e^ dpxrj?' p^eit^cov he avrr] earivf' el ovv avTiq eoTLV -q OpeTTTiKT] ijjvx')], avrr] earl /cat rj yewwaa' 741 a /cat rovr eariv rj (f)vaLs rj eKaarov, evv-ndpxovaa /cat ev (f)VTols /cat eV ^ojot? rrdaLV. ra 8' d'AAa [lopia rrjs i/^vxV^ '^^^^ H'^^ vrrdpxet rots 8' ovx vrrapxei rchv iC,(x)vto)v ." Ev /xev ovv Tols (jiVToZs ov Kexiiypf-orai to drjXv 5 Tov appevos' ev 8e rot? ^cools ev ots Kexcoptcrrai, V TTpoaSeiTai to drjXv rod dppevos.^ KaiToi tls aTTo ^ seclusi. [j,eii,a)v . . . iarlv seel. A.-W., qui et ravro rio i^ dpXV^ yevvijaavTt eariv: Btf. rjj i^ o.px'fjs [/x. . . . e'.].

  • ld)VTcov Peck : ^ciouv vulg. :. cf. 731 a 31, ubi PY ^aitov pro t,<uvT(xiv : in quihusdatn corporibtis quae virunt 2.

  • TO dijXv TOV appevos Peck, docente Platt : tov drjXcos to dppev vxilg.

» Cf. 734 b 36 ff. and P. A. 640 a 33.

" See yVpp. B §§ 6, 9, 15.

" Cf. Phys. 193 b 21 IF. cos ovcrrjs ttjs ^Jaeoi? apxfjs tivos Kal aiTias TOV Kiveiadai Kal â– ^pefieZv ... 33 <j>vaiv 8e ex^'- ^^"^ "oiavTrjv 200


principle of movement. Now the products which are formed by human art are formed by means of instruments, or rather it would be truer to say they are formed by means of the movement of the instruments, and this movement is the activity, the actualization, of the art, for by " art " we mean the shape of the products which are formed, though it is resident elsewhere than in the products themselves." The dynamis of the nutritive Soul behaves in the same way. Just as, in the independently existing animal or plant, this Soul, which uses heat and cold as its instruments (for it is in these that its movement subsists, each several thing being formed according to some definite logos), at a later stage produces gro\\"th out of the nourishment suppUed, so in precisely the same way at the very outset, this Soul, while the natural object is being formed, causes it to be set and constituted ; since, as the matter from which the object derives its growth is identical \nih that out of which it was originally set and constituted, so too the dynamis which fashions the object is identical. If, then, this is the nutritive Soul, this it is which also generates the object. And this part of Soul it is which is the " nature " of each several object, being present alike in plants and in animals one and all, whereas the other parts of Soul, while present in some living things, are absent from others.

Now in plants the female is not separate from (o) why the the male ; in certain of the animals, however, it is '^^^Jf^ separate, and here, in addition, it has need of the generate male. And yet anyone might well raise the puzzle, y°°®" ex€t OLpyriv, and De caelo 301 b 17 <f>vais /xev iariv tj ev ainCo VTTapxovoa Kivi^aews apx'?* See also Introd. § 42. •* See Introd. § 43.


741 a

ARISTOTLE p-qaeiev av Stct rtV alriav. eiTrep ^y^ec to dijXv rrjv avTrjV fjjvx^v /cat 7^ vXrj ro TrepiTTCOjU-a to tov drjXeos icTL, tl TrpoaheiTai, tov dppevos, dAA' ovk avTO i^ avTov yevva to drjXv; aiTLov 8' on 10 oLa<f)€p€t TO l^ipov TOV <^VTOv alod'qaei' dSvvaTOV Be TTpoaojTTov rj X^^P^ V '^^RK^ elvai tj dX\o rt fxopiov jXT] evovarjs aladr]TLKrjs ^VXV^> V ^vepyeia T) hvvdp.€L, Kal tJ tttj t) a.TrAojs'- earat yap olov vcKpos 'q V€Kpov fxopiov. el ovv to dppev cgtI to TTJs TOLavTr]£ TTOiiqTLKOv ipv^T]?, 07T0V /<:e;^6(jptCTTat 15 TO drjXv Kal to dppev, dSvvaTOV to drjXv avTO e^ avTOV yevvdv t,cpov to yap elprjixevov -^v to dppevO' etvaf eTTcl otl y* e;)^et Xoyov rj Xex^^lfyo. drropLa, (f>avep6v enl tojv opvWcov tcov ret virr^vepaa tlktovTwv, OTL hvvaTai fte'xpt ye tivos to drjXv yevvdv. eTL S' e^et Kal tovto diropiav, ttcos tl? avTOJV ra 20 a»a <j>ria€i ^ijv. ovt€ yap ovtcos d>s Ta yovLjxa (pa evhex^Tat [eyiyveTO yap av i^ avTcbv evepyeLa ejJLifjvxov) ovd^ OVTCOS oiOTTep ^vXov ?} Xidos. eOTL yap Kal tovtojv tcov codiv (f)dopd tls cos [leTexovTCOv TpoTTOV TLvd l,corjs irpoTepov. SrjXov ovv otl e;^et TLvd SwafxeL i/jvxtjv. TToiav ovv TavTTjv; avayKiq 25 St) T'r]v eaxdTfjv. avTTj S' cotIv rj OpeTTTLKrj- avTT] ^ dppevi S : appev vulg.

° Cf. 732 a 13, n. * The production of sentient Soul.



to what cause this is due. Granted that the female possesses the same Soul (as the male) and that the residue pro\ided by the female is the material (for the fetation), why has the female any need of the male in addition ? ^^'hy does not the female accompUsh generation all by itself and from itself ? The reason is that there is a difference between animal and plant : the animal possesses sense-perception." It is impossible for any part of the body whatever (face, hand, flesh, etc.) to exist unless sentient Soul is present in it, whether in actuality or potentially, whether in some quahfied sense or Avithout quahfication. Other^^-ise what we have wiW be on a par with a dead body or a dead limb. Thus, if the male is the factor which produces the sentient Soul in cases where male and female are separate, it is impossible for the female all by itself and from itself to generate an animal ; because the faculty just mentioned * is the essence of what is meant by " male." Still, it is not at all unreasonable to raise the puzzle we have stated, as is sho^^â– Tl by the instance of those birds which lay wind-eggs : this proves that up to a point the female is able to generate. But there is a puzzle here too : In what sense are we to say that these eggs are ahve ? We cannot say that they are ahve in the same sense as fertile eggs, for in that case an actual living creature would hatch out from them ; nor are they on a par with wood and stone, because these eggs go bad just as fertile ones do, and this seems to indicate that to start with they were in some way ahve. Hence it is clear that potentially they possess Soul of a sort. What sort, then ? The lowest, it must be, ob\'iously ; and this is nutritive Soul, because this it is which is present 208




8td Tt ovv ovK aTToreAei to. fiopia /cat to ^wov; OTL Set alcrdrjTLKTjv avra ep^etv ifjvx'^^v' ov yap eariv ojGTTep (pvTOV TO. fxopia rGiv l,cpa)v. 8i6 Seirat rrjs Tov appevos KOLVOJVias' /cep^ajptarat yap iv tovtois 30 TO appev. birep /cat avfx^aa'eL- to. yap vrrrjvejXLa yLveTai yovLjJia, eav eV rivt Kaipco to appev eiro)(evar). dXXa TTcpl jxev Trjs toutcdv aiTias vaTepov 8iopiadr]aeTaL.

Et S ecTTt Ti yevos o OrjXv /xeV ioTLV, appev Se fXT) e)(ei KexojpLOjxevov, evhe)(eTaL tovto^ ^coov e^ avTov yevvdv. orrep d^LOTTLGTCos fxev ov avvcoTTTai, 3r^ jxexpt ye TOV vvv, TTOtec Se StCTra^etv {eVta)^ ev Ta> yevei to) tojv L)(dva>v tcov yap KaXovp,ev(x}v ipvOpLVCov dpprjv fjiev ovdeis coTTTai. ttco, drjXeiai 8e /cat KvrjixaTOJV TrXrjpets. dXXd TOVTa>v puev outtoj TreZpav e^opiev d^toTnuTov, ovTe he drjXea ovTe dppeva /cat 741 b ev TO) Tcov i)(dvcov yevet eoTiv, olov at r' iyx^Xeis Kal yevos Tt KeoTpeoiv Trepl tovs TeAjU-ariatous" ttoTapiovs. iv oaoLS Se Ke^o^pt'OTai to dT]Xv /cat to appev, dSvvaTov avTo /ca^' avTo to drjXv yevvdv ets ^ avev oxeias addit P. * <evta> Hackforth.

" See 750 b 3 if., 757 biff., also 730 a 5 ff . and H.A. 539 b 1.

  • " Probably some species of Serranus, perhaps S. anthias (a sea-perch). Cf. H.A. 538 a 21, 567 a 27. Actually the majority of species of Serranus are hermaphrodite (see E. S. Goodrich, Cyclostomes and Fishes, 430), as was discovered by Cavolini in the latter part of the 18th cent. See A.-W., Introduction, pp. 32 ff.

" i.e., roe.

"* Eels do not develop generative organs except in deep water, whither they go in order to breed. This is taken to 204


alike in all animals and plants. Why then does this Soul fail to bring the parts to their completion and so produce an animal r Because the parts of an animal are bound to possess sentient Soul, since they are not on a par with those of a plant ; and that is why the male is required to take its share in the business (the male being separate from the female in such animals). The facts bear this out : wind-eggs become fertile if the male treads the female within a certain period. However, the cause of these things >vill be fully determined later on.** If there is any class of animal which is female and has no separate male, it is possible that this generates offspring from itself. This has not so far been reUably obsened, it is true, but some instances in the class of fishes give cause to suspect that it may be the case. Thus, of the fish known as erythrinus * not a single male specimen has so far been observed, whereas female ones have been, full of fetations.*^ But although with regard to these we have no rehable proof so far, there are also in the class of fishes some which are neither male nor female : e.g., eels,** and one sort of cestreus * which frequents marshland rivers. In all animals, however, where the male and female are separate, the female is unable by itself to generate offspring indicate that they are descended from an original deej>water fish. See additional note, p. 565, ' This cannot be the grrey midlet {Mugil capita, Cuv.), but is probably a species of Muraena or Gymnotus. In P.A. ti9ti a 5, Aristotle speaks of a cestreus found in the lake at Siphae in Boeotia, on the south coast, near Thespiae (now Tipha). Cf. also the reference at 763 b 1 to Pyrrha, where there was a lagoon which was apparently one of Aristotle's favourite spots for studying animals.


741 b

ARISTOTLE reXog- ro yap appev [xdr-qv av rjv, rj Se (Jjvols ovSev 5 TTOieZ pLarrjv. hioTrep iv rolg tolovtoi? del to dppev CTTiTeAet TTjv yeveatv. e/X7rotet yap tovto rqv aiadrjTiKrjV ifjvxrjv, rj 8t' avrov t] Sio. rrjg yovrjs. evvTTap)(6vr(jL>v S' ev rrj vXr) SwdfieL tcov /xopicov, orav dp)(7] yevqrat Kivijaecos, wajrep iv rocs avrofiaroig davjJLaai, avveiperai to e^e^T^?* Kal o ^ov 10 XovraL Xeyeiv TLves tcov <f)vaiKcJjv, to " <f)ep€adai els TO ofjioiov," XeKTeov ovx d)9 tottov pbeTa^dXXovTa ra fjiopia KiveladaL, aAAa fzevovTa Kal dXXoi.oup,€va fxaXaKOTr^Ti Kal aKXrjpoTrjTL Kal ;)^pcu/xaCTt Kal Tats dXXats rats' tcov 6p.OLop.€pix)v Siacfiopals, ytvojjieva 15 ivepyeia a. VTrrjp)(ev ovTa hvvdpbet irpoTepov. ylyV€Tat 8e TTpaJTOv rj dp^ij- avTrj 8' cotIv tj Kaphia TOLS ivaipLois, Tolg 8' aAAot? to dvdXoyov, ojOTrep etprjTai TToAAa/cij. Kal tovto (f>av€p6v ov jjlovov /caro. TT^i' atadrjOLVy otl ytveTac TrpcoTOV, aAAa Kal TTepl TTjV TeXevTriv ctTroAetVet yap to t/qv IvTeWev 20 TeAeuratov, avfx^aLvei 8' €7tI TrdvTcov to TcXevTatov yivoijcevov^ TrpcjTov aTToXeiiTeiv , to Se TTpcoTOv TeXevTalov, uiortep Trjs (jivaecjs SLavXoSpofxovcrrjs xal ^ yevofievov P.

" i.e., the matter provided by the female.

  • See note on 734 b 10.

" <f>vGi,KOL, sometimes (f>vat.oX6yot, a term used by Aristotle to describe the early writers on <f)vms, i.e., nature, or the nature (stuff) of the universe and its contents. They include the so-called " early philosophers," and apparently also Hippocrates, as here (see note on 740 b 14). Several of the pre-Socratic philosophers had made use of this principle in various connexions. - See also pp. xvi f.

<« Cf. above, 740 b 14. ' See Introd. § 48.

f See App. B §§ 4-6, 9-10.



and bring it to completion : if it could, the existence of the male would have no purpose, and Nature does nothing which lacks purpose. Hence in such animals the male always completes the business of generation - it implants sentient Soul, either acting by itself directly or by means of semen. As the parts of the animal to be formed are present potentially in the matter," once the principle of movement has been supplied, one thing follows on after another without interruption, just as it does in the " miraculous " automatic puppets. ** And the meaning of the statement, made by some of the physiologers,-' about like " making its way to hke,"** must be taken to be not that the parts of the body " move " ^ in the sense of changing their position, but that while remaining in the same position they undergo " alteration " f as regards softness, hardness, colour, and the other differences which belong to the uniform parts ; that is, they become in actuality what previously all along they had been potentially. The first to be formed is the " principle," which in blooded animals is the heart and in the others the counterpart of the heart, as I have said many times over. There can be no doubt about this, because our senses tell us that it is the first thing fornied ; but the truth of it is confirmed by what happens when the creature dies : the heart is the place where life fails last of all ; and we find universally that what is the last to be formed is the first to fail, and the first to be formed is the last to fail.' It is as though Nature were a runner, covering a double course there and back, and retracing her » Cor primum vivens ultimiim morions : cf. Ebstein et at.. Mitt, zur Gesch. der Medizin nnd Naturw.' 19 (1920), 102, 219, 305.


ARISTOTLE • aveXiTTOiJLevrjs eiri rrjv dpx^v odev rjXdev. eari yap ■rj' fxkv yeveaig e/c rov fir] ovrog ets to 6v, rj 8e (poopa e/c Tov ovro? TraAtv els to firj 6v.

VI 25 Fiverat Se [xera tyjv apx^v, MOTrep iXexdf]> ^a evTos npoTepov twv cktos. ^aiVerat Se TrpoTepa ra {jieyedos e)(ovTa tcov iXaTTovcov, ovS^ eVta yiy vofxeva rrpoTepov. TrpcJjTov he to. avco SLapdpovTai TOV Sta^co/jiaTOS , Kal Sta^epet fieyedet,- to Se koltoj Kat eXaTTov /cat ahiopLOTOTepov . /cat tovto ylyve 30 rat ev Trdatv, ocroig to avio /cat to koltoj StcoptCTrat, TtXtjV €V TOiS ivTOjJiOLS' TOVTOJV 8' iv TOLS OKO)Xt)KO TOKOvjjLevoLg €771 TO avo) rj av^Tjcn? yiveTai- to yap avoj i^ vTrapxrjs eXaTTOv. dSiopLaTOV Se /cat TO dvoj /cat TO /carco rot? /LtaAa/ctoi? tcSv TTopevTiKcov fjiovois. TO Se XexOev au/x^atVet /cat eTTt roiv 35 <f)VTa)v, TO TTpoTepeZv ttj yeveaec to dvco kvtos tov KaTOidev ras" yap pit,as rrpoTepov d<j>tdaL to. airip fiaTa Tcbv TTTOpdiOV.

Atopt^erat Se to. jxepr] tcov ^cpcjv nvevpiaTi, ov jxevTOL ovTe to) Trjs yevvcoarjs ovtg to> avTov, " See 740 a 12 ff.

  • Aristotle's observations are quite correct. Cf. the theories of C. M. Child on axial gradients, physiological dominance {cf. Aristotle's own use of /cvpio?, 742 a 84 below), etc., conveniently discussed by J. Huxley and G. R. de Beer in ElementH of Experimental Embryology. See also 742 b 14.

â– ^ According to Aristotle {LA. 705 a 29 ff.), the distinction between the upper and lower portions of animals and plants is determined by function, and not by position relative to the earth and the sky. The " upper " portion is that from which is received the distribution of nourishment and material for growth : and the extremity towards which the nourishment arid growth penetrate is the " lower " extremity. Thus, as 208


steps towards the starting-point whence she set out. The process of formation, genesis, starts from notbeing and advances till it reaches being ; that of decay starts from being and goes back again till it reaches not-being.

After the " principle " is formed, the other parts VI are formed, the internal ones earlier than the exter- n|^^*(^f^{,h^ nal, as I have said." The larger parts become visible, embryo however, earlier than the smaller ones, although some ' '""^ ^ of them are not in fact formed earlier. First the parts above the diaphragm become articulated, and these are larger in size, whereas that which is below is smaller and less clearly defined.** This happens in all cases where the upper and the lower portions " are definite and distinct, except Insects : in those Insects which are produced as larvae, the increase occurs towards the upper part, as this is smaller to begin with. The only locomotive animals in which there is no definite distinction between the upper and lower portions are the Cephalopods.*^ What has been said here applies to plants as well : the formation of the upper portion precedes that of the lower : seeds send out their roots before their shoots.* Now the parts of animals are differentiated by means of pneuma f ; but this is not the pneuma of the mother, nor that of the creature itself, as some of he says (705 b 6), in plants, the roots are the " upper " portion, since it is through their roots that plants get their nourishment, just as animals do through the mouth. Cf. the end of the present paragraph, 741 b 34 flF . ; also the passage in P. A. 686 b 21 ff.

â– * Because (720 b 18, P. A. 684 b 15, 685 a 1) their backpart is drawn up on to the front-part, their tail-end is bent right over to meet the front, and in consequence the residual vent is brought close to the mouth.

• See note on 741 b 30. ' See App. B §§ 7 ff.


ARISTOTLE 742 a KadoLTrep rives rchv (fyvaiKtov (f>aaLV. (ftavepov 8e^ TOVTO €7n rix)v opvidojv Kal rcov Ixdviov Kal rwv evToficuv. ra p.ev yap -)(Ci}pL(jQivra ttjs yevvayarjs yiverai e^ (pov, iv a> Xajx^dveL rrjv Sidpdpcocnv rd 8' oAo)? OVK dvaTTveZ rcov i,cpajv, OKCoXrjKOTOKeLrai Se 5 Kai cporoKelrai' rd 8' dvanveovra Kal iv rfj pnqrpa Xafji^dvovra rrjv hidpOpcjaiv ovk dvanveL rrplv ri 6 TrXevjxcov Xd^rj reXos' SiapOpovrai Se Kal oSros Kal ra ejJiTTpocrdev pLopia nplv dva7TV€iv. eri, 8' oaa TroXvcrxiSr] rcov rerparroScov, olov kvcjv Xea)v Xvkos 10 aXojTTT]^ dcos, Trdvra rv^Xd yevva, Kal hilararat rd ^X€(f>apov yevofievcov varepov. coare SrjXov on rdv avrov rpoTTov Kal ev rotS" aAAoiS" Trdai, KaddTrep Kal ro TTOLov, Kal rd rroadv yiverac Swdfiet TTpovTTdp-)(ov, evepycLo. 8' varepov, vtto rdjv avrdjv aurCwv vcf) OJVTTep Kal rd ttolov Stopt'^erat, Kal yiyverai Suo e^ 15 evos. TTvevfia 8' VTrap)(^ei,v dvayKalov, on vypdv Kat depjxov, rov p.€v iroiovvros, rov 8e 7rda)(ovros .

Td)v 8' apxcuLCov rives <f)vaioX6ycov ri p-erd ri yiyverai rcov p,opiwv eTreipddrjcrav Xeyeiv, ov Xiav ep-veipiKcvs e)(ovres rcov avp,^aiv6vrcov . rdJv yap ^ Se P : yap vulg.

" See note on 741 b 10. e.g., Hippocrates, -n. ^u'ctio? naxhiov 17 (vii, 496-498 Littre) ij he. aap^ av^ojxevr] vtto tov TTvevjjLaTOS apdpovrai, Kal epxerai, iv aureji eKaarov to o^jmiov cus TO ofiOLOi' . . . hiapdpovrai vtto rijs TTVorjs eKaara, <^vaa)Hiva yap huararaL ^vfiTrayra Kara crvyyevfLav. Cf. also ch. 19. According to this treatise the embryo both received nourishment and breathed through the umbilicus (cf. chh. 13, 15).

    • Viz.', birds. " \'iz., fishes and insects.

•* Viz., Vivipara. 210


the physiologers " allege. This point is clear in the case of birds, fishes, and insects : thus, some ** of these are foniied out of an egg, after separation from the mother, and it is in the egg that they get their articulation ; and some animals *" do not breathe at all, but are produced as larvae or as eggs ; others,** which both breathe and get their articulation ^\â– ithin the uterus, do not however breathe until their lungs have reached completion : with them, both the lungs and the preceding parts become articulated before they breathe. Further, the polydactylous quadrupeds (such as the dog, the lion, the wolf, the fox and the jackal) all bring forth their young blind, and the eyelid does not separate until some -time after birth. Hence it is clear that, with regard to all the other parts as well, the same holds : just as the characteristics of quaUty are there potentiality to begin ^^ith and later on are formed in actuality, so too those of quantity are formed - by the same causes as those by which the characteristics of quality' are differentiated, and two things are formed out of a single one.^ As for pneuma, its presence is the result of necessity, because liquid substance and hot substance are present, one being active and the other being acted upon.^ Some of the early physiologers endeavoured to describe the oi-der in which the various parts are formed, but they were none too well acquainted with what actually happens. As with everything else, so ' e.g., two eyelids ; an example of a potential duality being actualized. - See also App. B § 7, n.

  •, the pneuma is not iireiaoKTov, but avfjuj>vTov, derived from within, and hence can serve as an " instrument " (see 789 b 3 ff. 1 charged with a specific *' movement " (see Introd. g 68, and App, B, esp. § 32).


742 a

ARISTOTLE yiopicov, (haTTcp Kal em rcov dXXcov, TTe(j>VKev krepov 20 erepov Trporepov. to 8e Trporepov TJSr) TioAAa^to? iariv. TO re yap ov eVe/ca /cat to tovtov eveKa SLa(f)€pei, Kal to [xev ttj yeveaei TrpoTepov avTOJV earl, ro §e rrj ovaia. hvo 8e hia(f)opas ^x^i' xat TO TOVTOV^ eveKa- to fiev yap eoTLV odev rj Ktvr^GLg, TO Se (L xprJTai to ov eveKa. Xeyoi 8' olov to re 25 yevvrjTLKOv Kal to opyavLKOv tco yevvojpbevcx)^' tovtcov yap TO fjiev VTrapxetv Set irpoTepov, to ttolt^tlkov, OLOV TO StStt^av'^ rod p,av6dvovros, rovs 8' avXovs varepov rov fiavOdvovros avXelv Treptepyov yap fir^ eTTiarapievoLS avXelv vTTdp)(^eiv avXovs. rpiiov o ovrcov, ivos fxev rov reXovs, o Xeyop^ev elvai ov eveKa, hevrepov 8e rwv rovrov eveKa Trjs o.pXV^ 30 rrjs KLVT]TLKrjg Kal yevvrjTLKrjs (to yap 7roL7]TLKov Kal yevvrjTiKOV, fj Toiavra, Tipog to TTocovfxevov iari Kal yevva)[ievov) , Tpirov 8e tov â– )(^prjaLiiov /cat c5 ;i^/37yTat to reXos, TTpcoTov fxev vrrapx^i-v dvayKalov â– ft iJLopLOV ev a) r) dp^r] Trjs KLvrjaecos {Kal yap evdvs TovTo* fiopiov iaTL tov reXovs ev Kat kv 35 ptcoTarov) , eTretra /zera tovto to oXov Kal to reXog, TpLTOv 8e Kal TeXevTalov rd opyaviKa tovtovs p^^pf] TTpos evtas XPV^^'-^- ^^'^^ ^'^ '^^ tolovtov eariv, 1 TOVTOV PS : ov vulg.

^ yevvcofievw 7i : yevofjievu) Vulg.

^ StSa^ov Richards.

  • fort. TOVTO TO (Z^*) scribendum, et mox ev<€Ka>.

« Cf. Met. 1035 b 18 ff.

" This will be niodifted in a moment, when Aristotle subdivides this heading. Some of the things which are for the sake of the End are posterior to it in point of formation.

"^ By this, as appears from 742 b 13, 1 4 below, is meant the " upper portion," the head and trunk. 212


with the parts of the body : one is, by nature, prior to another." But the term " prior " at once comprises a variety of meanings. E.g., take the difference between {a) that for the sake of rvhich a thing is, and (b) that thing which is for its sake : of these, one (6) is prior in point of formation, while the other (a) is prior in point of being or reaUty. Further, " that which is for the sake of the End " comprises two divisions : (i) that whence the movement is derived and (ii) that which is employed by the End ; or, in other words, (i) something which generates, and (ii) something which serves as an instrument for what is generated. Of the two, the productive factor must exist prior to the other : e.g., a teacher must exist prior to a learner, while pipes are posterior to the person who is learning to play them : it is superfluous for people who cannot play pipes to possess them. So we have these three things : (1) the End, which we describe as being that for the sake of rvhich (other things are) ; (2) the things which are for the sake of the End, .\\z., the activating and generative principle (second, because the existence of that which is productive and generative, qua such, is relative to what it produces and generates) ; (3) the things which are serviceable, which can be and are employed by the End. Thus, first of all there must of necessity exist some part in which the principle of movement resides (for of course this is a part of the End, and the supreme controlling part of it) ; after that comes the animal as a whole, i.e., the End '^ ; third and last of all come the parts which serve these ^ as instruments for various employments. If it is true, then, that there is a part

    • Or perhaps " this," referring only to the " End."


ARISTOTLE 742 b orrep avayKoiov vrrapxecv iv rotg iC,cpois, to TTdarjg exov TTJs (f>va€a)s o.px^v /cat reXog, rovro yiveadai TTpcbrov avayKaZov, fj jxev klvtjtlkov, Trpcorov, fj 8e jxopLOv Tov reXovs, iiera. rod oXov. ware tcov fxopiojv Tcbv opyaviKwv oaa ycev ecm yevvrjTLKa rrjv 5 (f)vaLV, act irporepov Set VTrapxeiv avrd [dXXov yap eveKo. ioTiv co?^ apxr}), oaa Se (jltj roiavra tcov aXXov eve/ca, voTepov. hio ov paSiov SteAeiv rrorepa TtpoTepa TCOV fjioploiv, oaa aXXov evcKa, -^ ov^ evcKa TaVTa. 7rap€IX7TL7TT€t yap to. KLVT^TLKO. tcov {XOpLCOV TrpoTepov ovTa rfj yeveaei tov tcXovs, to. 8e klvtj10 TiKct 77/30? TO, opyaviKa hieXeZv ov pcihiov. /cairoi Kara favTrjv ttjv piidohov Set t^rjTelv tL ytVerat juera Tt' TO yap TcXos ivLCov pev voTepov, evicov Se irpoTcpov. /cat Sta tovto TrpaJTOv pev to k^ov ttjv dpXTjV yiVerat popiov, eir' i^op^vov to dvco kvtos. Sio rd TTepl TTjv Ket^aXrjV /cat Ta oppara peyioTa 15 /car' dpxds ^atVerai rols ip^pvois, rd Se /caroj tov op(f)aXov, otov Ta KcbXa, piKpd' tov ydp dvcD TO. /carcD eVe/cer, /cat ovt€ popia tov TeXovs ovt€ yeivrjTLKd avTOV.

Ov /caAtDs" Se Xeyovatv ovhe tov Sta tl t7]V ^ CO? P : d>s-q vulg. " oi?] c5v P.

" i.e., generative of other parts, as the heart is.

'â– Or, reading r] apxq, "just as the first principle is for the sake of the End." 214


of this kind - a part which contains the first principle nd the End of the animal's whole nature - which uust of necessity be present in an animal, then this part must of necessity be formed first of all - formed first, qua activating, though formed along vrith the whole creature, qua being a part of the End. Thus, those instrumental parts which are in their nature generative ° must always be there themselves prior to the rest, because they axe. for the sake q/" something else, as being a first principle ** ; those parts which, although they are for the sake 0/ something else, are not generative, come later. That is why it is not easy to determine whether those parts are " prior " which are /or the sake of something else, or that part Jbr nhose sake these others are present. The activating parts intrude themselves into the picture, because in formation they are prior to the End ; and it is not easy to determine as between the activating and the instrumental parts. Still, this is the Une we must follow in trying to find out the order in which they are foi-med ; for the End, though it comes after some of them, is prior to others. And on this account the part which contains the first principle is the first to be formed ; then follows the upper portion of the body ; and that is why in embryos we see that the parts round the head and eyes are the largest at the outset, while the parts below the umbiUcus, for instance the legs, are small. The reason is that the lower portions are for the sake of the upper portion, and they are not parts of the End "^ nor are they concerned in generating it.

People who say, like Democritus of Abdera, that

  • See above, 743 a 35, 713 b 13, H. They are merely useful adjuncts, enabling it to move about, etc.


742 b

ARISTOTLE avayKTjv, oaoi Xeyovaiv on ovtcos del yiverai, Kal 20 ravTTjv eivat, vofxi^ovaiv dipxyjv ev avrots, (Larrep ^■qixoKpiTOS 6 ^ AfihrjplTrjs , on rov fiev [del Kal]^ aneipov ovk eanv dpxrj, to he hid ri dp^rj, rd 8' aet aTTeipov, oiore to epcoTav to hid tl rrepl T<Jbv TOLovTwv TLvds TO ^rjTeLV elvai (jirjcrt tov direlpov apxTjV. KaLTOL Kara tovtov tov \6yov, Kad^ ov 25 d^iovcrt to hid tL /lit) ^rjTelv, ovdevos aTTohei^is ecrrat tojv dihicov ^atVerai 8' ovcra ttoXXcov, t<1>v {xev yLvofJLevcov del tojv 8' ovtcdv, errel /cat to Tpiycovov ^x^t-v hvalv opdals taas del Kal to tt^v htajxeTpov dcrupipieTpov elvai rrpos ttjv vXevpdv dthiov, aAA' ojxco? eanv avTcov wltiov tl Kal drro30 hei^LS. TO fJiev ovv fir] ttovtcov d^iovv t,rjr€iv dpx^jv XeyeTai KaXco^, to he tcov ovtwv del Kal ytvofxevajv rravTCDV ov KaXw?, dAA' ocrat Tcijv duhtajv dpxo-l Tvyxdvovatv ovcrar ttjs ydp dpx'rj? dXXr] yviooLS Kal OVK drroheL^is . dpxrj 8' iv fiev Tolg dKivqTOis to 1 seel, Platt.

" Cf. Met. 1011 a 13 aTroSetfew? yap apx^j ovk aTToSei^ls eoTiv. Also Anal, Post. 90 b 34 ff. at a.px'i^ twv d-rroSei^ecDv opia^oi, cov oTi OVK eaovrai aTTobei^as SeSet/crai Trporepov fj eaovrai, ai apxal (XTroSeiKTat koL Toir dpxoJv apxai . . . opta/xo? /xev ydp tov tl ioTi kol ovaias. See also 72 b 20 if. ; also Met. 1013 a 15 (one of the definitions of dpxTj) ert odev yvcooTOV TO â– npdyfia TrpwTov, /cat avrr) dpx^ XeyeTai tov npay HaTOS, olov tG)V dTTobei^ecov ai vnodeaeis. In Eth. N. 1142 a 26 it is said to be " intelligence " (vovs) which apprehends definitions that cannot be proved by reasoning. Aristotle also speaks there of " the sort of intuition " (aladrjais) where 216


" this is how they are always formed," and regard this as a starting-point (first principle) in these cases, make a mistake, nor do they even succeed in stating tlie necessity involved in the cause. Their argument is this : What is limitless has no starting-point ; but the cause is a starting-point, and what is always is limitless ; therefore (says Democritus) to ask for a cause in connexion with an}i:hing of this kind {sc, anything that ahrays is) is the same as trying to discover a starting-point in something that is limitless. Yet on this line of argument, on the strength of which they undertake to dispense with trying to discover the cause, there will be no demonstration of any single one of the " eternal " things. It is obvious, however, that demonstrations of many of these (some of them things which ahvays come to be, some things which always are) do in fact exist. For instance, the angles of a triangle are always equal to two right angles, and the diagonal of a square is always incommensurable with the side ; in both of these cases we have something " eternal," yet there is a cause for them and they are demonstrable. Thus it is right to say that we cannot undertake to try to discover a startingpoint (a first principle) in all things and evervthing ; but it is not right to deny the possibihty in the case of all the things that always are and that always come to be ; it is impossible only vvith the first principles of the eternal things, for of course the first principle does not admit of demonstration, but is apprehended by another mode of cognition." Now with those things that are " immutable," the first principle is hy we perceive that the tiltimate figure in mathematics is a triangle. Again (114.3 b 1) in demonstrations, voO? apprehends the immutable {aKivrfra) and primary definitions.



742 b

TL eoTLV, iv 8e rot? ytvofievots yjSr] irXeiovs, Tporrov 35 6 aAAov /cat ov Trdaai rov avrov Sv fxla tov aptdfiov, odev rj klv7]ol? eariv. Sto TrdvTa ra kvaifxa Kaphiav ex^i rrpaJrov, coanep iXexdr] Kar^ o-px^-S' €V Se Tols dXXots to dvdXoyov yiverat, rfj 743 a Kaphia Trpcorov.

E/c Se rrjs KapStas at ^Xi^es SiareTavrai^ KadajTep OL Tovs Kavd^ovs ypd^ovTes iv tols toixols' Ta yap p-eprj nepl TavTag iaTLv, aTe yivopueva e/c TOVTOJv. 7) 8e yevecris eoTiv [e/c]^ tcjv o/xoto5 [xepoJv V7TO ipv^ecos /cat d€pp.6Tr]TOS' ovviaTaTai yap /cat TTijyvvTai Ta [xev ipvxpcp ra 8e depfio). Trepl Se Trjg tovtcov Sia^opds eLprjrai nporepov iv erepot?, 77"ota Xvtcl vypo) /cat TTvpi, /cat TTOta aXvTa vypo) /cat aTTjKTa nvpL Sid puev ouv tcov (jyXe^cov /cat Ta)V iv CKdaTois TTopcov hiaTnhvovaa rj Tpoffjrj, 10 Kaddnep iv tols o>pLOLS K^papbioLS to vScxjp, yivovTaL ^ Peck : Siarerafidvai vulg. " om. SS, Platt : -q coni. A.-W.

" The term "immutable" is often used by Aristotle in connexion with mathematics, as here. - " Essence," lit., " the ' what is it?'," the essential definition or nature of the thing. Cf. quotation from Anal. Post, in preceding note, and Phys. 198 a 16 f. "in the case of the immutable things, e.g., in mathematics, where ultimately all is referred back to definitions, TO Std Tt (' why ') is referred back to to ti eori (' what,' the essence of the thing)." The essence is directly perceived, not demonstrated. (See previous note.)

  • " This is one of the definitions given in Met. 1013 a 4^ that from which, being present within it, a thing first comes into being {odev rrpcuTov ylyveTaL ivvTrdpxovTos).

' He has repeated it almost continuously.



the essence " ; but as soon as we begin to deal with those things that come into being through a process of formation, we find there are several first principles - principles, however, of a different kind and not all of the same kind. Among them the source whence the movement comes ^ must be reckoned as one, and that is why the heart is the first part which all blooded animals have, as I said at the beginning <^ ; in the other animals it is the counterpart of the heart that is formed first.

Beginning at the heart, the blood-vessels extend all over the body. They may be compared to the skeleton models which are traced out on the walls of buildings,"^ since the parts are situated around the blood-vessels, because they are formed out of them. The formation of the uniform parts is effected by the The agency of cooling and heat ; some things are " set " ^r^â„¢ and solidified by the cold and some by the hot. I have spoken previously elsewhere " of the difference between these, and I have stated what sort of things are dissoluble by fluid and by fire, and what sorts are not dissoluble by fluid and cannot be melted by fire. Resuming then : As the nourishment oozes through the blood-vessels and the passages in the several parts (just as water does when it stands in unbaked â– * Cf. H.A. 5l5a.Sa. Hesychius's and Photius's definitions of Kttva/Soi describe them as the woodwork around which modellers, when they begin their modelling, mould the wax or plaster. There is a similar passage in Parts of A n imals, though without mention of this term (654. b •29) ; there Aristotle speaks of a " hard and solid core or foundation " round which the figure is modelled ; though in that case he is speaking of the bones. There seems to be no justification for interpreting KovajSoi as a mere outline or sketch ; nor would such a meaning fit the passage. Cf. 764. b .SI.

' Meteorologica, Bk. IV, chh. 7-10. Cf. also 762 a 31.


743 a

ARISTOTLE adpKe? rj to ravrais dvdXoyov, vtto tov ipvxpov GwiaTO-ixevai, Sio /cat Xvovrat vtto rrvpog. oaa 8e yerjpd Xiav rwv dvareXXoi'TCOv , oXcyTjv e^ovra vypoTTjra /cat deppiorrjra, ravra he ijjvxoixeva e^ar/Litt,ovTOS TOV vypov /xera tov depfiov ytVerat OKXiqpd 15 /cat yecohrj ttjv jXop(f)rjV, olov ovv^^s /cat KepaTa /cat oTrAai /cat pvyxV ^^ /MaAarTerat /xev TTvpi, T'^KeTai S' ovdev, aAA' ep'ta rot? vypots, olov to. KcXvcfyr] Tcbv cpajv.

'Ytto 8e TTys" ei^TO? deppiOTriTos ra re vevpa /cat TO, ocTTa yiVerat, ^rjpaivoixevrjs ttj? vypoT-qTO? . Sto /cat dAuTct ecrrt to. dcrra ?5Tro tow mvpos, Kaddirep 20 Kepafxos' olov yap ev Kapbivcp, (VTTTTjixeva cgtIv^ vtto Trjs iv TTJ yeveuei OepjjLOTriTog. avTrj oe ovre o tl eTV)(^ TTotet adpKa rj ootovv, ovd^ ottov^ eTV)(ev, ovd' oTTOTe €TVx^v,^ dXXd TO 7Te(f)VK6s /cat ov^ TTe^vKe /cat OTE 7T€(f)VKeV. OVT€ ydp TO SwdfJiCL OV VTTO TOV flTJ TTjv evepyeiav e^ovTOS KivrjTiKov ecrrat, ovt€ to ttjv 25 evepyeiav €XOV TTOfqaeL e/c tov tvxovtos , ojOTTep ovTe KL^ojTov fXYj €K ^vXov 6 TeKTCiiv TTOLTjaeLcv av, OVT* dvev TOVTOV /cijSojTos" ecrrat e/c tcov ^vXcdv. 'H 8e depfxoTTjs ivvTTdpx^L ev Tip CTTrep/xaTt/co) TreptTTcu/xart ToaavT7]v /cat TOLavTTjv exovaa ttjv Kivqaiv /cat tt]v evepyetav, oarj avfifieTpog et? eKaarov tcov [xopLCov. Kad' oaov o dv eXXeLTTT) 30 •^ vvep^dXXr], r) ;^erpov aTToreAet r) dvaTTrjpov to yivofxevov, TTapaTrXrjaiCOS rot? e^cu avvtaTafxevoLS ^ ecrrlv P : oni. vulg. ^ ottoi; P : otttj vulg.

ouS' OTTOTe CTuxev P : om- vulg. * o5 P : ^ vulg.



earthenware), flesh, or its counterpart, is formed : it is the cold which " sets " the flesh, and that is why fire dissolves it. As the nourishment wells up, the excessively earthy stuff in it, which contains but little fluidity and heat, becomes cooled while the fluid is evaporating together with the hot substance, and is formed into parts that are hard and earthy in appearance, e.g., nails, horns, hoofs and bills ; hence, these Nails, etc. can be softened, but not one of them can be melted, by fire ; though some, e.g., eggshell, can be melted by fluids.

The sinews and bones are formed, as the fluidity sinews and sohdifies, by the agency of the internal heat ; hence <>°*^bones (like earthenware) cannot be dissolved by fire ; they have been baked as it were in an oven bv the heat present at their formation. This heat, however, to produce fleshy or bone, does not work on some casual material in some casual place at some casual time ; material, place and time must be those ordained by Nature : that which is potentially will not be brought into being by a motive agent which lacks the appropriate actuality ; so, equally, that which possesses the actuality will not produce the article out of any casual material. No more could a carpenter produce a chest out of an\i:hing but wood ; and, equally, without the carpenter no chest will be produced out of the wood.

This heat resides in the seminal residue, and the movement and the activity which it possesses are in amount and character correctly proportioned to suit each several part. If they are at all deficient or excessive, to that extent they cause the forming product to be inferior or deformed. The same is true of things that are " set " by heat elsewhere than in 221


743 a

Sta rrjs ei/j-qcrewg Trpos Tpo(f>rjs drroXavaLv rj riva dXXrjv ipyaatav. dAA' ivravda fxev i^juet? t7jv ttjs depjXOTrjTos avfifxerpiav els rrjv KLvrjaiv irapaaKevd^ofiev, e/cet 8e StScoaiv 'q (f>VGLs r] rov yevvcovros.

35 Tols Se avropLaTCjos yivofxevoig rj ri]S copag atria KivrjaLS Kal 6epp.6rr]s.

'H 8e ijjv^is areprjais OepjJLoritjrog eariv. ;^p7^Tat 8' dpL(f>oTepoLS rj (j)vais e)^ovaL [xev SvvafXLV i^ 743 b dvdyKrjs ware ro fiev roBl to 8e roSt 770ietv, iv pievTOL TOLS yivopicvoLs evGKd TLvos (jvpL^aivei to piev ipv)(ecv avrcbv to 8e deppbaiveiv, /cat yiveadai Ttov piopicov eKaoTOv, ttjv piev adpKa pLaXaKr)v ttj piev e^ dvdyKTjs ttolovvtojv roiavTrjv rfj 8' eveKd 5 Tivos, TO 8e vevpov ivpov /cat eA/crdv, to 8' octtovv ^Tjpov /cat dpavarov. to 8e Seppia ^r)paLvopievr]s rrjs aapKos ytverat, Kaddrrep cTTt rot? eifjrjpiaaiv rj KaXovpevr) ypavs. ov piovov 8e Sta to ea^aTov avpi^aiveL avTov rj yiveais, aXXd /cat 8tOTt emTToXdt^ei TO yXiaxpov Sta to pirj Svvaadai e^,eiv.

10 ev piev ovv toIs aAAot? av)(^pirjp6v to yXiaxpov (8to ooTpaKoBeppia /cat piaXaKoorpaKa rd eaj^ard ecrrt TcDv dvalpicov t,a)cov), ev he rots evaipiOLS to yXiaXpov Xi7Tap(jL)Tep6v eoTiv. /cat tovtcdv oaa pir) yechhrj Tr]v (f)V(TLv ex€L Xiav, ddpoi^eTai, to TrtjueAajSe? vtto TTJV Tov SeppiaTos aKerrrjv, co? tov Sep/xaros" yt 15 vopievov e/c T-fjs TOiavTrjs yXiaxpdrrjTOS' e^^L ydp TLva yXioxpoTrjTa to Xtrrapov. rrdvTa 8e raura, Kaddrrep elrropev, XeKTeov yiveadai Trj piev e^ dvdyKrjs rrj 8' ovk i^ dvdyKrjs aAA' eveKo, tlvos.

« Cf. 767 a 17 if, i.e., the change required to be eifected ; see Introd. § 48, KivTjais. ' See Introd. § 8.



the uterus ; e.^., things which we boil to make them pleasant for food, or for any other practical purpose. The only difference is that in this case the correct proportion of heat" to suit the movement ** is supplied by us, whereas in the other, it is supplied by the nature of the generating parent. With those animals that are formed spontaneously the cause responsible is the movement and heat o^the climatic conditions. Heat and cooling (which is deprivation of heat) are both employed by Nature. Each has the faculty, grounded in necessity, of making one thing into this and another thing into that ; but in the case of the forming of the embryo it is for a purpose that their power of heating and cooHng is exerted and that each of the parts is formed, flesh being made soft - as Flesh, heating and cooling make it such, partly owing to necessity, partly ybr a purpose, - sinew soUd and elastic, bone solid and brittle. Skin is formed as the flesh skin. solidifies, just as scum or " mother " forms on boiled hquids. Its formation is due not merely to its being on the outside, but also to the fact that glutinous substance remains on the surface because it cannot evaporate. In blooded animals the glutinous substance is more fatty than in bloodless ones, in which it is dry, and on this account the outer parts of the latter are testaceous or crustaceous. In those blooded animals whose nature is not excessively earthy, the fat collects under the protective covering, the skin, which seems to indicate that the skin is formed out of this sort of glutinous substance, since of course grease is to some extent glutinous. We are to say, then, as already stated, that all these things are formed partly as a result of necessity, partly also not of necessity but ybr a purpose. '^ 223


743 b

IlpwTov jjiev ovv TO avu) Kvro? a(j>opit,eTai Kara rrjv yeveaiv, to 8e koltm Trpo'CovTos tov )^p6vov 20 XapL^avei ttjv av^rjaiv ev toZs eVat/xoi?. dnavTa he Tals 7T€pLypa(f>ais hiopit^eTai TrpoTepov, voTepov 8e Aafi^dv€L TO. ^(pojpLaTa /cat tcls ftaAa/coTT^ras" kol Tas aKXrjpoTTjTas , aTexv^JS oiorrep dv vtto l^ojypdcfiov TTJs (f>va€0}s 8rjpLovpyovp,€va- Kal yap ol ypa<f)eZs V7ToypdipavT€S Tats ypap,[j,als ovtojs iuaXetcfiovaL 25 TOt? XpwpLaai to t^cpov.

Ata pi.ev ovv to ttjv dp^^jv iv ttj KapSta tcov atadrjaecov etvac Kal tov ^coov uavTOS avTT) yiVerai TTpdJTov Sta 8e 7-57^ OepfxoTTjTa ttjv TavT-qg, fj TeXevrdJaiv at cjiXe^es dva>, to ifjvxpov avvtaTTjatv avTLaTpo(f)ov ttj depixoTrjTL ttj rrepi ttjv KaphLav tov 30 eyKecpaXov. hcoTrep Ta Trepl ttjv Ke(f)aXr]v Xapi^dvei avvexyj Tr]v yevccnv pLerd ttjv Kaphiav, kol pbeyedet rdjv dXXcov Sia(f)€p€f ttoXvs yap Kal vypos e^ dpx^js 6 €yK€(f)aXos.

"E;^et S' dTToplav to Trepl tovs o^daXpiovs avp.^alvov Tcov t^cpQJv. /xeytCTTOt pev yap e^ dpxrjs (j>aivovTaL Kal nel^OLS Kal ttXwtols Kal tttt^vols, 35 TeAeuraiot Se yivovTai twv popiayv iv to) peTa^v ydp xpovcp avp,7TL7TTOvaLV. a'lTiov S' oti to tcov 6(f)daXpd)v aladrjTrjpiov earl pev, oiairep koX rd dXXa atCT^r^TTypta/ IttI rropoiv aAAo. to pev tt^s- d(/)rjs 744 a Kal yevaecog evOvg ioTiv 7) acbpa rj tov croopaTos TL TCOV ^cpwv, rj 8' 6acf)p7jaLS Kat rj dKorj Tropoi (TwaTTTOVTes Trpos TOV depa tov dvpadev, nXrjpei? avp(/)VTOV TTvevpaTog , TrepaivovTes Se rrpos rd ^ a>aTT€p . . . aladrjrrjpia fort, secludenda ; suspic. est Platt. /u.€(' ioTiv Z })l'0 effTt fxiv ; TroAAa P pro to. aXXa.



Now the upper portion of the body is the first to be marked off in the course of the embrjo's formation; the lower portion receives its gro^\i:h as time o^oes on. (This applies to the blooded animals.) In the early stages the parts are all traced out in outline ; later on they get their various colours and softnesses and hardnesses, for all the world as if a painter were at work on them, the painter being Nature. Painters, as we know, first of all sketch in " the figure of the animal in outline, and after that go on to apply the colours.

As the source of the sensations is in the heart, the heart is the first part of the whole animal to be formed ; and, on account of the heat of the heart, and to pro%ide a corrective to it, the cold causes the brain to " set," where the blood-vessels terminate above. That is whv the regions around the head Brain, begin to form immediately after the heart and are bigger than the other parts, the brain being large and fluid from the outset.

The development of the eyes is something of a Eyes, puzzle to the student. In birds, beasts, and fishes alike, the eyes are from the outset ver}" large in appearance, yet they are the last of all the parts to be completely formed, since they shrink up in the meantime.*' The reason is that the sense-organ of the eyes is indeed, like the other sense-organs, set upon passages ; but whereas the sense-organ of touch and of taste is just the animal's body or some portion of the body, and smell and hearing are passages full of connate pneuma,'^ connecting \nth the outer air and terminating at the small blood-vessels around ' Cf. note, 740 a 28. » C/. H.A. 561 « 19 ff.

' See App. B §§ 26 ff.

1 225

744 a

ARISTOTLE (fyXe^ia tol Trepl rov €yK€<f)aXov reivovra cltto Trjg 5 Kap^ias' 6 8' o^^aA/ios" (Tcbfjia fiovov thiov e^^t twv aladrjriqpiaiv . ean S' vypov Kal ijjvxpov, /cat ov 7Tpov7Tdp)(ov iv TO) TOTTCv KaddiTep /cat rd dXXa IxopLa Swapuei, eTreira eve py eta yivop^eva varepov dAA aTTo rrjs Trepl rov eyKe^aXov vyporrjros aTTO 10 Kpiverai rd Kadapcorarov 8ia rwv iropajv ot <f>aivovrai (j)epovres avr avrwv Trpds rrjv jX'qvLyya rrfv Trepl rov eyK€(f)aXov. rovrov Se reKpirjpiov ovre yap dXXo piopiov vypdv Kal ilivxpdv eanv ev rfj Ke(f>aXfj Tiapd rov eyKecf)aXov, rd r d\i\x.a ipv^pdv Kal vypdv. e^ dvdyK7]s ovv d rdrtos Xapb^dvei 15 fJLeyedos rd Trpcorov, avpLTTLTTrei 8' varepov. Kal ydp TTepi rov eyK€(f)aXov cru/x^atVei rdv avrov rpdTTOV rd TTpdorov vypds Kal ttoXvs, aTTOTTveovros 8e Kat TTerrofxevov aoifxarovrai re fxaXXov /cat avpiTTLTTret, Kal d eyKe<j)aXos [/cat rd crcij/zara]^ Kat rd jxeyeOos rd rdJv dp.ixdra>v. e^ apx'TJS 8e Sta p.ev rov 20 eyK€(f)aXov rj Ke^aXrj fieytarrj, 8ta Se rd vypdv rd ev rots opLpiaaLV ol d(f>daXpiol fxeydXoi (jiaivovrai. reXevraloL he Xajx^dvovaL reXos hid rd Kal rdv eyK€(f)aXov avviaraadai jxdXts' dipe ydp Trauerai Trjs tpvxpdrrjros Kal rrj? vypdrnqros enl vdvrwv ^lev rdJv exdvroiv,^ p^dXiara 8' errl rojv dvdpcoTraiv. 8ia ydp 25 rovro /cat ro ^peyfia rtdv darcvv yiverai reXevratov rjhr] ydp yeyevrip.eva)v Ovpa^e rcbv ifx^pvcov ^ om. S, seclusit Rekker : Kal to. ofifiara Platt, om. Kal to IJ-eyedos to tu>v OfXfiaTcov.

  • TMv exovTojv P : habentibus magnum cerebrum S : om. vulg.



the brain which extend thither from the heart, the eye, by way of contrast, is the only one of the sense-organs which has a special " body " of its own. It is fluid and cold ; and, unlike the other parts, which are present in their places potentially to begin with and later on come to be formed in actuality, this one is not there at the start,*^ but it is produced by the purest part of the liquid around the brain being secreted off through those passages ^ which are to be observed leading from the eyes to the membrane around the brain. A sure sign of this is that beside the brain there is no part in the head except the eye which is cold and fluid. Hence it is due to necessity that this region gets large at first but shrinks later on ; because the same happens to the brain : at first this is fluid and large, but as evaporation and concoction proceed it becomes more solid and shrinks ; so does the size of the eyes. From the outset the head is very large, on account of the brain, and the eyes, as we see, are large on account of the fluid in them. But the eyes are the last of all to reach their completion, because the brain (on which they depend) does not " set " at all easily ; it is quite late before it ceases to be so cold and fluid ; and this is true of all animals that have a brain, especially of man. That is why the bregma '^ is the last of the bones to be formed : even after the embryos are brought to birth, this ° Aristotle's knowledge that the eye is an offshoot from the brain, and does not originate in the position which it finally occupies, is indeed remarkable.

' These are no doubt the optic nerves.

\ Cf. P.A. 653 a 34 and H.A. 491 a 31. This is the bone which finally grows over the space at the top of the skull known as the " anterior fontanelle." 227


744 a

fxaXaKov eCTTi tovto to ogtovv tols TraiStoiS'.^ o.'ltlov 8e Tov jxaXiOT^ eTrl roJv dvdpcoTTOJV tovto avfi^aLveLv, otl tov eyKe^aXov vypoTaTov e)(ovai /cat TrAetarov tcov t^cocxjv, tovtov 8' atriov otl /cat 30 Tr)v ev ttj Kaphia depfioTTjTa KadapojTGLTrjv . StjXol oe TTjv evKpaalav rj Stap-ota* (^povcficoTaTOV yap eoTL TCOV t,a)Oiv avdpcoTTOs. aKpaTrj 8e /cat to, TratSta fie^pt rroppoj ttj^ Ke(f)aXrjs ecrrt Std to jSapo? TO 7T€pl TOV iyK€(J)aXov. oixoLCos 8e /cat TcDv fJLopiojv ocra Set /civett i^ yap ^^/^X^ "^^ KLvrjaecDs 6i/je KpaTeX Ttuv dvcodev /cat TeAeu 35 TOiov, oacxiv r] KivrjaLS purj avvrjpTrjTai Trpos avT7]V, OJOTTep Tibv KCoXoJV. TOiOVTOV S' CCTTt fXOpLOV TO ^Xe(f)apov. inel 8' ovdev rroiel TrepUpyov ovSe fjLaTrjv 'q (f)vais, Si]Xov co? oi)S' VGTepov ovSe TrpoTepov CCTTat yap to yeyovos rf fjLdrqv t] TrepUpyov. 744 b a)ad d[x avdyKT] to. ^Xe^apa hLa^copit,€adai t^ KoX Svvaadai Kivelv. oipe fiev ovv 8ta to ttXtjOos TTJs 7T€pl TOV €yKe(f)aXov TTeipecog TeAetouTat to. o/x/xaTa ToTs ^cpocg, TeXevTCua 8e 8ta to G(f)6Spa KpaTova7]s TTJs Kiviqaeois elvat to Kivelv /cat to. 5 OVTW5 TToppco TTJs o-px^js Kal dTTeifjvypieva tG)v fxoplajv. SrjXol 8e to, ^Ae^apa TOiavT7]v exovTa ttjv (jivacv dv yap Kal ottooovovv ^dpos yevrjTai irepl TTjv K€(/)aXr}v 8t' VTTVov t) pbedrfv rj d'AAo Tt tojv TOLOVTCDV, ov Swdfjieda Ta jSAe^apa alpeiv, ovtoj ^dpos avTOJV i)(6vTa)v puiKpov.

^ Tots TraiSt'oi? P : tcDv rraiSiajv vulg. ^ â– ^ P : om. vulg. ^ re PS : om. vulg.

" evKpaaia. For Kpdms see Introd. § 40; and cf. P. A, 673 b 26 and Hippocrates, tt. SiaiTTjs I. 35. * See Introd. §§ 11, .51.



bone is still soft in the case of children. The reason why this occurs especially in man is that in man the brain is more fluid and greater in volume than in any other animal, and the reason of this, in its turn, is that the heat in the heart is purest in man. The fineness of the blend " in man is shown by his possession of intellect : there is no other animal which is so intelligent. Even children however for a considerable period lack full control over their heads. This is due to the weight of the brain, and the same may be said of those parts of the body which have to be moved. It is quite late before the principle of movement gets control over the upper parts ; and its control over those parts (such as the legs) whose movement is not closely connected with it is achieved last of all. Another such part is the eyeUd. Now, as Nature does nothing that is superfluous or pointless, it is plain that she will not do anything too late or too soon, for in that case what was done would be either pointless or superfluous. Therefore the separation of the eyelids and the ability to move them must coincide in time. Thus the completion of the formation of the eyes comes late, because of the large amount of concoction required by the brain, and it comes last, after all the other parts, because the movement * must be very strong and powerful in order to move parts which are so far away from the first principle,*' and so much subjected to cold. That such is the nature of the eyelids is shown by the fact that even if a very little heaviness affects the head through sleep or intoxication or anything of that sort, we are unable to raise the eyeUds although their weight is very sUght.

' Viz., of movement, i.e., the heart.


744 b

ARISTOTLE 10 Ilepi fiev ovv 6(f)daXixa)v ecprjTai ttojs yivovrai /cat 8i o Ti, /cat 8ta Ttv' alrlav reXevraiav Xajx^dvovaL TTjv SidpdpcoaLv.

Tajv 8' dXXcov yivcrai [xopLCov eKaarov e/c rrjs Tpo(f>rjs, rd ixev rtjutcorara /cat /xeretAi^^ora ttJ? /cfpLOJTarrjs ap)(rjs e/c t';^? TreTre^jU.eV'rjs' /cat KadapcordTTjs /cat TTpwTTjs Tpo(f)rjs, TCI 8' dj^ay/cata fjLopta /cat 15 TOfTcov ev€Kev e/c tt^s x^ipovos /cat rcSr UTroAet/ipLartov /cat TreptTTOJjLtdTcov. cjoTrep yap oIkovo^jLOS ayadas, /cat 7^ cf)vaLS ovdev drro^dXXeLV etcodev i^ (1)V €UTi TTOtrjcral ri XPV^'^^^- ^^ ^^ rats olkovofxlais rrjs yLvofxeu-qg rpo(f)rjs r) /xev ^eXrCarr) rera/crat rotS" iXevOepoig, rj 8e )(€Lpa}V /cat to 7re 20 pLTTCDfxa TavTTjs (roisy oi/ceTat?, to. 8e ;)(^etptcrTa /cat Tot? avvrpe(f>oiJievoLg 8t8oacTt Repots. Kaddirep ovv €Ls rrjv av^iqcnv 6 dvpaOev ravra 77otet i^ous, outco? ev TOt? yivopiivoLS avrotg tj (jyvais e/c juev tt^s /ca^apcordrrjs vXr]s adpKas /cat tcDv aAAcov aladrjrrjpioiv rd awfiara crvvLarrjaLv, e/c 86 rcov irepir 25 TcofiaTcov Sard /cat vevpa /cat rptxas, €ri, 8' ovu;(a? /cat OTrAd? /cat Trdvra rd roiavra' 8to TeAeuTata ravra XapL^dvet rrjv avaraaiv , drav ijSr] yiyvrjrat TT€pirra>pLa rrjs (f>va€Cos.

H {jLev ovv rojv oarwv (f>vais €v rfj Trpiorj) avardaei yiverai rcov piopiojv e/c rrjg a7T€pp,arLKrjs 30 Trepirrcbaetos , /cat ra>v t,a)a>v av^avopuevcov e/c rrjs . (f>vaLKrjs rpo(f>rjs Xapb^dvei rrjv av^rjatv, e^ rjarrep ra piopia rd Kvpia, ravrrjs pievroi avrijs rd vtto^ supplevit Richards.

" i.e., blood.

  • Cf. the regular distinction between " the better " and " necessity," " The sense-organ of touch.



This concludes our discussion about the eyes. We have said how they are formed, and why, and what is the reason that they are the last of all the parts to be articulated.

Each of the remaining parts is formed out of the nourishment. The most honourable ones, those which have a share in the supreme controlUng principle, are formed out of the first of the nourishment," which has been concocted and is purest ; the " neces>-ary " parts,* which exist for the sake of those just mentioned, are formed out of inferior nourishment, out of the lea^ings and the residues. Like a good housekeeper. Nature is not accustomed to throw anything away if something useful can be made out of it. In housekeeping the best of the food available is reserved for the freemen ; the residue left over from this as well as the inferior food goes to the servants, and the worst of all goes to the domestic animals. Here then is an instance of a mind, external to them, acting so as to pro\ide for their groA\'th. In the same way Nature is at work \Wthin the creatures themselves that are being formed, and constructs flesh '^ and the bodily parts of the other sense-organs out of the purest of the material, whereas out of the residues she constructs bones and sinews and hair, and also nails and hoofs and all such things, which means that they have to wait till Nature has some residue to hand, and that is why they are the last to be constructed.

The bones, then, are formed during the first stage Bones, etc. of construction out of the seminal residue, and as the animal grows they grow too. Their gro^^i:h is derived from the natural nourishment, which is the same as that which suppHes the supreme parts ; only they 2S1


744 b

AeijLt/xara /<at to. TrepLTTCOfiaTLKa. ylverat yap iv TTaVTl TO TTpOJTOV Kal TO SeVTCpOV TTJS"^ TpO(f)rjS TO lieV dpCTTTlKOV TO 8 aV^TJTlKOV, dpeTTTLKOV flCV 35 o TO €i,vaL 7Tap€)(€Tai TO) T€ oXii) Kal Tolg pLopioLS, av^TjTiKov 8e TO ets" p^eyeOos ttolovv ttjv eTxihoaiv vepl d)v voTcpov hiopiGTeov p^aXXov. tov avTov Se TpOTTOV ToXs OOToZs Kai TO. v€vpa avviOTaTaL Kal €K TOiv g.VTa)v, eK ttjs' a7Tepp,aTLKrjs TrepLTTCvaecos 745 a Kal ttjs 6p€7rTLKi]S- ovu;^e? 8e /cat Tpix^s Kal OTrAat /cat KepaTa /cat pvy^f] xai to. TrXrJKTpa tojv opvidcov, Kal et tl toiovtov €Tep6v ioTi popcov, e/c ttj? eTnKTTjTov Tpocfyrjs Kal Trjs av^r]TiK7Js, -qv re Trapa TOV drjXeos eTTLKTaTat, Kal [Trjg]^ 6vpa6ev. 8ta tovto 5 TO, /xev OGToi P'^XP '^Vos XapL^dveL ttjv av^iqaiv eoTL yap tl ttolgl tols ^cpot,g Trepas tov p^eyedovs, 8to /cat TTJs Twv ooTcov av^'qoecos . et yap TavT e?Yev av^rfaiv del, Kal tcov ^cowv oaa e;)^et ootovv ri TO dvdXoyov, rjv^dveT dv ecos €t,r}- tov yap p^eyedovg opog eotI raura toZ? Wot?. 8t' rjv p.ev 10 ovv aiTcav ovk del Xap^^dvovaiv av^rjGLV Xcktcov voTepov Tpix^s 8e /cat Ta avyyevrj tovtois, ecu? dv ^ Trjs Z : Kai rijg vulg. ^ Seclusi.

" The functions of "nutritive Soul" (see above, 735 a 17, and De anima 415 a 25) are to generate, and to make use of nourishment ; it is the same Svva/xis of the Soul which generates and which nourishes {De anima 416 a 19). In the passage which there follows, a distinction is made between being nourished {rp€<f>€a6ai) and growing {av^aveadai). At 416 b 11, Aristotle says that " nourishment " is not identical with " that which is growth-promoting " ; thus, in so far as the living thing (the creature " with Soul in it ") is of a certain quantity, the food is " growth-promoting " {i.e., increases its quantity) ; but in so far as the creature is a particular thing, an individual " being," the food is " nourishment," because 2S2


get merely the leavings and the residues of it. In every instance, of course, there is nourishment of two grades present : (1) " nutritive," that is to say, which proWdes both the whole and the parts ^nth being ; (2) " growth-promoting," that is to say, which causes increase of bulk. These ^%ill have to be more particularly distinguished later on." The sinews are constructed in the same way as the bones, and out of the same materials, viz., the seminal or " nutritive " residue. As for nails, hair, hoofs, horns, bills, cocks' spure and any other such part, these are formed out of the supplementary or " growth-promoting " nourishment, this additional nourishment being obtained from the female, and from outside. On this account, the bones continue growing only up to a certain point, for as all animals have a hmit to thensize, this involves a limit to the growth of the bones. If the bones continued growing for ever, then every animal which contains any bone or the counterpart of bone ^ would go on growing as long as it hved, because the bones set the limit for an animal's size. We shall have to explain later on whv the bones do not continue growing for ever. Hair and similar things, on the other hand, continue growing so long it maintains the creature^s being. And it is also " productive of generation " - not, of course, of the generation of the creature which is getting the nourishment, for its " being " is already there, but of another creature similar to it (416 b loll). It thus appears that the business of "nutrition" is concerned \*ith the maintenance of a living creature's being, and with the generation of new ones' being : " growth-promotion " is concerned with increasing the bulk of that which already has being - and this is precisely the distinction which Aristotle employs in the present passage.

  • e.g., the os sepiae, the '* pen " of calamaries, the cartilaginous spines of Selachia (sharks, etc.) {P. A. 6Si a ^0, 655 a 23).


745 a

ARISTOTLE v7Tap)(coatv, av^dvovrai, Kal ixdXXov iv voaois Kal TOiv acofxarcDv yrjpaaKovrcov koI <j)div6vTOiv hid to Aeineadai Trepirrcjjfxa irAetov eXdrrovos els to, Kvpia 8a7Tava)[X€vov Sid to yrjpas Kal ra? vocrovs, 15 CTret y OTav VTToXcLTTr} /cat tovto Sta ttjv rfXiKtav, /cai at Tpi)(^€g VTToXeLTTovatv . ra S' oCTxa TovvavTLoy avjxcfidiveL ydp to) aojpiaTi koX toZs fiepeaiv. av^dvovTai 8' at r/atp^e? koL TcdvedtTcov, ov puevToi yivovTai y' e^ VTTap)^}]?. ■Hepl 8' oSovTCOv dTToprjaeiev dv tls. elal ydp ttjv 20 fJicv (f>vaLv TTjv avTTjv e)(ovTes toIs doToZs, kol yivovTai eK Tcjv ogtiov, 6vv)(€S Se /cat Tptx^S Kai KepaTa Kal Td TOiavTa e/c tov SepfxaTos, Sto /cat aviJLfJieTa^dXXovai tco SepfiaTL to.? xP^^^' XevKa re yap Kal jxeXava yCvovTai Kal TravToSaird /cara ttjv tov Sep/jLaTos XP^^^> ^^ S' dSovTe? ovdev e/c ydp Tcbv oaTOJV eluLV, oaa tcjv ^cLodv ep^et oSovras" /cat 25 dara. au^avovrai 8e 8ta jStou jxovol tcov dXXcov OGTCov tovto 8e hrjXov eirl twv TrapaKXivovTOJV oSovTCDV TTjv d(f)r]v TrjV dXXrjXcov. aiTiov he ttjs av^rjoeois, cvs p-ev eveKa tov, 8ta to epyov rap^u ydp dv KaT€TpL^ovTO p,rj yivofJidvrjs tivos CTTippvaeois, enel Kal vvv ivLOis yqpdaKovat, tols ^pco 30 Tt/cot? /xev p,rj p^eyaXovs 8' exovai, /cararpt^ovTa t TTapiTTav TrXeLOVL ydp Xoyco KaOaipovvTai ttjs av^ijaews. 8td /cat tovto ev [Ji€p,rjxdvT]Tai rrpos to " In the case of rabbits, etc., it may happen that a tooth in the upper jaw and one in the lower grow outwards and thus continue growing indefinitely, so that finally the animal is unable to eat at all. 234


as they are there at all, and they grow more during diseases, and when old age advances, and when the body is wasting. This is because old age and diseases mean that less (nourishment) is expended on the supreme parts of the body and therefore more residue is left over ; though when even this begins to fail through age, the hair follows suit. With the bones, the reverse occurs : thev waste away along with the bodv and its parts. Hair actuallv continues to grow after life is extinct, though it vriW not begin growing where it does not already exist.

Teeth may present a puzzle. They possess the Teeth. same nature as the bones and are formed out of the bones ; nails, hair, horns and the Uke, however, are formed out of the skin, and that is why they change their colour along -with the skin : they turn white and black and all shades according to the colour of the skin. The teeth do none of this, because they are formed out of the bones (this applies of course only to such animals as have both teeth and bones). They are unique among bones in that they continue growing all through life, as is clear in the case of teeth which take an oblique direction and fail to conie into contact with each other." The reason for their growth, the purposeyor the sake of which they grow, is to discharge their special function : they would soon be worn down unless the loss were made good in some way,* since even as it is, in some aged animals which eat a great deal but have small teeth, they are quite worn away, because their growth is not proportionate to their loss. And so here too Nature has produced

  • L. & S. translate " unless there were some means of saving them " ; but Scot translates si non rrescerent consumerentur cito nisi esset materia ex qua crescunt.


ARISTOTLE avfi^alvov 7] <f)vcns' avvdyec yap els ro yrjpas /cat Trjv TeXevTTjv rrjv inroXetifjiv rwv oSovrcov. el 8' rjv jjivpterrj? 6 ^ios r] y^iXLeriqs , TrafjufxeyddeLs t av 35 eSei yivGodai, rovs e^ ^PXl^ '^'^^ <f>v€adai TroAAa/cc? ' KOL yap el crvvexfj ttjv av^rjaiv elxov, ofiojs av cixp'^oroL Xeaivopievot irpos ttjv epyaaiav rfaav. ov fiev ovv ev€Ka Xajx^dvovai rrjv av^tjULV, etpr^raf avix^aivei 8e firjSe rrjv avrrjv e^eLV (/)vcn.v rots dXXois oarots rovs oSovrag' rd [xev yap iv rfj 5 TTpwrrj avardaei yiVerat ndvra Kal ovdkv varepov, ol 8' oSoj^re? varepov. hto Kal ndXiv dvvavrat cf>vea6aL eKireaovres' aTrrovrai ydp, aAA' ov avpu7Te(f)VKaat, rot? oarots. e.K fievrot ttjs rpo(f)rjs rrjs els rd Sard SLaStSofievr^s ytvovrat, Sto rrjv avr-^v^ exovai (JivaLV, Kal rore orav cKelva exj) '^'817 tov 10 dpidfiov rov avrdjv. rd pbev ovv dXXa i^cpa exovra ylverai ohovras Kal ro dvdXoyov rols ohovaiv, edv pnq ri ylyvqrai irapd (fyvaiv, hid ro drroXveadai rrjs yeveaeojs rereXeajxeva rov dvdpwTTOV jxaXXov 6 8 dvdpa)7TOS, dv fjirj ri avfi^ij rrapd (j)vaLV, ovk excov. hi Tfv 8' alriav 01 piev yivovrai rcov ohovrcuv Kai 15 €K7TiTTrovaiv, 01 8' OVK eKTTiTTrovaiv, varepov XeXdrjoerai.

AiOTt 8' eK TTepirrwixaros eari ra roiavra rcov pLOplcov, hid rovr dvdpcoTTOS ipiXorarov re Kard ro acopia rcJov ^wcov Trdvrcov iarl Kal ovvx^-s eAa;^;/arovs ex^i (Ls Kard pieyedos' eXdxicrrov ydp ex^i ^ avrrjv Bekker, per typothetae errorem.

" Bk. V, ch. 8. ** i.e., hair, nails, etc.



an excellent device to suit the case, in making the failure of the teeth coincide ^^ith the time of old age and the close of life. If life went on for 10,000 or even 1000 years, the teeth would have had to be quite enormous to begin with, and they would have had to grow afresh many times over ; not even continuous growth would have sufficed to prevent them being ground do'svn and becoming useless for their work. We have now described the purpose for the sake of jvhich the teeth grow. And yet as a matter of fact the teeth do not possess the same nature as the rest of the bones, because the bones, without exception, are all formed during the first stage of the embryo's construction, whereas the teeth are formed later ; and that, too, is why a fresh set of teeth is able to grow after the old ones have fallen out : although they are in touch with the bones, they are not all of a piece ^vith them. Still, they are formed out of the nourishment which is distributed to the bones (which is why they possess the same nature), and at a time when the bones have already attained their full complement. All the animals except man already have their teeth (or the counterpart of teeth) when they are born - unless it be that something unnatural occurs - because when they are released from their process of formation they are more fully perfected than man ; man however when born has no teeth - unless something unnatural occurs. We shall explain later on '^ why some of the teeth are formed and fall out and why some do not fall out.

The reason why man's body is more naked than that of any single one of the other animals, and why he has the smallest nails in proportion to his size, is this. Parts of this sort * are made of residue ; now 237

ARISTOTLE 745 b , -^S " S^ ' ^ «  7re/)(.TTa)/xa yecooe?, eart oe TreptTTOjyLia /xev to 20 (xn^TTTOv, TO 8e yerjpov iv tols aco/xacrt TravTCDt" a7re77TOTaTOv.

riajS" ftev' ow CKaarov avviararai rcov {jLopicov, €LprjTai,, /cat tl Trjs yeviaecos amor.

VII E;;^ei Se tt^v av^rjaiv ra l^woTOKOv/xeva rojv ifi^pvcov, wairep eXej^d-q trporepov, 8ta rT]s rov 6pi(fi(i\ov TTpoacfivaecjos . cTret yap eveariv iv Tots" 25 ^ojot? /cat 9^ dpeTTTLKT] SvvapLig rrjs ipvxTJS, a^iriaLV evdvs olov pil,av rov 6pi(j)aX6v els ttjv varepav. eWi Se o 6fx<j>aX6s ev /ceAu^et ^Ae/Ses", Tot? /uev pLeit^oai TrXeLOVS, olov ^ot Kal rots tolovtois, toIs Se fxeaoLS Svo, pila he toZs ea-)(droLS. Sta Se ro'urov Xapi^dvec rrjv rpoijyrjv alp.aTiK'qv , at yap varepat 30 TTepara (f)Xe^cov ttoXXcov elaiv. ra puev ovv pLrj dpb(f)d)hovTa TTOLvra, /cat rcov dpL(j>a)h6vTa>v ocra>v rj varepa p,r] p,iav <j>Xe^a jJieydXrjv exei- hiareivovaav dXX dvrl pads irvKvas noXXds, ravra iv Tat? varepaig e)(ei rag KaXovp-evas KorvXrjSovas , Trpos a?^ o oficfjaXos avvdrrrei /cat TTpoairecjiVKev dvoreravrai yap at i^Xe^es at Sid tov 6[X(f)aXov evdev /cat evdev /cat a'^iiC^ovraL Trdvrr) Kara rrjv varepav fj Se TTepacvovai, ravrj) yiyvovrai at /coTi;A778di'es"/ TO jLtev rrepi^epeg exovaai^ Trpos rrjv varepav, ro 35 Se kolXov Trpos to efi^pvov. p,era^v Se rrjs varepas 746 a /cat tou ipi^pvov ro )(6pLov /cat ot vpueves etotv. at 1 5s Platt, Ob* : 5 P.

^ vpos as 6 6ix(j)aX6s • • • yiyvovrai ai kotvXt)S6v€s POb*S : cm. vulg. ^ e;(oiiffat Z et corr. P : €x°^^°-s vulg.

« See 740 a 24 ff.

•* Not quite the same as the modern use of the term. Aristotle uses it to mean the pits in the modified wall of the 238


it is unconcocted substance which constitutes residue, and the most unconcocted substance in animals' bodies is the earthy substance, and man has a smaller amount of earthy residue than the other animals.

We have now described how each of the parts takes shape, and what is the cause of their formation.

In viviparous animals, as stated earher," the embryo V'll obtains its growth through the umbilical attachment, t'^n "ft^g Since the nutritive faculty of the Soul, as well as the embryo, others, is present in animals, it immediately sends off the umbilicus, like a root, to the uterus. The lunbilicus consists of blood-vessels in a sheath. In the larger animals, such as the ox and the hke, it contains numerous blood-vessels, in medium-sized animals, two, and in the smallest, one. Through this the embryo gets its nourishment, i.e., blood ; the uterus being the terminus of many blood-vessels. The cotyledons * (as they are called) are present in the uterus (o) of all those animals which have no front teeth in the upper jaw, and (6) of those which have teeth in both jaws and also have a cluster of bloodvessels running right through the uterus instead of a single large one. The umbilicus is connected up to these cotyledons and firmly attached to them ; for the blood-vessels which pass through the umbilicus extend in both directions and branch out all over the uterus, and it is at their terminal p)oints that the cotyledons are formed. Their convex side is towards the uterus, their hollow side towards the embryo. Between the uterus and the embryo are the chorion and the membranes. As the embryo grows and uterus into which the villi of the outer membrane of the embryo fit. For the meaning attached to the term by Diocles, see Welbiiann, reference in note on 746 a 19 below.


746 a

ARISTOTLE 8e KOTvXr]S6v€s av^avo[ji€vov Kal reXeovfjievov rod ijji^pvov yivovrai iXdrrovs, /cat tcAo? d(f)avi^ovTac reXecoOevros. els tovto yap TTpoeKrWeTai rols i/ji^pvoLS Tj (f>vaLS TTjV alpLaTLKrjv rpocjy'qv rrjs varipas cjOTTep els fxaarovs, /cat Sta to a.dpoLt,e5 aQai Kara} puKpov e/c TroAAoiv olov e^dvdrjp^a /cat (fyXeypLaaia yiverat to acopca to ttjs KorvXrjhovos . ecus p-ev dv ovv eXarrov fj ro ep^^pvov, ov Svvdpevov TToXArjv Xap,^dv€LV rpocjyrjv, SrjXat clai /cat /xet'^ores", av^fjdevros Se avpLTTLTTTOVOLV.

To. 8e TToAAa Twv koXo^cov t,a>iov /cat dp,(f)a)B6vTCov 10 ovK e^ei. KorvXrjhovas^ iv raXs varrepats, aAA' o 6pL(f)aX6s els (j>Xe^a TetVet pbiav, avrr] Se rerarat 8ta TTJs varepas exovaa p,eyedos. CTrel 8e rd p.ev pLovoroKa rd he TToXvroKa ribv toiovtojv earl t,(x)wv, Kal rd TrXeioi tcov epi^pvcov tov avrov e)(eL rpoirov TO) evi. 8et 8e ravra decopetv e/c re rcov 15 TTapaheLyp.dra)v tcov iv rats dvarop,als /cat tcov ev Tat? laroplais yeypap.pLevcov. ire^vKacTL ydp rd t,ipa e/c rod op(f)aXov, 6 8' 6p,cf)aX6s e/c rrjs (f)Xe^6s, ecfje^-qs aAArjAot?, waTrepavel Trap* oxerdv rrjv (fiXe^a peovaav irepl Se eKaarov rcov ep-^pvaiv ot 6 V peeves /cat rd ^ppiov eanv.

Ot Se Aeyoi^Te? rpe(f)eadaL rd TratSta ev rats 20 varepats Sta rov aapKihiov Tt ^SaXXetv ovk opdios ^ Kara P : Kal Kara vulg. ^ KOTvX7]S6vas P : KOTvXrj86va vulg.

" Here seems to mean " hornless." Aetius ascribes a similar theory to Democritus and Epicurus (Aet. 5. 16 ; see Diels, Vorsokr.^ 68 A 144) ; Censorinus {De die natali 6. 3; Diels 38 A 17) to Diogenes and Hippocrates. Cf. Hippocrates, it. oapKcov 6 (viii. 592 240


approaches its completion the cotyledons become smaller, and finally when it is completed they disappear. Nature lays in a store of the blood-like nourishment for the embryos in this part of the uterus, as it were into breasts, and the body of the cotyledon becomes as it were an eruption or an inflammation owing to the fact that the numerous cotyledons gradually get compacted together. While the embryo is fairly small, and unable to take much nourishment, they are large and plainly visible, but when it has grown they shrink up.

The great majority of the " stunted " " animals, and of those that have front teeth in both jaws, have no cotyledons in their uterus, but the umbilicus extends to meet a single blood-vessel, which is a large one and extends throughout the uterus. Some of these animals produce one at a birth, others several ; but what occurs when there is only one embryo occurs also when- there are more. All this should be studied ^\â– ith the help of the illustrative diagrams given in the Dissections and Researches. The embryos are attached each to its umbihcus, and the umbilicus is attached to the blood-vessel : they are arranged one after the other along the stream of the bloodvessel as it might be along a runnel in the garden ; and there are membranes and a chorion around each embryo.

Those people ^ who say that children are nourished in the uterus by means of sucking a bit of flesh are Littre). Tha view that the embryo sucked the " cotyledons " was held by Diocles of Carystus (Wellmann, Fraginentsammlung der sikellschen Arzte, Diocles fr. 37, 10 ff.) ; and according to Jaeger (Diokles von Karystos, 166), Aristotle's detailed treatment of the subject o'f cotyledons here is due to the fact that Diocles was associated with him in the Lyceum.


ARISTOTLE 746 a , , , ^ Aeyovaiv €7tl re yap rcov aAAojv C,cpojv ravrov avve^aivev dv, vvv 8' ov ^atVerai {decopijaai yap TOVTo paSiov Sta rcov dvaTOfXcJjv)- /cat nepl dnavTa TO. ejjL^pva Kal rd inrjvd /cat rd irXcord kol rd rcov TTe^cov ofiOLOis XeTrrol TrepLe)(ovaLv u^eVe? X^~ 25 pLL,ovres diro re^ ri]? varepas /cat rcov eyyivopievcov vypojv, ev ot? ovr^ avrolg eveari roiovrov ovdev, ovre Sta rovrojv ovdevos ivhex^rai TTOLeladai rr^v aTToXavatv rd 8' (poroKovfieva Trdvra on Xapu^dvei rrjv av^rjcnv xcopiadevra rrjs pnqrpa? ^i^j, (jiavepov.

Tiverai Se o avvhvaapios rols ^coois Kard cJjvglv 30 fJi€v roLS o/jLoyeveoLV, ov pirjv dXXd /cat rots' jLtev avveyyvs^ rrjv (f)vaLv exovaiv, ovk dStat^opot? 8e rw eiSet, idv rd re fieyedrj TvapaTrXiqata fj /cat ot Xpovoi tact cucrt rijs Kvrjaeojs. cnrdvia juev odv yiverai rd roiavra eirl rdJv dXXcDv, yiverai 8e /cat errl Kvvibv /cat dXoiTTeKCJV /cat Xvkchv {/cat dcocovy' 35 /cat ot 'IrSt/cot 8e Kvves e/c drjpiov rtvos" /cuvajSou? 746 b yet'i'ait'Tat /cat /ci/vd?. /cat eTTt tcDv opvidcov he. rdJv ox^vrLKcov (Lrrrai rovro avfJi^alvov, otov errl rrepSiKcov /cat dAe/CTO/3t8ajv /cat rdJv yapupcDvux^^v ol lepaKes SoKOvaiv at hLa(j>epovres rat etSet pbiyvvadai 77/30? dXXriXovs' /cat eV dAAoji/ Se Ttvojv 5 opvecov e^ei rov avrov rpoirov. errl 8e roiv daXarricov ovdev d^ioXoyov ecoparat, hoKovai Se judAtara " ^ T6 P : om. vulg. ^ aweyyv? SZ* : iyyvs vulg.

=• Btf. ; vid. p. 563.

o C/. H.A. 607 a 4 ff. " they say too that the ' Indian dog ' is the offspring of a tiger and a bitch ; not the first cross, but the offspring at the third generation." There seems to 242


mistaken. If this were true, the same would occur in the other animals, but it is not found to do so, as can be easily observed by means of dissections. Also, all embryos alike, whether they be of animals that fly or swim or walk, have round them fine membranes which separate them from the uterus and from the fluids which are formed there ; and there is nothing of the sort in these membranes nor can the embryos get the benefit of anything whatever through them. As for embryos that are produced by means of eggs, it is of course obvious that in all cases their growth takes place outside the uterus, after they have been separated from it.

The partners in copulation are naturally and ordi- Hybrids, narily animals of the same kind ; but beside that, ®*'^' animals that are closely allied in their nature, and are ryot very different in species, copulate, if they are comparable in size and if their periods of gestation are equal in length. Although such crossing is infrequent among the majority of animals, it occurs among dogs, foxes, wolves (and jackal';) : the Indian dog " also is produced from the union of a dog ^^^th some \\i\6. doghke beast. It has also been observed to occur among those birds that are salacious, e.g., partridges and common fowls. A case among the crook-taloned birds is that of the hawks, different species of which copulate, as it appears ; and the same occurs among certain other birds. We have no trustworthy observation of its occurrence among sea-animals ; but there is a strong suspicion that the rhinobates as it is called is produced by the copu be no general agreement as to what this animal was ; see Platt's note, C.Q. Ill (1909), 241 S. Cf. too the " Laconian hound," 738 b 31.


746 b

ARISTOTLE OL pivo^draL KoXovjxevoi yiveadai e/c pivrfs /cat Pdrov avvhvat,oyLeva>v. Xeyerai Se /cat to irepl rviS Al^vtj^ 7TapoLfjiLat,6fi€vov, <bs del rt rrjs Al^vtjs Tpecfiovarjg Kaivov, 8td to fxiyvvadat Kal 10 ra fiTj 6fjL6(f)vXa dXX-qXoLS Xe'xdrjvai tovto- Sta yap TTjv OTTavtv tov vSaTOS aTTavTcovTa TtdvTa Trpos oAtyous' TOTTovs Tovs e)(ovTas vdpLaTa fjiiyvvadai /cat ra jjltj ojjioyevrj.

Ta fjitv ovv dXXa tcov e/c rotauTTj? jjiL^ecos yivofMevcov avyhva^ofjieva ^atVerat TrdXtv dXX-^Xoi? Kal IXLyvvjxeva Kal Svvdfieva to t€ drjXv Kal to dppev 15 yewdv, ol 8' opels dyovoi p.6voi tcov tolovtcov ovt€ yap 6^ dXXiqXojv ovt^ a'AAoi? pnyvvixevoi yevvwaiv. koTi 8e TO TTp6^Xr)jj,a KaOoXov /xeV, 8ta rtV atrtav dyovov Tj dppev rj drjXv ioTLV elal yap Kal yvvaiKes KO.L dvhpes dyovoL, Kal tcov dXXcov ^cocov iv tols yevecrtv e/caaTot?, olov ev lttttols /cat Trpo^aTOis.

20 dAAo, TOVTO TO yevos oXov dyovov ecrrt, to tcov TjpLovwv. Ta 8' aiTJa ttjs dyovcag ijrl fjiev tcov dXXcov TrXeico avp^^aivef /cat yap €K yeveTijs, oTav 7n]pa>da)aL tovs tottovs tovs Trpos ttjv p-i^LV -^prjoip-ovs, dyovoL yivovTai /cat yvvaiKes /cat dvhpes, ojoTC Tas p-kv py] rj^dv tovs Be p,rj yeveidv, dXX 25 evvov)(tas BiaTeXeXv ovTas' toZs Be Trpo'Covcrqs ttjs TjXiKLOs TavTov CTf/LtjSatVet Trdax^i'V, ore piev 8t' evTpo(f)iav tcov acopLdTCOv (rats' p^ev yap TnoTepais « The batos is a flat-fish {P. A. 695 b 27, 696 a 26), called by Thompson (translation of H.A. 566 a 27) the " skate," by Platt, a " ray." The rhine is called by Thompson the " angelfish " (note on H.A. 540 b 11), by Platt, a '-'shark." At H.A. 566 a 27 if. Aristotle again refers to the rhinobates as a cross between these two fishes, and says that it has the head and foreparts of the batos and the hindparts of the rhine.



lation of the rhine and the haios." Also, the origin of the proverb about Libya, to the effect that " Libya is always bringing forth something new," * In said to be that there animals of different species unite, since owing to the fact that as there is very little water they all meet together at the few places where springs are to be found, and so animals of different species unite.

It is kno\\Ti that with one exception all the animals which are produced as a result of such unions copulate with each other and unite in their turn and are able to produce young of both sexes. Mules are the one exception. They are sterile and do nqt generate either by union with each other or with other animals. It is, of course, a general problem why any particular male or female is sterile : there are men and women who are sterile, and there are instances in the several kinds of animals, e.g., horses and sheep. But with the mules we have a whole race which is sterile. Lea\ing this exception for the moment : elsewhere the causes of steriUty are numerous, (a) Men and women alike are sterile from birth if they are deformed in the regions employed for copulation ; as a result, the men do not grow a beard but remain as eunuchs, while the women do not reach pubertv' ; (6) others become sterile as they advance in age, sometimes (i) because they have put on too much flesh : in men Platt thinks the rhinobates is the angel-fish ; Thompson offers the opinion that it is " probably the modern genus Khinohatus " ; Platt says " it certainly did not belong to the modern genns of that name."

  • For this proverb and its explanation, <•/. the similar passage H.A. 606 b 19 if. Platt suggests that a mutilated passage in Hippocrates, tt. aepojv vSarcov tottcov 12 Jin., contained a statement on this subject.



746 b

yLvofxevaig rols 8' eveKTiKwrepoLs etV to acJoixa KaravaXtaKeTaL to TTepvTroi^a to anepfjiaTLKov, Kai TOLS fJiev ov yiveTai /cara/Ltr^via rot? 8e 701^17), 6t€ 30 Se §ta voaov ol [xev vypov Kal iltv^pov Trpotevrai, rat? Se yvvai^lv ai Kadapaeig (f}avXat Kal TrXiqpeLS voarjixaTLKcbv TTepLTTOJjJiaTOJV. ttoXXols Se Kal ttoXXais Kal 8ta TrripiopuaTa tovto avpL^alvei to Trddog TTCpl TO, /LtOpta Kal Toils' TOTTOVS TOVS 776/01 TI7I' ofiiXiav -x^priaiixov's. yiveTai he to. fiev taro. to. 8' dviara tcDj^ tolovtcov, /xaAicrTa' Se 8iaTeAoi'CT(.j^ 35 dyova {ray /cara tt)]^ TrpcoTrjv avoTaaiv TotavTa 747 a yevofxeva' yivovTai yap yvvacKe^ re appevojirol Kal avhpes drjXvKOL, Kat Tals [xev ov yiveTai tol arara fX'qvLa, TOtS" 8e to onepfxa Xctttov Kal ipv)(p6v.

hioTTep evXoyojs ^aaavt^eTai Tals Treipais to ye TUiV dv8pa)v, el dyovov, ev toj iJ8aTf Ta)(v yap 5 Sta^eiTaL to XerrTov Kal tfjv)(p6v eTTtTToXrjs , to 8e ' yovifxov els ^vOov y^copel' deppbov p,ev yap to ne TTepLfievov eoTL, TreTreTTTat 8e to uvveuTr]K6s Kal TTOL^os ^X^^- '^^^ ^^ yvvatKas ^aGavLt,ovai tols t€ TTpoaOeTois, edv BuKvwvTai at oa/xai Trpos to TTvevpia TO dvpa^e KaTCoOev dvoi, Kal tols eyxpi 10 CTTotS' els Tovs 6(f>daXpLovs ;\;p6L»/LiaCTiv, dv ;i^pa;jLtaTt^cuat TO ev TCp OTop-aTi VTveXov. TavTa yap ov avjjL^alvovTa StjXol to adjp^a tovs vopovs 8t' cLv (XTTOKpiveTai TO TrepLTTCxjpba avyKe)(vp.evovs e^etv Kal avpLTTe^VKOTas . o Te yap Trepi tovs 6(f)6aXp.ovs TOTTOS tG)V Ttepl Tr]v K€(f}aXr]v aneppiaTLKcoTaTOS ^ TO. supplevi : post avaramv P.

" And therefore might be expected to rise. 246



who are too well fed and in women who are too fat the seminal residue is used up for the benefit of the bodily system, so that no semen is formed in the men and no menstrual discharge in the women ; sometimes (ii) because of disease ; the semen which the men emit is fluid and cold, and the discharges of the women are poor and full of morbid residues. But in very many cases, in both sexes, this drawback is due to deformities in the parts and regions employed for intercourse. Some of these deformities are curable, some are not ; those, howev^er, who have become deformed during the original constitution of the embryo, have a special tendency to remain infertile throughout ; thus, mascuUne-looking women are produced in whom- the menstrual discharges do not occur, and effeminate men whose semen is thin and cold. On this account the water-test is quite a fair one for infertiUty in the male semen, because the thin, cold semen quicklv diffuses itself on the surface, whereas the fertile semen sinks to the bottom ; for though it is true that a substance which has been concocted is hot," yet that which has been set and compacted and possesses thickness ** has certainly undergone concoction. Women are tested (a) by means of pessaries : the test is whether the scent of the pessary penetrates upwards from below to the 1 .reath which is exhaled from the mouth ; (6) by means of colours rubbed on to the eyes, the test being v.hether they colom- the sahva. If the required result is not forthcoming, it is proved that the passages of the body through which the residue is secreted have got obstructed and have closed up, for of all the regions in the head the eyes are the most seminal,

  • As is shown by its sinking. Cf. 765 b 2.


ARISTOTLE 747 a 15 iariv. dr)Xol 8' eV^ rals ojLitAiats" /Lterao-^^T^/xaTC^o fxevos iTTiSjjXcos fiovo?, /cat toIs ;)(/ooj;ueVot? TrXeio atv a^pohiaioig evhihoaui to. OjU/xara ^o.vepojs.

aiTLov S oTt T^ TTJ? yoj^? ^vci? ofjLOLCog e;)(ei tt^ Tou eyKecfxiXov vSanoSr]^ yap ianv rj vXt] avTTJs, -q 8e depfiorrjs €7tlkt7]tos. Kal at aTrepfiariKal 20 Kaddpaets diTO rov UTro^co/xaTO? eloiv, r) yap dpx'rj ttJ? (f)vaews ivrev6ev, cuare SuKveladac rrpos rov dcopaKa TttS" Kivijaeig oltto tojv dpdpwv at 8' e/c Tou da)paKos oajxal iroiovaiv alaOrjOiv 8td ttj? dvaTTVo-fys".

Ev /xev ow roLS dvdpojTTOLS Kal rot? dAAot? yeveatv, waTrep e'CprjTai, irporepov, Kara fiepog rj VIII 25 roiavrrj cry/xjSatVet TTijpcoais, ro 8e rwi' rjixtovcov yevo'S oXov dyovov eariv. nepl 8e t-^? atrta?, cos" //.ef AeyouCTiv 'Eju,7re8o/cA7]S" /cat ArifioKpiros, Xeycov 6 fX€V ov aa<f)(i)S, ArjfxoKpLros 8e yvcopipicos puoXXov, ov KaXcos elpiqKaaiv. Xeyovai yap eVt Trdvrcov d/xota)? rrjv aTToSec^LV rojv rrapd rrju avyyei'€iav 30 crvvSvat,oiJL€va}v . ArjpLOKpiTos /xev ydp (f)r)at Ste(f)ddpdai. rov? rropovs^ rcov rjfiLovcov iv rals voripais 8td ro p,rj €k avyyevcov yiveadai rrjv dpxrjv rajv t^cpcov. avpL^acvet, 8' e0' irepojv t,(x)Ciiv rovro jxev VTrdpx^i'V, y€vvdv 8e jxrjSev rJTTOV KairoL XPW> e'iTrep atriov rovr' rjv, dyova Kal toAA' ett-at ret jjiiyvvfieva rov rpoirov rovrov. 'EjUTreSo/cA-f^S' 8 35 alridrai ro /xty/xa ro rcov (TTTepp-drcov yiveadai 747 b TTVKVov €K jJiaXaKrjg rijs yovfjs ova'qs eKarepas' avvappLorreiv ydp rd KoZXa rots ttvkvoZs dAAT^Aoir, ^ eV P : eV jMiv viilg. * oTropovs YZ.

" Cf. Plato, Timcteus 91 a, b.



as is proved by the fact that this is the only region which unmistakably changes its appearance during sexual intercourse, and those who overfrequently indulge in it have noticeably sunken eyes. The reason is that the nature of the semen is similar to that of the brain " ; its matter is watery whereas its heat is a mere supplementary acquisition.* Also the seminal discharges come from the diaphragm, because the first principle of the natural organism is there, '^ so that the movements initiated in the genital organs penetrate to the chest, and the scents from the chest become perceptible through the breathing.

As I said earlier, this particular deformity occurs Mules, in man and in the other kinds of animals to some extent, but \\ith mules it is the whole race that is VIII infertile. What Empedocles has to say about the reason for this is obscure ; Democritus is more intelligible ; but they are both wrong. They give one omnibus explanation, covering all cases of copulation between animals of different kinds. Democritus '^ says that in mules the genital passages are destroyed in the uterus, because the formation of these animals has its origin in parents of different species. But we find this same situation with other animals, and yet they generate notwithstanding ; whereas, if Democritus's explanation was right, all other animals which unite in this way ought to be infertile too. The cause alleged by Empedocles is this : He says « the mixture of the seeds becomes dense as a result of the tno component portions of semen being both soft ; because, the hollows of one ft into the densities of the other, and in » See Introd. § 69. ' See 719 a U.

See Diels, Vorsokr.'^ 68 A 151.

â– = Diels, Vorsokr.^ 31 B 9:2 ; c/. 91 ; and 31 A 82.


747 b

ARISTOTLE e/c Se rcbv roiovrcov yiveadai e/c jxaXaKcov aKXrjpov, (Larrep rco Karrnepco /xip^^evra rov â– )(aXK6vy Xeycov ovr* inl rov ^(aXKov /cat rod KarTtrepov ttjv airiav 5 opdaJs {etprjrai S' ev tols tt po^Xripiaai Trepl aurcSv) ovB* oX(x)s €K yvcopifJLCov TTOLovixevos rag ap^o-S. ra yap KolXa /cat to, arepea dpfJiOTTOvra aAAi7Aots' ttojs TTOiet rrjv fxl^iv olov o'lvov /cat vSaros; rovro yap VTrep rjfjids iarl to Xeyopbevov ttojs yap Set Xa^elv 10 TO. KotAa Tov OLVOV /cat Tov vSaros, Ai'av eart rrapa rrjv aiaoiqaLV. en o eTreiorj cru/xpatvet /cat eg tTTTTcov- yiveadai lttttov Kal i^ ovcov ovov /cat e^ LTTTTOV /cat ovov rjpiiovov, apb(f)OT€pu}s dppevos /cat ^i^Aeog oTTorepovovv ovros, Sid ri e/c ^ev rovrcov yiverai ttvkvov ovtojs ojot' dyovov etvat ro yevo[xevov, e/c 8' lttttov O'qXeog /cat dppevos rj ovov 15 driXeos Kal dppevog ov yiverai dyovov ; /catVot fxaXaKov Kal to tov dppevos lttttov earl /cat to Tov 6-qXeos, piLyvvTaL 8e /cat o drjXvs lttttos Kal 6 dpprjv TO) ovcp, Kal tco dppevL Kal to) drjXei. /cat 8ta TOVTO yivovTaL dyova e^ dpi(/)OTepivv, d)s (f>r]<yLV, OTL e^ d{X(f)OLV ev tl ytVerat {ttu/cvov)/ /xaAa/ccDr 20 ovTOJV Tcov aTTeppbaTCOV . eSet ow /cat to e^ tTTTToy dppevos Kal BrjXeos yLvopbevov. el /xev yap ddrepov epiyvvTO [jlovov, evrjv dv Xeyeiv otl darepov atVtov TOV p.rj yevvdv dvopoLov ov^ Tjj tov ovov yovfj- vvv 8 otarrep ovarj eKeLvrj pilyvvTaL, TOLavTrj Kal tjj tov ^ TTVKVOV supplevi {ttvkvov Tl pro ev rt Platt) : on . . . anep/iciTcov om. S.

^ dvofjLoiov ov Platt {non assimilatur S) : ofxotov vulg. : ofioiov ov P {yevvav rj/xiovov coniecerunt A.-W.).



such circumstances tiro softs give rise to one hard, just as bronze mixed with tin does. In the first place, he has got the reason wTong in the case of bronze and tin (see what I have ^%â– ritten about this in the Problems),'^ and further, to put the objection generally, the principles from which he starts his argument are not intelhgible. How do the hollows and soUds by " fitting on to one another " produce " the mixture as of wine and water " ? This saying of his is over our heads ; it is quite beyond our perception what we are to understand by the " hollows " of wine and water. Further, in point of fact, a horse is the offspring of two horses, an ass of two asses, a mule of a horse and an ass - i.e., its sire is a horse and its dam an ass or vice versa, ^^^ly is it then that a horse and an ass produce something so " dense " that the offspring formed is infertile, whereas the offspring resulting from a male and female horse or from a male and female ass is not infertile ? After all, the secretion of both the male and of the female horse is " soft," and both sexes of the horse unite ^\"ith asses of the opposite sex. The reason why in both these cases the offspring produced is infertile, according to Empedocles, is because the one product of the two soft " seeds " is something (" dense ">. But then so it ought to be when the two seeds originate from two horses. If only one sex of the horse united with the ass, it would be open to Empedocles to say that the cause of the mule's infertihty was the dissimilarity ^of that one sex to the semen of the ass. In fact, however, there is no difference in quality between the seed of the ass Mith which it unites (to form a mule) " No such reference can be found. » Cf. Anal. Post. 100 b 9.


ARISTOTLE (Tvyyevovs. eVt 8' 77 [lev oLTToSei^is /car' d^(f)OT€po}v eiprjTai ofiolcos /cat* rov drjXeos /cat rov dppevos, 25 yep'va 8' o apprjv eTrrairy]? cov ■qpLiovos, o)S (f>aaLV' aAA 1^ drjXeta ayovos oXcos,^ /cat auTT^ roi /xt^ e/cTpe(f)e.iv el? reXog, eVet •^'Sr^ Kvrjfxa ecrx^v rjjXLOVog.

"lacos 8e /xaAAov av Sol'eiev OLTToSeL^is etvai TTidavrj rcbv elprjfievcDv XoyiK'q. Xeyco 8e XoyiKrjv 8ta TovTO, on oato KadoXov fxaXXov, TToppcoTepoj 30 Ta)v OLKeicov iarlv ap-)(cov. can Se TOLavrr) tls. el yap i^ o/Lto€t8a)v appevos /cat d'qXeos o/xoet8es' yiveaOai 7Te(f>VK€ tols yevriqaaaiv appev ^ OrjXv, otov e/c Kvvos appevog /cat d-qXeos kvcov dpprjv iq drjiXeia, /cat e^ erepcov rw et'Set erepov ro) etSet, otov el Kvojv erepov Xeovros, /cat e/c kvvos appevos 35 /cat AeovTO? d-qXeos erepov /cat e/c Xeovros dppevos Kttt /cm'o? dy]Xeos erepov coar iTTeiSr) ylverai •qpLLOvos dpprjv /cat drjXvs aStac^opoi oVre?* to) et'Set aAArjAots", ylverai 8' e^ lttttov Kal ovov rjpilovos, erepa 8' ecrrt rw et8et ravra /cat ot rj/jLLOvoi, dSvvarov yeveadai e^ 'qptovcov erepov yap yevos 5 ovy^ olov re 8ta ro e^ dppevos /cat diqXeos rdJv ofioeiScov ravro ylveodai ra> et8ei, rjp.iovos 8' on ^ Kal am. P, A.-W. : o/xot'wj hie om. A.-W., qui post dppevos inserunt, secuti cod. P, qui ibi ojxoiws iterum, sed opQcJs SYZ.

^ -quiovos Pc(;k : pLovos vulg. : Platt omisso (cum S) /xovos scribit mox 6-^Xeta <.pi6vrf>.


  • correxi : dSta^o/jcov ovtojv vulg.

" They are both " soft," according to Empedocles. 252


and the seed of an animal of its own species." Further, Empedocles applies his argument equally to the male and the female. . But, people say, the male mule does generate at the age of seven years ; it is the female which is totally infertile and that is simply because she fails to bring the nourishing of the fetation to its completion (as instances of fetations in mules have been known to occur).

Still, perhaps an abstract argument might be considered more con\incing than those which we have already mentioned. I call it an abstract one, because in so far as it is a more general argument it is further removed from those principles which belong to this particular subject. It goes somewhat hke this. In the normal course of nature the offspring which a male and a female of the same species produce is a male or female of that same species - for instance, the offspring of a male dog and a female dog is a male dog or a female dog. Two animals which differ in species produce offspring which differs in species ; for instance, a dog differs in species from a hon, and the offspring of a male dog and a female hon is different in species ; so is the offspring of a male lion and a female dog. This being so, it follows that as both male and female mules are produced, which of course do not differ in species, and as a mule is the offspring produced by a horse and an ass, both of which are different in species from the mule, it is impossible for any offspring to be produced by mules ; the reason being : (a) no offspring of a different species can be produced by them, because the offspring of two animals male and female of the same species belongs itself to that species, nor (6) can a mule be produced, because that is the offspring of a horse and an 253

748 a

ARISTOTLE eg LTTTTOV Kol ovov yiv^Tai irepcDV ovtcdv tw etSet [e/c 8e Ta)v irepcov rco etSet erepov ireO-q yiveadaL t,ipov^} ovTOS pikv ovv 6 \6yos KadoXov Xiav koL Kevos. oi yap jjurj €k rciJv olKcioiv dpxo^v Xoyoi Kevot, aAAa Sokovglv elvat rcov Trpayfidrcov ovk 10 ovres. OL yap e/c rwv dpxcov twv yewixerpiKtov yecofjieTpLKOL, ofioiwg Se Kal etrl rcov dXXcov to Se K€v6v 8oK€L fji€v clvai TL, eoTL 8' ovdev . OVK dXrjdeg Se, on TToXXd rcov fXT) (_e^y ofJLoeiSdJv yevo/xevcov ytverai yovipia, Kaddrrep eXe-)(drj rrporepov. rovrov fxev ovv rov rpoTTOv ovre irepl rchv dXXcov Set l^rjreLV 15 ovre rrepc rdjv ^vaiKcJbv e/c Se rcx)v vnap^ovrcov rco yevei rco rwv lttttcov Kal rco rcov ovcov decopcov dv ris fidXXov Xd^oL rrjv alrlav, on Trpcorov jxev eKarepov avrwv ean piovoroKov eK rcov avyyevcov ^cpcov, eVeir' ov avXXrjTmKa rd dr]Xea eK rwv appevcov del, hiorrep rovs Xttttovs hiaXeifrovres 20 o)(evovai [Sto. ro pbrj BvvaaOaL avvex<^S cfjepeiv].^ aAA' Tj fiev 177770? ov KarapirjVLcoSrjs , dAA' eXd^iarov TTpoterai rcov rerpaTTohcov rj S' ovog ov Several r-qv ox^eiav, aAA' e^ovpeZ rov yovov, Sio piaanyovatv dKoXovdovvreg . en Se ipv^pov ro ^cpov [6 oVos"]* eoTt, SiOTTep ev rols ;^ei/Lte/)ivors" ov BeXei ytveadai 25 roTTOis Sto. ro hvapiyov elvac rrjv (f>vaLV, olov irepi ^Kvdas Kal rrjv opcopov ^copav, ovSe rrepl KeArous' rovs VTTep rrjs 'I^r^pta?- ijjvxpd yap Kal avrr] rj 1 e*c Se . . . luiov vulg. : eicit Platt.

  • e^ supplevi. * seclusit Platt : habet vulg., 2.

  • seclusit Rtf.

« Cf. H.J. 577 a 23. 254


ass, two animals which differ in species [and it was laid dawn that an animal of a different species is produced by two animals that differ in species]. Now this argument is too general ; there is nothing in it J because there is nothing in any argument which does not start from the first principles belonging to the particular subject. Such arguments may appear to be relevant, but in fact they are not. For a geometrical argument, you must start from geometrical principles, and the same applies elsewhere ; that which is empty, which has nothing in it, may appear to be somewhat but in fact is nothing at all. But also, this argument is false, because many of the animals that are produced from parents of differing species are fertile, as I have said earher. No ; this method of inquiry is as wrong in natural science as it is elsewhere. We shall be more Hkely to discover the reason we are looking for if we consider the actual facts with regard to the two species, horse and ass. First, then, both horse and ass, when mated with their own kind, produce only one at a birth ; secondly, the females do not on every occasion conceive when covered by the male, and that is why breeders after an interval put the horse to the mare again [because the mare cannot bear it continuously]. Mares do not produce a large amount of menstrual discharge ; indeed they discharge less than any other quadruped ; she-asses too do not admit the impregnation, but pass the semen out with their urine ; and that is why people follow behind, flogging them." Further, the animal is a cold subject ; and as it is by nature so sensitive to cold, it is not readily produced in wintry regions, such as Scythia and the neighbouring parts, or the Keltic country beyond Iberia, which is also a 255


748 a

Xtjopa. Sea Tavr7]v Se rrjv alriav koI ra 6)(€La evL^aXXovcn roXs ovols ovx ojCTTrep rolg trrTrois /car' LGiq^epiav, dAAa rrepl rporra? depivd^, ottojs iv 30 aXeetvfj yLvrjrai cjpa ra TTCoXia {iv rfj avrfj yap yiverai iv rj av ox^vdfj- ivtavrov yap kv€l /cat LTTTTOS /cat ovos). ovTos S' waTTcp eiprirai ifjvxpov TTjv (j>v<jLV, Kal TTjv yovrjv dvayKaiov etvai rod roiovTov ijjvxpdv. {arjpLelov Se rovrov Sta tovto yap, eav jxev Ittttos dva^fj iirl cj-x^ev p.ivr]v vtto ovov, ov hia^deipei rrjv rod ovov 6)(^eiav, 6 8' ovos 35 eav eTrava^ij, SuacfiOetpei, rrjv rod Ittttov Std 748 b tpvxpdrrjTa rrjv rod aTrippiaros.) orav fiev ovv dXX-qXois pLLX^ajcTL, aco^erai Std rrjv daripov deppLorrjra, deppuorepov yap ro dno rod Ittttov dTTOKpLvofievov Tj fjiev yap rod ovov ipvxpd /cat rj vXr] /cat rj yovrj, rj Se rod Ittttov deppLoripa. orav Se 5 l-it-X^fj y) depfiov eVt i/jvxpov 'q tpvxpov eVt deppiov, avpL^atv€L avro fiiv ro iK rovrojv Kvrjpua yevopuevov^ acu^eadaL /cat raur' e^ dXXijXojv etvai y6vip,a, ro S' e/c rovrcov pirjKerL yovipLOv dXX dyovov els reXeioyoviav.

OXojs o VTTapxovrog eKarepov €V(/)Vods TTpos ayoviav, rep re yap ovco VTrdpxei ra dXXa ra elprj 10 pidva, /cat idv p.rj pLerd rov ^oXov rov Trpwrov dp^iqraL yevvdv, ovKert yewd ro Trapdnav ovrtos irrl^ piiKpod e^erat rod^ dyovov etvai ro acopia rdjv ovcov. opLoiois Se /cat d Ittttos' ev(f>vr]s ydp TTpos ^ yfv- PSYZ* : yiv- vulg. ^ em om. Z. ^ rov P, Platt : to vulg.

" i.e., a mare ; cf. H.A. 577 a 13, 28. * According to H.A. 577 a 18, this happens at the age of 2i years ; see also 545 b 20.



cold quarter. For this reason they do not put the jackasses to the females at the equinox, as is done with horses, but at the time of the. summer solstice, so that the asses' foals may be bom when the weather is warm. (Since the period of gestation in both horse and ass is a year, the young are born at the same season as that when impregnation takes place.) As has been said, the ass is by nature cold ; and a cold animal's semen is, of necessity, cold like itself. (Here is a proof of it. If a horse mounts a female " which has been impregnated by an ass, he does not destroy the ass's impregnation ; but if an ass mounts her after a horse has done so, he does destroy the horse's impregnation - because of the coldness of his own semen.) Thus when they unite \\'ith each other, the impregnation remains intact by reason of the heat resident in one of the two, \iz., that of the horse, whose secretion is the hotter. Both the semen from the male and the matter supplied by the female are hotter in the case of the horse ; with the ass, both are cold. So when they unite - either the hot one added to the cold, or the cold added to the hot - the result is (a) that the fetation which is formed by them continues intact, i.e., these two animals are fertile when crossed with each other, but (b) the animal formed by them is not itself fertile, and cannot produce perfect offspring.

Besides, both horse and ass have a general natural disposition to be infertile. I have already mentioned several points about the ass, and another is that unless it begins to generate after the first shedding of teeth, ** it never generates at all ; so close does the ass come to being infertile. It is the same >\ith the horse ; it is naturally disposed to be infertile ; all K 257

748 b

ARISTOTLE rT]v ayoviav, Koi toctovtov AeiVei rov ayovo^ elvai oaov TO yeveadai ro Ik tovtov i/jv)(p6r€pov rovro 0€ yiverai, orav {^tx^T] '^fi "^^^ ovov cLTTOKpiaei. kol 15 o ovos Se (LaavTcos fiiKpov Seiv Kara rov oiKeZov (TvvBvaaflov dyovov yevwa, ajare oTav Trpoayivrirai TO TTapa (f)vaiv, el rare ivos pioXis yewrjTLKov i^ (xAAtjAcdv ■^v, to €K rovTCov €Ti jLiaAAov ayovov /cat TTapa (f)vaLv ovdevos heijaei rov dyovov elvai, dAA' e^ dvdyKTjs ear ai dyovov.

20 Hvfi^atveL Se /cat to, crctj/Ltara to, rcov rjfiiovcov jxeydXa yiveadat hid ro rrjv dTTOKpiaiv rrjv els rd Karafii^via rpeneadat els rrjv av^rjoiv. eTrel S' evtavcrto? o roKeros rcov roiovrcov, ov pLovov avXXa^elv Set rrjv -qp-lovov dXXd /cat eKdpexpai' rovro S dhvvarov p,r] yivopievcov Karap,rjviojv. rats S' 25 rip.Lovoi's ov ytverai, dXXd ro piev dxp^jctrov pierd rov TTepirrcjpiaros rov e/c rr^s Kvareojg eKKpiverai [hiorrep ovhe rcov dpOpatv ol r^piiovoi ol dppeves 6a(f)paLvovraL rwv drjXeLcbv, coairep rdXXa rd picovv)(0-, dAA' avrov rov TrepirrcopLaros) , rd S' dAAa rpeTTerai els rrjv rov awpLaros^ av^rjaiv /cat to pieyedos. ware avXXa^elv piev evSex^ral TTore rrjv 30 ^T^Aetav, oTTep -rjSrj (f)aiverai yeyovos, iKdpeijjai he /cat e^eveyKelv els reXos dSwaTov. o 8' dpprjv TTore yewrjaeiev dv 8td re ro deppiorepov elvai rov di^Xeos (f>vaeL ro dppev, /cat Std ro pirj avpL^dX ^ Tov awftaros P, Platt : cm. vulg'.

" These two statements are of course of general validity, 258


that is wanting to make it such is that its secretion should be colder, and this occurs when it is united with that of the ass. In the same way the ass comes ^vithin an ace of generating infertile offspring even when it mates with its owti kind ; so that when there is the additional factor of unnatural mating beside the difficulty it has in producing even a single young one in the normal way, the resultant offspring is still more infertile and unnatural ; in fact, it will lack nothing to make it completely infertile, and ^\1ll be infertile of necessity.

Furthermore, female mules grow large in size. This is because the secretion intended for the menstrual flow is diverted to produce growth. And since the period of gestation in such animals lasts a year, the female mule not only has to conceive but has to nourish the embryo all that time ; and this is impossible unless menstrual flow is being produced. None is produced in mules : the unserviceable part of the nourishment is passed out together \vith the residue that comes from the bladder (which explains why male mules do not smell at the pudenda of the females as the other solid-hoofed animals do, but at the residue itself) ; the rest of the nourishment is diverted to growth of the body and to size. Hence although it is possible for the female to conceive occasionally - and indeed the fact is estabhshed that this has happened - it is impossible for her to nourish an embryo for the full period and bring it to the birth. The male may occasionally generate (a) because " the male is by nature hotter than the female, and (b) because the male does not contribute any corporeal and are cited here to explain how the male mule may be able to generate.



748 b

Xiadat TTpos TTjv [jLl^lv acofia /JLrjSev to dppev. to S' OLTTOTeXeadev ytVerat ytvvos. tovto S' €<jtlv 35 rjfxiovos dvoLTT-qpos' Kal yap €k tov lttttov /cat tov 749 a ovov yivovTai yivvoi, OTav voarjarj to Kvrjfjia iv Trj vaT€pq.. cotC yap 6 yiwos cooTrep to. fieTaxoipa €v Tots j(0i/30ts" /cat yap e/cet to TTi^pajdev iv Trj vaTepa /caAetrat jxeTa^^oipov. ytVerat Se tolovtos OS av TV)(r) Twv )(OLpcov. opiOLCos Se ycvovTai /cat 5 ot TTuy/xaiof /cat yap outol TnqpovvTai to. p-^pt) Kal TO pieyedos ev Trj Kvrjaei, /cat elaiv cooTrep IJL€Td)(oipa /cat yivvoi.

" According to i/.^. 577 b 21, a ginnos is the offspring of a mule and a mare ; and there, as here, -& ginnos is also said to be the diseased offspring of a mare, and is compared with dwarfs and metachoira. Aristotle thus compares the product of the union of mule and mare with the diseased or deformed



ingredient to the mixture. The final result which is produced is a ginnos.'^ This is a deformed mule, for ginnoi are produced also from the horse and the ass when the fetation gets diseased in the uterus, the ginnos being comparable to the metachoiron which occurs among smne, since in that case too it is the offspring which has been deformed in the uterus that is called a metachoiron : any pig may happen to be born thus deformed. Human dwarfs too are formed in a similar way : they too become deformed in their parts and stunted in size during the time of gestation, and thus are comparable with metachoira and ginnoi.

oflfspring which sometimes result from the union of male and female of one and the same species. For metachoira see also 770 b 7.


749 a 10 I Hepl jjiev ovv ttj? tcov rjfjiLovojv dreKvia? eiprjTai, Kai Trepl tcov l,a>oroKovvrcDV koi dvpat,e koL iv avroL?- iv Se rot? (poroKovcn rojv ivaifxcjov rfj fxeP TTapaTTA'qcrLws €;^et to. Trepl ra? yevecreLS avroc? re /cat rots Tre^otg /cat ravrov tl Xa^eXv ecrri Trepl ttolvtcjov, rfj 8' e;)^et Sta^opas" /cat Trpos dXXrjXa /cat 15 Trpo? ra Tre^a. tcov iC,(x)<jjv. yiverai fiev ovv aTTO avvSvaafjiov Travra oXojg, /cat Trpo'Ceixevov yovrjv els TO drjXv rod dppevos' rwv S' cporoKovvrcov at fxev opvides rrpotevrai reXeiov (hov /cat aKXr]p6Sepfiov, eav fXT] n nrjpwdfj Sta voaov, /cat Trdvra hi^poa rd rGiv dpviBojv eariv, rcbv 8' Ixdvcov ol jxev aeXa^co 20 8ets", wGTrep elprjrai TToXXaKLS, iv avrots (horoK'qaavres t,a>oroKovaL, [xeracrrdvros rod (hov e^ dXXov roTTOV rfjs varepas els dXXov, jxaXaKoSepixov 8e ro cpov /cat o[xo)(pajv earlv avrojv. eis Se jjlovos ov l,cporoKeL raJv roLovrcov ev avro), 6 KaXovfjievos ^arpa)(os' vepl ov rrjv alriav varepov XeKreov. ol 25 Se aAAot oaonrep (horoKOvai rcbv Ixdvcov, p,ov6)(pcov " Although most Ovipara are flying or swimming animals, some of course are Tre^d, but by Tre^a Aristotle here means viviparous animals only.

  • i.e., an egg which does not increase in size after deposition ; see below, 1. 25.

  • i.e., there is no difference of yolk and white. 2p2

BOOK III We have spoken about the sterihty of mules, and I about the animals which are vi\iparous both exter- animau^^ nally and internally. We now pass on to those (continued;. blooded animals which are oviparous. The pheno- "P"* • mena of generation here are on the one hand similar to those which obtain in the animals that walk," so that the same statement will serve for all of them ; on the other hand, these animals exhibit certain differences not only as between themselves, but also when compared ^vith the animals that walk. Their generation is the result of copulation, i.e., of the emission of semen into the female by the male : this appUes to all of them, of course. But beyond that there are variations : (a) Birds produce a perfect * egg with a hard shell (unless it be deformed by disease). All birds' eggs are of two colours, (b) The Selachian fishes, as I have often repeated, are internally o\'iparous but bring forth their young aHve, after the egg has moved from one position in the uterus to another. Their egg is soft-shelled and of one colour only.*^ The fish known as the fishingfrog '^ is the only one in this class that is not internally viviparous. The cause of this will have to be stated later.* (c) All other fishes that are oviparous pro

â– * Probably Lophius piscatorius ; see 754 a 26, n. • At 754 a 25-31


ARISTOTLE 749a , ., ' w , X, s^ - ^ D' fxev TrpoievraL to ojov, areAe? oe rovro' AajLtpavet yap €^co rrjv av^iqaiv, hia ttjv avrrjv alriav 8i' TjVTTep Koi ra eaco TeXeLovfieva tcov (hcov.

HepL fiev ovv tcjv varepajv, rivag e^ovai Sta (f)opag Kal Sia rivas alrias, eiprjraL Trporepov.

/cat yap roJv i,a)0T0K0VVT0iv to. fiev avco Trpos ra> 30 VTro^cvpLart e)(^et ra? varipa^, ra Se Karoo 77/96? ToZs apdpoi?, avco pukv ra aeXa^cLSr], Kara) 8e to. Kal iv avroLS t^cporoKovvra Kal dvpat,€, olov dvdpcoTTOs Kal LTTTTog Kal TCOV oXXcxiv €Kacrrov rwv roiovrcov. Kal rcbv (horoKovvrcov ra /xev Kario, Kaddirep rcov l)(^9vcov ol (horoKOVvreg, ra S' dvoj, KadaTTep ol opvtOes.

35 Ytwiararai fxev ovv Kvi^jj-ara roZs opviat /cat 749 b avrofxara, a KaXovotv vnrjvep-La Kal i,€(f)vpLd rives, yiverat he ravra rots p-rj TrrrjrtKol? p,r]8e yap^ifjiovv^L rcov opvidcov, dXXd rot? TToXvyovoig , Sid ro TToXv nepirrcvpia raur' ^X^^ {roi? 8e yapnfj<x)vv^iv et? rag Trrepvyas: Kal rd nrepa rpeveadai r7]v 5 roiavrrjv dnoKpiaiv, ro 8e crco/xa puKpov e^eiv Kal ^rjpov re Kal depp-ov^), rr]v 8 drroKpiaiv r-qv KarapLrjVKLhy] Kal rrjv yovqv TrepirrajpLa etvat* eTret ovv Kal Tj rcbv TTrepojv (f)vaig Kal rj rov aireppiaros ylverai €K rrepirrwaews, ov Svvarai r^ (f>vais en dp,<j)6repa rroXv^oelv. 8ta rrjv avrrjv 8e ravrrjv 10 alriav^ rd p,ev yapLipcovvxci ovr ox^vriKd eariv ^ acutum S. ^ koX post alriav codd. : del. Platt.

" i.e., the cause which controls the g^o^^•th of the egg to perfection. 264


duce an egg of one colour only, but this egg is imperfect - its growth takes place away from the parent, and the Cause concerned '^ is just the same as for ' those eggs which are perfected -v^ithin the parent.

I have already spoken about the uterus of these animals ; I have said what are the differences they show, and what are the Causes. Thus, some of the %-iviparous animals (the Selachian fishes) have the uterus high up towards the diaphragm.^ others (the animals which are both internally and externally vi\iparous, such as man, horse, and all such animals) have it down by the pudenda. And of the oWparous animals some (such as the oviparous fishes) have it low down, others (such as the birds) have it high up.

Fetations arise in birds spontaneously as well (as (i.) Birds in the normal way) ; some people call them ^\"indeggs or zephyria.'^ They occur in those birds ^ which are neither good fliers nor crook-taloned but which are prohfic* The reason is : (a) these have a great deal of residue, whereas in the crook-taloned birds this secretion is diverted to produce wings and vnng feathers and their body is small f and solid and hot ; and (6) the menstrual secretion and the male semen are residue ; therefore, as both feathers and semen alike are formed out of residue. Nature cannot pro\ide a large supply for both purposes. And it is for this same cause that the crook-taloned birds do not indulge much in copulation and are not very prohfic,

  • See note on 717 a 2.

â– = See note on 753 a 2-2.

' See table of birds, p. 368.

  • i.e., produce a large number of eggs (or j'oung). I use " prolific " throughout to translate noXvyovos and ttoXvtokos.

' For the smallness of the body of crook-taloned birds (apart from their wings), cf. P. A. 694 a 8 f .


749 b

ARISTOTLE ovre TToXvyova, to. 8e ^apda Kal tcuv TTTqriKOiv bauiv TO. aojfxara oyKcoSr], KadoLTrep TrepLarepds Kal Tcov TOLOVTCov. TOt? fiev yap ^apeat Kal fjb-q TTrrjTiKOL?, otov dXeKTopiai Kal Trepht^i Kal rots a'AAoi? Tols roiovroLs, ttoXv yiverat irepLTTCDfjba 15 roiovTOV 8io TO, re appeva avrwv 6-)(evrLKa Kal to. dijXea TTpoterai TToXXrjv vXrjv, Kal tlktci roJv tolovTdiv ra fiev ttoXXo. to. 8e TroAAaK^is", ttoXXo, fiev otov dXeKTopls Kal TTephi^ Kal arpovdos 6 Ai^VKos, rd Be TTepLarepcLhrj TToXXd fiev ov, TroAAa/cts" Se* fxera^v yap eari ravra tojv yajjulicovvxcov koI tCjv ^apecov 20 TTT'qTLKd fiev yap eanv (Lanep rd ya/z^cuvu^a, TrX'qdr) S ^X^'- '^^^ (TioiJiaTos atavep ra jSapea, coare Sid fiev TO 7TT7]TiKd €Lvai Kal ivravda rpeTreadat to TTepiTTCopia oXlya TCKTOvai, Sta 8e to ttXtjOos' tov (TcojuaTO? Kal 8id to deppLrjv ex^iv ttjv KoiXiav Kal 7T€7TTLKOJTdTT]V, TT/SOS" §6 TOVTOL? Kal 8td TO paSlcDg 25 'nopit,eadai, ttjv Tpoi^-qv, ra 8e yapApoyvvxo- ;^aAe77ajs", TToAAa/ct?.

'Op^eyri/ca 8e kol rroXvyova Kal Td [XLKpd tojv dpvecov icTTL, Kaddirep ivioTC Kal tcov (f>VTa>v rj ydp els TO acojjLa av^rjais yiveTat TrepLTTOjpia avep[laTLKOv. 8i6 Kal T(x>v dXeKTOpiScuv at 'A8ptavi/cat TToXvTOKOiTaTai eiatv 8ta. ydp pLiKpoTrjTa tov aoi 30 /xaros" els Trjv TeKvcoaiv KaTavaXioKeTai rj Tpo(f)T]. Kal at dyewels riov yewaiojv TToXvTOKWTepaf vypoTepa ydp Td CTco/xara TCovSe Kal^ oyKcoSea ^ TcjvBe Kal vulg. : tu)v Se Y : avTU)v tu>v §€ PZ : avrcov Kal A.-W.

" Mentioned also at H.A. 558 b 17. Thompson {Glossary^, dXeKTpvaiv) considers them as a kind of bantam.



whereas the heavy birds and those fliers which have bulky bodies (such as pigeons and the like) do so. In those birds which are heavy and are not fliers, such as common fowls, partridges, and the like, a great deal of this residue is formed, and that is why their males copulate frequently and their females emit a great deal of matter ; also, some birds of this sort lay many eggs, some lay many times ; thus the common fowl, the partridge and the ostrich lay a large number ; whereas the pigeon family do not lay a large number, but lay many times, the reason being that the last-named stand midway between the crook-taloned birds and the heavy birds ; they are fliers, like the former, and have a bulky body, hke the latter. The result is : (1) As they are fliers, the residue is diverted to their wings ; hence they lay but few eggs ; (2) they are bulky in build, their stomach is hot and very good at concoction, and, in addition, they can easily get their food, whereas the crook-taloned birds have difficulty in getting it ; hence they lay often.

Small birds, too, copulate frequently and are very prolific, just as some small plants are : the material which might produce increase of bulk turns into seminal residue. On this account the Adrianic fowls " are extremely prolific ; as they are small in size, the nourishment is used up for the production of offspring. Also, low-bred birds are more proUfic than high-bred ones,*" because their bodies are more ' Thompson's terras {loc. eii.). The definition of yewalos is given at H.A. 488 b 18 ff. : evyeves y.ev yap eart to e| ayadov yevovs, yewaiov Se to y.T] i^iardfievov eV t-^? avrov <f>vaecos, whence it appears that ycwaio? = " thoroughbred," as Thompson there translates it.



749 b

TCpa, Tojv Be laxi'OTepa /cat ^T]p6T€pa- 6 yap Ovjxog o yevvaXo? ev rot? rotourot? yiverai acojjiacn jJidXXov.

35 ert Se /cat rj roov OKeXcbv XeTrrorrjs /cat acrdeveia avp-^aXXerai npos to rrjv (f)vcnv tojv tolovtcov 750 a o)(€VTLKr}v etvat /cat rroXvyovov , Kaddinep /cat eTrt T(x)V dvdpcoTTODV rj yap els rd KcJoXa TpO(f>rj rpeTrerai Tots TotouTotS" els TTepLTTCofia aireppiaTiKOV o yap eKeldev d^aipet rf (fivais, TrpocrrWrjaiv evravda. rd o 8e yafjupwvvxoL rrjv ^daiv laxvpdv e^^i /cat rd aKeXrj Trd^ps e-)(ovra hid rdv ^iov uiare 8ta Trdaas ravras rds alrlas ovt ox^vrtKa ecrrtv ovre ttoXvyova. pbaXiara he rj Key^pis rroXvyovov jiovov ydp a)(eh6v tovto /cat Trivet tcov ya/jLipcovvxoiv , rj 8' vypoTTjs /cat rj avix(f)VTOs /cat rj ivaKTos cnrep 10 fxariKov fierd rrjs vnapxovcnjs avrfj OepjxorrjTosTt/cret S' ouS' avrrj^ rroXXd Xiav, dXXd rerrapa to TrXeiaTOv.

'O Se KOKKV^ dXiyOTOKOV CGTIV OVK CUV yajxifjcovvX<^S, OTi iffvxpds T-rjv cf)vaiv eariv {SrjXoi 8' rj 8etAta Tov opveov), TO 8e aTrepjiaTiKov l,cx>ov Set depjiov /cat vypov elvai. otl he heiXov, (j>avep6v vtto re 15 ydp TCOV opveoiv Stto/cerat TravTCov /cat eV dXXoTpiais Tt/CT€t veoTTiais.

Ta he TrepiaTepoihrj hvo (hs rd rroXXd TiKTeiv etcodev ovT€ ydp [xovotokoi elalv {ovdels ydp pLovoTOKos opvis TrXrjv 6 KOKKv^, /cat ovTos evioTe hiTOKel) ovTe noXXd tLktovoiv, dXXd TroAAa/ct? hvo ^ avri) Peck : auTi7 vulg.

" For " solid " and " fluid " see Introd. § 38.

  • Cf. the remarks on the chameleon at P. A. 692 a 22 if. ;



fluid and more bulky, whereas those of the highbred birds are leaner and more soUd," this being the kind of body in which a thoroughbred and highspirited temper tends rather to make its appearance ; also the thinness and weakness of their legs contribute towards making these birds prone to copulation and prolific - and this applies also to human beings : the nourishment which was intended for the legs is in such cases diverted to the seminal residue : what Nature takes away from one place she puts on at the other. The crook-taloned birds, on the other hand, have strong feet, and their legs are thick : this is due to their manner of life ; thus on account of all these causes they do not copulate much nor are they very prolific. The kestrel is the most prolific of them, for this is practically the only one of the crook-taloned birds which drinks, and the fluid, both that which is innate and that which it gets from without, is productive of semen when combined with the heat which is present in it. Even this bird does not lay many eggs ; four at the most.

The cuckoo lays but few eggs although it is not a crook-taloned bird, because it is cold by nature (as its cowardice * clearly shows), whereas an animal that is abundant in semen must be hot and fluid. That it is cowardly is showTi by the fact that all other birds chase it and that it lays its eggs in other birds' nests.

Most birds of the pigeon kind usually lay a couple of eggs. They are neither one-egg birds (there is no one-egg bird beside the cuckoo, and this sometimes lays two), nor do they lay a large number ; but they also 650 b 28 (o yap ^j3os Karou/ivxei-) and 667 a 17 fF., where a large heart is said to produce cowardice because the heart is so large that the heat is lost in so large a space.



750 a

7} Tpia TO. TrXelara yevvcbat,, ra Se ttoAAo, Suo* 20 ovToi yap ol apidyiol /Ltera^u tov evos koI ttoAAcov. "Ort 8e Tots" TToAyyovot? rpeTrercLi els to aTrepjxa 17 rpo<j>r], <j>avep6v €k twv avfi^atvovrcov. rojv re yap SevSpcov ra ttoXXol TToXvKapn^aavra Xiav e^avaLverac jxera rnqv (jiopav, orav jxr) v7ToXei(f)dfj Tip awjjiart rpo^r], /cat ra eTrereta ravro Trd(T)(eLV 25 eoLKev, olov to, re p^^eSpoTra Kal 6 alrog Kal rdXXa ra roiavra' rrjv yap rpocfyrjv dvaXiOKovacv els ro aTveppLa rrdaav eari yap TToXvcTTTepjJiOv ro yevos avrdJv. Kal rdJv dXeKropihojv eVtai TToXvroKrjaacrai, Xiav ovrcDS ware Kal Svo reKelv ev rip,epa, fierd rrjv TToXvroKiav drredavov. VTrepivoi yap yivovrat 30 Kal ol opvides Kal ra cj)vrd- rovro S ecrrl ro Trddog VTreplSoXi] Trepirrajpuaros eKKpiaecos. alrLOV Se ro roLovrov rrddog Kal ra> Xeovri rrjs dyovlas rrjs varepov ro jxev yap rrporepov riKrei irevre t) e^, elra rco varepqj erei rerrapa?, TrdXiv Se rpets aKVfxvovs, elra rdv exdfJievov dpidp^ov ecos evos, etr 35 ovOev, COS" i^avaXiaKOjJLevov rov Trepirrojiiaros Kat 750 b d.p.a rrjs rjXiKias Xrjyova'qs 4'^ivovros rov airep jJLaros.

Ttcrt p.ev ovv yiverai ra V7n]veixLa rcov opvtdaiv, en he ttolol noXvyovot Kal oXiyoyovoi avrcbv, Kat 8ia rivas airias, eiprjrai.

Viverai he ra VTnrjvep.ia, Kaddrrep e'lprjraL Kal TTporepov, Sta ro VTrdpx^LV ev rw d-qXet rrjv vXrjv 5 rrjv uTTepfiarLKT^v, rots S' opveots pir) ylveadai, riqv rcov Karapi7]VLOJV drroKpLatv wairep rols ^cporoKOiS roZs evaipiOLS' Tracri yap rovrois ylverai, roXs p-^v 270


lay often, producing two, or three at the most, generally two, as these numbers are intermediate between one and many.

The actual facts make it clear that in the prolific birds the nourishment is diverted to the semen. Most trees, if they have borne an excessive amount of fruit, A^-ither away when the 'crop is over, when no nourishment is left over for themselves ; annual plants, as it seems, have the same experience, e.g., leguminous plants, corn, and the rest of that sort. The reason is that, as they belong to a kind which produces a great deal of seed, they use up all their nourishment for semen (seed). Some fowls, too, after having laid excessively - as many as two eggs in a day - have died after performing the feat. The birds and plants alike become completely exhausted, and this condition is simply one of excessive evacuation of residue. It is responsible for the sterility which besets the lion in the latter part of its life. To begin with, the lion " will produce five or six cubs in a Utter, then four the next year, next time three, then two, after that one, and then none at all, which suggests that the residue is being used up and that the semen is diminishing as the prime of life abates.

We have now said which are the birds that produce wind-eggs, and what sorts of birds are prolific and not prolific, together with the causes thereof.

Why are wind-eggs formed ? As has been said Wind-eggs. earlier, their formation is due to the fact that though seminal matter is present in the female, with birds no discharge of the menstrual fluid take place as it does with the blooded Vivipara ; in all of the last-named it does take place, and it is greater in some, smaller " Cf. 760 b 23.


750 b

ARISTOTLE 7tA€l(vv, tols S' eXoLTTCov, Tols §€ ToaavTT) TO TrXrjdog ware oaov ye ctt tarj naive lv. ofioicog S' ovBe rolg Lxdvai, Kaddnep^ tols opvLcnv Sto Kal tovtol? 10 ytveraL fiev dvev 6-)(^eias crvaracns KvqixaTcov, [ofXOLCOS Kal TOLS 6pVLaLV,Y TjTTOV 8' e7ri§7jAcDS" ijjvxpoTepa yap rj t^vatg avTwv. rj 8e yLVOpLevq tols tyWOTOKOLS OLTTOKpLOLS TCOV KaTapLTjVLCOV OVVLOTaTaL Tots OpVLGL KaTO. TOVS LKVOVpueVOVS ;)^pdvOU? TOV TTepLTTwpiaros, Kai 8ia to tov tottov etvai depp,6v 15 T,ov rrpos ro) 8ta^CL>/xaTt TeXeLovTai toIs p,eyedeaLv, TTpos Se TTiv yeveaiv oLTeXrj Kal Taxrra Kal to, twv L)(dvojv ofJLOLiJos avev ttjs tov dppevos yovrjs' rj 8' aLTia TOVTCov elprjTaL TrpoTepov. ov ytVerat 8e to. vrnqvep-La tols ttttjtlkoIs twv opvidcov 8ia. ttjv avTTjv aLTLav 8t' rjVTrep ovhe TToXvTOKeZ to. ToiavTa^' TOLS yap yapiipcovv^LV oXiyov to TTepLTTwpia, Kal 20 TTpoaheovTaL tov dppevos Trpos ttjv oppbrjv ttjs tov TTepLTTWfiaTOS^ eKKpiaeoiS. TrAeicu 8e to, VTrrjve/JLLa yiveraL twv yovipLwv a>a)v/ eXaTTW 8e to fxeyedos 8id puiav aLTLav Kal Tr]V avTiqv 8ta jiev yap to aTeXr] elvaL eXaTTW to pueyedos, 8ia 8e to to p,eye25 60s eXaTTOV rrXelw tov dpiOp^ov. Kal tjttov 8e r]hea Sta TO drreTTTOTepa eivaL' ev Traon yap to TreTre^pievov yXvKVTepov.

"Otl pLev ovv ovTe rd twv dpvldwv ovTe Ta tcov ^ fort. <ouS€> supplendum.

  • seel. A.-W. : ofioiios cm. S, opviaiv om. Z. ^ hie lacunam statuit Platt.

  • TTtpLTTcoixaTos PS^'S, A.-W., Platt : anepfxaTos vulg.

  • yovipnov cl>(uv A.-W., ovis convenientibns generationi 2 : yovM yiyvo/xeVojv Z*, vulg. : yovwv yiy. PSY.

" i.e., to mark that it belongs to a class which exhibits the 272


in others, and, in some just enough to serve as an indication." Similarly, there is no discharge in fishes, any more than in birds : and therefore in fishes too, [just as in birds,] fetations arise \\-ithout previous copulation, though they are less obvious ; that is because their nature is colder. What corresponds to the secretion of the menstrual fluid which occurs in viviparous animals arises in birds at the times proper for that residue, and as the region by the diaphragm is hot these fetations reach perfection in respect of size, though for the purpose of generation they are imperfect, both in birds and fishes, \\"ithout the semen of the male. The cause of these things has been given earher. Wind-eggs are not formed in the birds that are fliers ; the reason why this is so and why birds of this sort are not very prolific layers is one and the same * : in the crook-taloned birds the residue is scanty, and they need the male to give the impulse for the discharge of the residue. The wind-eggs are formed in larger numbers than the ones which are fertile but they are smaller in size ; both facts are due to one and the same cause : they are smaller in size because they are imperfect, and they are more in number because their size is smaller. They are less pleasant to eat because they are more unconcocted, for that which has been concocted ' always makes the more tasty morsel.

Now it has been sufficiently established by ob phenomenoti. A similar remark is made at P. A. 689 b 5 about the stiimpy tail of certain animals.

  • Platt's assumption of a lacuna here is unnecessary. Although TmjTiKo. and ya^jmjjuiwxo. are not simply convertible, all yaixijicji'vxa are TTTrp-iKa, and clearly Aristotle is here thinking of them as especially good examples of tliers.

' The Greek word also connotes " matured," " ripened." 273


750 b

L)(uvcov reAcLovrat Trpos ttjv yeveaiv avev roiv appevcDV, t/cavcos" ajTrrat, vrepi 8e tov yiveadat Koi iv Tols Ixdvcrt KvrjfMaTa a.V€V tcov dppevojv, 30 ovx 6p,oLtx)£, jLtctAiara 8' ctti tcSv TTorap^icov icoparaL [rrepl rovs ipvdplvovs] {tou^to^ avp^^alvov eviot yap evdvg e)(ovTes (ha ^atVovrat, KadaTrep iv rat? iaropiais yeyparrraL Trepl avrcov. oXojs S' ev ye rots' opviaiv ovhe to. yivofieva 8ta ttjs' o^eias <ha deXei COS" CTTt to ttoAu Aa/xjSavetv av^rjatv, iav fir] 6-)(<ev7]raL rj opvis avve-)(U)s. tovtov 8' atrtov on 35 KadoLTTep Ittl tcov yvvaiKajv to TrXrjaLat^eiv roZs 751 a appeal KaTaaira ttjv toDv yvvaiKeicjv aTTOKpiatv (eA/cet yap to vypov rj varepa deppLavOelaa, /cat ot TTOpoi avaaropuovvrai) , tovto CTU/xjSatVei /cat eTTt Toiv opvidcov eTn6vrov, 6a(f}paiv6iJL€vai^ rod dppevog /cat aKovovaai rrjs (f)(x}VT]g at {xev TrX-qpovvrai, at Se tlktovgl napaXprjp-aL. Tov he Trddovs:^ atriov ravrov OTvep enl tojv avdpcoTTcov Koi Tcov rerpaTToScDV edv yap dpycvvra T^XT) TO- acofxara irpog rrjv opuXiav, rd pukv ISovra rd he puKpds yevopiivr]g di^ewg Trpoterat avepfjia.

20 Ta he TOiavra twv opveojv oxevnKd /cat ttoXvarrepfjia ttjv (f>vaLV iariv, (Lare puKpdg helaOai rrjs Kivriaecos , orav opyojvra rvxij, Kal yiveadai rap^u r'r]v eKKpLGLV avroZs, oiare rot? p-ev dvoxevrois VTrrjvepta avviaraadaL, rots' S' (hxevjxevoLS av^dveadai /cat reXeiovodat raxeois 25 TcDv he dvpat,e ojotokovvtcov ol p,ev opvides TTpolevrai rd (hov reXetov, ol h' Ixdveg dreXes, aAA' e^di Xapi^dvei t7]v av^rjaiv, KaOdrrep etprjrai Kal TTpoTepov. a'iriov 8' ort iroXvyovov eon rd tojv Lxdva)v yevog- dhvvarov ovv eaco -noXXd Xapi^dveLV reXos, hio-nep dTroTLKrovoiv e^co. raxeZa §' 7^ 30 TTpoeuLS' at yap varepai Trpos roZs dpdpois rdJv dvpal,e (LoTOKovvTOiv IxOvaiv.

' Ectti Se TO. p,ev rdJv opvidojv htxpoa, rd he rdv Ixdvoiv fiovoxpoa TrdvTcov. ttjs he hcxpoLa? rrjv alriav I'Sot rts" dv e/c rr\s hvvdp,ea>s eKarepov rdJv jj-opLCOv, TOV re XevKov Kal rov wxpov. yCverai p,€v ydp 7] dnoKpiaLS e/c tov at/xaros" [{ovdev ydp dvaipiov ^ oa^paivofjiepai P : 6a(f>p<L(jLei'ai SY : 6ap.(Lfxevai. Z, vulg. * Tradovsl TO-X^'^S Z.

« Cf. H.A. 560 b 10 ff. 276


observation that they have been formed in chickens and gosUngs without impregnation. x\gain, when the female partridges " which are taken out to act as decoy-birds smell the male and hear his note, those which have not been trodden by a male become full of eggs and those which have already been trodden at once lay their eggs. The reason why this happens is the same as in the case of human beings and quadrupeds : if they are in heat, some emit the semen at the mere sight of a female, others at a slight touch. Birds of this sort are by nature inclined to frequent intercourse and have abundance of semen, so that when they are in heat the impulse they need to set them off is small, and emission quickly takes place ; the result is that in those which have not been impregnated -s^ind-eggs take shape, and in those which have been impregnated the eggs quickly grow and reach perfection.

In the group of animals which lay their eggs externally, birds produce their eggs in a perfected state, fish in an imperfect state ; but fishes' eggs continue and finish their growth apart from the parent, as indeed I have said earlier. The reason for this is that the fish tribe is very prolific ; therefore it is impossible for a large number of eggs to reach perfection within the animal ; hence they are laid externally. Their discharge is quickly effected, for in the externally oviparous fishes the uterus is near the genital parts. , Birds' eggs are double-coloured, but all fishes' eggs Difference are single-coloured. The cause of the two colours in yoi)^|*^ birds' eggs can be seen from the specific character ^ white. of each of the two parts, the white and the yolk. The secretion (for the egg) is formed out of the blood

  • Dynamis ; see Introd. § 26.


ARISTOTLE 751 b (horoK€L ^oiov)]/ to S' atfia on iarlv vXr] rolg acofxaoLV, etpT^rat 77oAAa/cts". to fiev ovv ioTLV eyyvTepov avTOV ttjs" jJLopcfirj? tcov 'ip.opicjvf yivofxevojv, TO depjJLov TO 8e yeajSeoTcpov ttjv tov acopbaTog TTapex^Tai avoTaaiv Kal noppcoTepov eoTiv. hiorrep 5 ocra St^CPoa cctti twv (ha)v, Trjv /zev dp)(r]v to ^wov Xapu^dvei €K TOV XevKov ttjs yevecreojs {iv yap Tcp OeppLO) 7] i/jvxiKTj dpx'^), TTJV Se Tpo(f)rjV e/c tov (jjxpov, Tot? fJiev ovv TTJV (f)vaLV deppLOTepotg tojv t,(Lci)V BiaKeKpiTaL x^P^? e| ov re rj apx^] yiVerat Kal i^ ov Tpe<^eTai, /cat to /xev XevKov eaTi to S' 10 (Jbxpov, Kal TrXeov del to Xcvkov Kal Kadapov tov (hxpov Kal y€(x)Bovs' rots- 8' '^ttov deppuoZs Kal vypoTepoi? TO (hxpov rrXeov Kal vypoTepov. orrep av/jL^aLvei cttI tcDv Xiixvaioiv opveojv vypoTepot, yap TTjv (j>vaLV Kal iJjvxpoTepoL tojv 7Tel,ev6vTO)v elalv opveojv, (hcTTe Kal ra d)d tcov tolovtcov TToXXrjv ex^i 15 Trjv KaXovfxevrjv XeKidov Kal -^ttov (hxpdv hid to rJTTOv dTTOKeKptadac to XevKov. Ta 8' rjSrj Kal ifjvxpd TTjv (f)vaiv TCOV choTOKovvTCov Kal €Ti, vypd fxdXXov {toiovtov 8' ecTTi to tcov IxQvoiv yivos) oj)8' drroKeKpipidvov e;^et to XevKov 8ta re fJLiKpoTrjTa Kal 8ia to ttXyjOo? tov ipvxpov /cat yecoSovs' 20 8to7rep ytVerat puovoxpoa TrdvTa ra Tchv Lxdvojv, 1 seel. A.-W., Platt. ^ ^^^ 'j^ " The white ; because hot substance has to do with Soul ; see immediately below, and 762 a 18 fF. and P. A. 652 b 7 fF.

» See 744 b 32 if. and note.

" For the two sorts of Tpo(l)-q see 744 b 32 if. Both yolk and white are now known to be nourishment ; Harvey demonstrated the unreality of the distinction here made. - Aristotle of course knew nothing of the germinal area on the 278


[(no bloodless animal lays eggs)], the blood, as I have often stated, being the matter for animal organisms. One part of the egg, the hot part," is closer to the form of the developing creatures ; the other, the more earthy part, supplies the wherewithal for building up the bodily frame and is further removed from the form.** That is why in the case of all doublecoloured eggs the young animal gets its " principle of generation from the white, because hot substance is the place where the soul-principle is to be found, while it gets its nourishment from the yolk. With those animals, therefore, whose nature tends to be hotter than others we find there is a clear distinction between the part from which the " principle " is formed and the part from which the nourishment is derived : the one is white, the other yellow, and there is always more of the pure, white part than there is of the earthy, yellow part. With the animals that are less hot and more fluid, there is more yolk in the egg and it is more fluid. This occurs in the case of the marsh-birds, since they are more fluid and colder in their nature than the land-birds, so that the eggs of such birds contain a great deal of what is called yelk (lekithos) and it is less yellow, because the white is less distinctly separated from it. Pass on a further stage to those oviparous animals which are cold in their nature and also still more fluid (the fish tribe answers to this description), and in their eggs the white is not distinct at all ; this is due to their small size and to the abundance of the cold and earthy matter. And that is why all fishes' eggs are singleyolk ; and it was again Harvey who demonstrated that the " cicatricula " was the point of origin of the embryo, " the first Principle of the Egge." 279



/cai COS" /xev dt^po. XevKo., ws Se XevKa <h-)(pd. to, Se Tojv opveoiv /cat to, VTTrjvefJiLa €)(ei ravrrjv rr^v hixpoiav e^et yap e^ ov eKarepov earai rwv jjiopiwv, /cat odev 7) dpx'r] /cat odev rj rpo^rj, aXXd ravr dreXrj /cat rrpoahe6p.eva rod dppevo?- yiverai 25 yap Tct vrnqvepbia yovt/xa, eav eV Ttvi Kaipco ox^vdi] V7TO Tov dppevog. ovk eari 8e rrj? 8t;;^pota? atriov TO dppev /cat to drjXv, cos rov [xev XevKov ovtos aTTO TOV dppevos, tov 8' (hxpov drro tov d-qXeog' dAA' djjicfico ytVerat 0,776 tov dt^Xeos, dXXd to fxev i/jvxpov TO 8e depjxov, iv oaois puev ovv icrrl ttoXv TO depfiov, aTTO/cptVerat, iv ocrots" 8' oAiyov, ov 30 8uvaTaf 8t6 fxovoxpoa Ta KvqpiaTa, Kaddirep ^tprjTaiy Ta TU)v TOiovTOJV. rj 8e yovr] avvi(rrr]aO' [Jbovov /cat 8ta TOVTo to fiev npaJTOv (^atVerai Aeu/cov /cat jJ-LKpOV TO KV7]lJia CV TOt? OpVLOL, TTpo'CoV Sc <x))(^p6v dirav, avfipLLyvvfievov det ttXclovos alfiaTcoSovs' TeXos 8' dnoKpLVopievov tov deppiov kvkXco Trepi752 a to-Tarat to Aeu/cov, WGirep vypov t,eovTos, ofxoicjos TTavTr)- TO yap XevKov <j>vaeL fiev vypov, e)(ei 8' €v avTO) TTjv QeppbOTT^Ta TTjv ifjvxi'K'^v 8t6 kvkXo) dTTOKpiveTai, to 8 co)(pov /cat yecDSes" ei^To?. Kav 5 TToAAd avvepaaag ti? a»d ei? kvcttlv 'q tl tolovtov eifjiT] TTvpl firj^ ddTTOva ttolovvti T'qv tov depfxov ^ avvlarriai Peck : awearqae vulg. : avveoTT) Sc S. ^ /ii7 om. Z.

" It is of course the hot substance which constitutes the white. 280


coloured - they are white, judged by the colour of ordinary yolk ; yellow, judged by ordinary white. Not only the eggs but also the wind-eggs of birds have this double colouring, because they contain that out of which each of the two parts is to come (the part from which the " principle " arises and that from which the nourishment is derived), although they are imperfect, i.e., they lack the male factor ; since, as we know, wind-eggs become fertile if they are impregnated by the male ^^^thin a certain time. The cause of the double colouring is not the two different sexes (as if the white were derived from the male and the yolk from the female) ; both alike are derived from the female, and the real difference is that one is cold and the other hot. So then, in cases where a good deal of the hot constituent is present, the hot substance is separated from the cold ; but if there is not much of it this cannot occur ; and that is why the fetations of such animals are single-coloured, as I have said. All that the semen does is to " set " the fetations, and that is why in birds the fetation is small and white in appearance at first, but completely yellow as it advances and more bloodlike matter is continually being mixed in with it ; finally, as the hot substance separates off, the white takes up its position around on the outside " evenly in every direction, just as when a liquid boils. e;^et rrjv dpxT]v. StoTrep aKXrjporepov ravrrj ro cvov r) 15 Karcodev cr/ceTra^eiv yap Set /cat (f)vXdrr€LV rrjv dp)(r]v. Kal Sta rovro i^epx^rai varepov rov (hov ro o^v' ro yap TTpoorrecfiVKog varepov i^ep^erai, Kara rr)v dpx^v 8e 7Tpoa7Te(f)VKev, iv rco o^el 8' rj dpxi^- Tov avrov 8' e;^et rpoTTov Kal iv rot? rcov (j>vra>v aTTepjxaaLV 7Tpoa7re(f)VKe yap r) dp^rj rov 20 arrepixaro's rd p,ev iv rot? /cActSots", ra 8' iv rots KeXv(j>eai, rd 8 iv rol? TrepiKapTT Col's. hriXov 8' inl rcbv xehpoTTcbv f] yap avvrJTrraL ro hidvpov rcov Kvdfxcov Kal ra)V roLovrcov cnrepudrcov, ravrrj TTpocnrecfiVKev rj 8' dp^^rj ivravda rov OTreppLaro?. ^ATToprjaeie 8' dv rt? irepl rrjs av^Tjaeco's rcov 25 cpcijv, riva rporrov €k rrjs varepas crujU-jSatVet. rd fxev ydp C^a 8id rov ofjicfiaXov Xafi^dvei rrjv rpo ^ (ovTco) Rackham. * Seiv del SY. ' {to} Peck.

'" Of. H.A. 560 a 30 ff.

" Cf. 767 b 17 ff. et passim.

" That is, the " big " end, which is the first to leave the hen when laid. Platt remarks that Aristotle must have been a " little-endian," for the germ always floats up to the top whichever way the egg is placed.



cause the movement of the heat to be faster than the separation in the eggs, the yolk settles in the middle and the white round the outside of it " ; i.e., the same happens with the conglomerated mass composed of all those eggs as with one single egg.

We have now stated why some eggs are singlecoloured and others double-coloured.

In eggs the place where the " principle " derived II from the male ^ becomes separate and distinct is the ^^e eec'^ point where the egg is attached to the uterus, and that gives us the reason why the shape of doublecoloured eggs is unsymmetrical, i.e., not perfectly round but more pointed at one end ; the reason is that that part of the white in which the principle is situated must be different. And that is why the egg-shell is harder at that place than it is at the bottom " : the " principle " has to be protected and safeguarded. That also is why the pointed end of the egg comes out last : for of course the part that comes out last is the part that is fastened, which is the part where the " principle " is, which is the pointed end. The same arrangement obtains in the seeds of plants. In some plants the " principle " of the seed is fastened on to the twig, in others on to the husk, in others on to the pericarp. This is clear in the leguminous plants. The seeds of beans and plants of that sort are fastened on at the point where the two cotyledons ** are joined ; and that is where the " principle " of the seed is.

A puzzle may be raised about how eggs grow - Growth of how, it may be asked, do they derive their gro^vth ^^^ '^• from the uterus } Animals, of course, obtain their nourishment through the umbilical cord ; but by <• The two halves of the pea or bean.



752 a

(pyji', TO, 8' (La hia rivos; eTretSi^Tre/) o?);^ (vcnrep ol aKajXrjKes avra hi avrcov XauBdvec rriv av^ricnv. et o eart ri ot ov TrpoaTrecpvKe, rovro Trot rpeTTCTai reXeoidevTog ; ov yap avve^epx^rat, KaOdirep 6 30 opLcjiaXog rot? ^wocg^- ytverat yap to Trepi^ ocrrpaicov reXecodevTos . to fxev ovv elp-qfievov opdcos ^rjrelTaLXavBdveL S' on to yivofievov ooTpaKov to irpaJTOv [jiaXaKog vjJiTjv ioTLV, dXXd TeXecudevTO? ytVerat cTKXrjpov /cat Kpavpov, ovtco avfXfxeTpcog oiOT i^epx^Tai, jjikv eTL jxaXaKov [ttovov yap dv napelx^ 35 TiKTOfievov) , i^eXdov S' evOvg TrrjyvvTai i/jv^d^v, 752 b (Jwe^aTpbil^ovTos tov vypov Ta^v St' oAtydrT^ra, XeLTTOjJLevov Se tov yecuSovg. tovtov 817 rt tov vfJievos Kar' dp^d? o/x^aAcDSe? ecrrt /caTo, to o^v, /cat aTTex^i' eVt jLtt/cpcDv oVtcdi' otov auAd?. <f}avep6v S' eCTlV ev TOt? CK^oXlfMOL? T(x)V fllKpdJV (hdjv idv 5 yap ^pe^dfj t] dXXcvs ttoj? piyojaaua CK^dXr} rj opvig, €Ti at/xarcDSe? re ^atVerat to Kvrjjxa /cat e;^ov 8t' iavTov gtoXov p.iKp6v oixt^aXcoSrj. /xet^ovo? Se yivopLevov TreptTetVeTat^ /zaAAor owto? /cat eAaTTOJV' ytVeTat. TeXewOevTog Se to d^u toO <Z»oi} TOVTO CTU/ijSatVet to irepas. vtto Se tovtco 6 ivTos 10 vfi-qv, og 6pit,ei to XevKov /cat to coxpov dno tovtov. TeXeiwOevTog 8' aTzoAueTai oAov to a»di', /cat ^ fortasse ^woTOKovfxevois vel ^a>oTo/coi? scribendum.

  • Trepalverat Z. pro /cat e'ActTTWv . . . nepas et efficientur ova citrina, et inaxime apud complementum. et cum complentur accidit ut sit emissio 2.

» See 73:3 a 32 and note there. Of. also 758 b 13 ff.

  • i.e., the young of viviparous animals. Perhaps we should read " <the young of viviparous> animals."

" This is a reference to the chalazae, the function and development of which are obscure. 284


what means do eggs get theirs ? (The possibiUty that they are themselves their own means of growth, as larvae are," may be ruled out.) If there is something by means of which the egg is fastened on, what happens to it when the egg has reached its perfection ? It does not come out along with the egg, as the umbilical cord does in the case of animals,* because when the egg has reached perfection, the shell is formed which envelops it. Well, this is a question which it is quite right to ask ; but those who ask it fail to notice that the shell as it forms is at first a soft membrane, and that it is only when the egg has been perfected that it becomes hard and brittle ; and this adjustment is so well timed that it is still soft when it leaves the bird (othervWse it would be painful to lay), but as soon as it has left the bird it cools, and that makes it set hard, for the fluid part quickly evaporates, being verj- small in quantity, while the earthy part remains behind. Now at the outset a portion of this membrane, at the pointed end of an egg, is like an umbihcal cord, and while the egg is still small, it sticks out Uke a pipe. It can be clearly seen in small, aborted eggs : if the hen is drenched (with cold water) or chilled in some other way and so drops (the fetation) before its time, the fetation still has a blood-like appearance and has a small tail,*^ Uke an umbiUcal cord, running through it ; as the fetation gets larger, this tail gets twisted round more and becomes smaller ; when (the fetation) has reached its complete development, this terminus finishes up as the pointed end of the egg. Underneath this is the inner membrane, which acts as a boundary between it on the one side and the white and the yolk on the other. When the development 285

752 b

ARISTOTLE ov (jyaiv^rai eyAoycu? o o/Lt^aAd?' avrov yap iari rod iaxdrov to aKpov.

H o eg-oSo? rovvavriov ytverat rots' a>ots" "^ Tot? l,cpOTOKoviJLivois- rolg [xev yap eVt KecjiaXrjv /cat tt^v apxrjv, Tcp 8* coco ylverai r) e^oSo? oiov ctti TzoSa?.

15 Totrrov S' atrtov to elprjixevov, on 7Tpocnr€(f)VK€ Kara tt]v dp^i^v.

H oe yej/eat? e/c rou ojov avpi^aivGL rot? opviaiv €7Tcpa^ovar)g Kal avfXTTerrovarj? rrjs opvidog, oltto KpiVOpL,€VOV fJL€V TOV t,CpOV CK jXepOVS TOV (hoV , TrjV o av^7]cnv Xafx^dvovrog Kal reXeiovpbevov e/c tov AoLTTOv pbipovs, 7] yap (f)V(ns a/xa tt^v re rod t,cx}ov 20 vAriv iv tw coco TtdrjaL /cat Trjv iKavTjv rpocfnjv 7Tp6<s TrjV av^Tjacv i-nel yap ov bvvaraL reAcouv iv avrfj 7] opvis, avveKTLKTeL rrjv Tpo(l)r]v iv rep (hep. rot? /xev yap t^cooroKovpiivoLS iv dXXco pLopico yiverai ij Tpo^Tj, TO KaXovpievov yaAa, iv rot? p,aaTOLS' rot? o opviai TOVTO TTOiei rj (f)vai? iv rot? cools, tov 25 vavTLov /xe'vTOi â– ^ oi re dvdpcoTToi oiovTai Kal 'AXKfjiaicov <f)'qalv 6 K-poTcoviaTr^g . ov yap to XevKov ecTTL ydXa, dXXd to coxpov tovto ydp ioTiv rj Tpocfyrj Tots" v€OTTOL£' ol S' otovrai to XevKov Stct TTjV OpLOlOTTjTa TOV ;)^/)a)jU,aTOS".

FtVerat p.iv ovv i7Tcpat,ovcrqs, Kaddrrep eiprjTai, 30 Trjs opvtdos 6 veoTTOs' ov p^r^v dXXd Kav t] copa

» The heart. " See 744 b 33 ff.

' See pp. xvii. f. ^ See 751 b 7, n.



|of the fetation is complete, the whole egg is released, and, as we should expect, nothing is to be seen of the umbilical cord, because it is the tip of the extreme end of the egg.

Eggs and the young of viviparous animals come out facing opposite ways ; the latter come out with the head and the " principle " first '^ ; the egg comes out as it were feet first. And the reason I have stated : it is because the egg is fastened at the point where the " principle "is.

The formation of birds out of the egg is effected by incubation, the mother's sitting on the eggs and helping to concoct them. One part of the egg yields the substance out of which the animal is constituted, the remaining part proxides the substance whereby it grows and is perfected ; Nature puts both in the egg - the material for making the animal, and sufficient nourishment for its growth, since the hen cannot bring the young to perfection within herself, and therefore M'hen she lays an egg she lays the creature's nourishment in it as well. The nourishment for the young of viviparous animals, what we call milk, is formed in the breasts, a different part of the body altogether ; but for birds Nature pro\ides this inside their eggs. The truth about it, however, is the reverse of what is commonly supposed and what is asserted by Alcmeon of Crotona."^ It is not the white of the egg that is the milk, but the yolk, because it is the yolk that is the nourishment for the chicks. These people suppose that the white is, owing to the similarity of colour. ** The formation of the chick, then, as I have said, is effected by the mother-bird's sitting upon the egg ; notNsithstanding, if the cHmate is well-tempered or 287


752 b

27 evKparos rj 6 roirog dXeeLvos iv a) av /cet/xeva rtryxavcoaLV , eKTrirrerai koL to. tcov opvCdojv Kal ra ru)v rerpaTTohiov /cat (Lotokojv {Trdvra yap et? TTjv yijv eKTLKTei, /cat avfjCTTerTovrai vtto rrjg iv rfj yfj OepfioT-qros' oaa 8' eVoja^et ^otTcDvra tcov 35 cooroKcov Kal TerpanoScov, ravra 77otet [jidXXov <f)vXaKi]s ;^a/3tv). 753 a Tov avTov Se rpoTTov yiverat rd re rojv dpvidcov oja /cat rd rdjv t,cpa)v tcov TCTpaTToScov /cat yap aKXrjpoSepfia /cat hi)(poa, /cat Txpos" to) Sia^aj/iart ovvLGTaTat Kaddrrep /cat to, tcDv opvidcjjv, /cat raAAa raura Trdvra oru/u-jSatVet /cat evro? /cat Iktos, cjotg 5 17 avT-jy decopta irepl Try? atrta? eart Travrcov. aAAd Ta ^ei/ TcDv TeTpanoScov St' la-)(yv €K7T€TT€Tai Kal VTTO TTJ? ijjpag, Ta 8e roiv dpvecov eTTiKrjpoTepa , /cat Setrat t^? re/coyoTys". eot/ce 8e /cat 97 (f)V(ns jSoyAecr^at ToJv^ T€Kvcov a'Ladrjaiv iTrip.€XrjTCKrjv TrapaCT/ceya^etv dAAa rot? fxev ^CLpoai tout' ifjiTTOiei 10 H-^XP '^^^ Te/cetv fjiovov, toIs 8e /cat rrept tt^v tcXdcoaiv, oaa 8e (f)povip.(jOT€pa, Kal Trepl TTfv €KTpo(f>'qv. Tot? 8' •^'S'/y^ fjidXiGTa KOLViovovcTi (f)povt]a€a)g Kal vpo? TcXecoddvTa yiveTai awqdeLa Kal <^tAta, Kaddnep tol? tc dvdpcjoTrotg Kal tcov TeTparrohcov evioig, tol? 8' opviat /Lte'xP^ '^^ yevvrjaai /cat e/c 15 dpiijiai- Sionep Kal p,rj eTTCpdt,ovaai at drjXeiai, OTav ^ TcDv PZ : T17V Tciii' vulg. ^^ 8* ^817 Z : 8e S17 vulg.

" Cf. H.A. 559 a 1 fF., where " non-fliers " such as partridges and quails are said to " lay their eggs on the ground and to cover them over." Another " non-flier," the ostrich, was believed by the author of Job (xxxix. 14) to behave in a 28S


the situation where they happen to be is sunny, the eggs of birds " as well as of oviparous quadrupeds get fully concocted without incubation (for all these quadrupeds lay their eggs on the ground, and they get concocted by the heat in the earth ; any o\iparous quadrupeds which visit their eggs and sit on them do so rather for the sake of protecting them than for any other reason).

The eggs of quadrupeds are formed in the same way as birds' eggs. They are hard-shelled, and double-coloured, take shape up towards the diaphragm (as birds' eggs do), and present the same features in every other respect both externally and internally ; so that studying the cause of any of them is the same as studying the cause of them all. Only, whereas the eggs of quadrupeds, being so strong, get fully concocted by the agency of the climate, birds' eggs, being more fragile, need the mother-bird. It looks as though Nature herself desires to provide that there shall be a feeling of attention and care for the young offspring. In the inferior animals this feeling which she implants lasts only until the moment of birth ; in others, until the offspring reaches its perfect development ; and in those that have more intelUgence, until its upbringing is completed. Those which are endowed ^vith most intelligence show intimacy and attachment towards their offspring even after they have reached their perfect development (human beings and some of the quadrupeds are examples of this) ; birds show it until they have produced their chicks and brought them up ; and on this account hen birds which have laid eggs but omit similar way : " she leaveth her eggs on the earth, and warmeth them in the dust " (R.^'.), L 289


753 a

TCKCoai, otaTLuevraL )(^€Lpov, coaTrep evog tluo^ CTreptcr/cd/xevai roJv avyL<f)VTOiv.

TeXeovTai 8' ev rot? (hoZs ra t^coa ddrrov iv rat? aXe€t,vats rjfjiepais' avvepydl,era.i yap r) a)pa- /cat yap rj ttci/ji.? depjJLorrjS' TtV ioTLV. rj re yap yrj 20 CTU/XTTeTTei rfj deppLOTTjTL, /cat rj €7Tcpd^ovaa ravTO rovTo Spa- TTpoaeyx^i" yap roiy avrfj deppLov. /cat 8iacf)d€Lp€raL 8e ra wd /cat yiverai ra KaXovpueva ovpta pLaXXov Kara rr^v depprjv wpav evXoyoJS' wa7T€p yap /cat ot otvot iv rat? aAeat? o^vvovraL dvarpeTTop.evTj'S rrjg lAuo? {tovto yap atrtov Trjg 25 8t,a(f)dopds') , /cat iv toi? oiot? t] Ae/ct^o?* tovto yap €v dp.(j}OTipois TO yecoSes", 8i6 /cat ava^oAoirrai c) otvos" pLywp.ivri's tt^s- t'Auos", /cat to. hLa(f)Beip6pi€va (ha TTJg XcKidov.

Tot? juev ouv TToAuTo/cot? cruyLtjSatVet to toiovtov evXoycv? {ov yap pahiov rrjv dpfxoTTOvaav Trdatv d77o8tSdvat deppiaaiav, dXXd tol? pukv eAAetVetv rot? 30 Se TrAeov'tt^etJ', /cat dva^oAow olov arJTTovaav) , toXs 8e yapupcovv^LV oAtyord/cots" ovctlv ovBev '^ttov CTU/xjSatVet TOUTO" 77oAAd/cts" /xev' ydp /cat rotr Svolv dd-Tepov ovpiov ytVerat, to 8e TptTov cus" etTreti^ def depp-d yap ovTa ttjv (f>vaLV olov vnep^elv noiel t7]v 35 vypoTTjTa ttjv iv tol? (pois. ex^i, yap 817 /cat tt)v (f)vuiv ivavTtav to t€ (h^pov /cat to XevKov. to 753 b /xev yct/a (hxpdv iv Tolg irdyoig Tr-qyvvTaL, depp-aivo lx€vov 8e vypaiveTai- 8td /cat avpLTreTTopievov iv ttj ^ defifi-oTTfTos coni. A.-W. ^ npoaexet SY.

" According to /f.^'l. 560 a 5 if., owrja is a name given to wind-eggs produced chiefly in summer, zephyr ia (see 749 b 1 ) to those produced in spring. * Cf. 735 a 34 tF.



to sit on them, deteriorate in their condition, as though they were being deprived of one of their natural endowments.

Animals reach their perfect development in the eggs quicker when the days are sunny, for then the climate takes a share in the work, concoction being a form of heat : the earth helps in concocting them with its heat, and the sitting bird does exactly the sam^e - she infuses her own heat into them as well. Eggs get spoilt and ouria ° (as they are called) are produced in the hot season more often than at any other, as is to be expected. In hot, sunny weather wines turn sour because the sediment gets stirred up - this is what is really responsible for their being spoilt - and the same happens \vith the yolk in eggs. Sediment and yolk are the earthy part in each respectively, and as a result of this earthiness wine becomes turbid when the sediment mixes up with it, and these spoilt eggs also become turbid when the yolk does the same.

It is only to be expected that this should happen in the case of prolific animals, because it is not easy to pro\ide all the eggs ^\ith their proper amount of heat ; some >\ill get too httle, and some too much ; and too much heat will make them turbid, by causing them to putrefy, as it were. Nevertheless, the same thing occurs with the crook-taloned birds, although they lay but few eggs ; out of two eggs, one mil often turn rotten (ourion), and pretty well always one out of three. They are hot in their nature, and they cause the fluid in the eggs as it were to boil over. The yolk and the white, of course, are of an opposite Deveiopnature to each other. Yolk congeals in frosty j^cubftlon.^ weather,^ and becomes fluid when heated ; hence it 291

753 b

ARISTOTLE yfj Yj VTTO rod €TTa>a.t,€iv vypaiverai, /cat tolovtov ov yiveraL rpocfn) rol? cuvicrTa/xeVots" ^ojots". irvpov5 fJievov 8e /cai OTTTWjLtevov ov ylverat, aKXrjpov Sia to €LvaL T7JV (f>vaiv yeoJSe? ovrcos coairep Kiqpos' Kai Sia rovTO Oepfiaivoixeva pLoKKov, [eav t? l^'h ^^ vypov TTepiTTcoixaroSyY ^I'Opovrat, Kal yiverai ovpta. TO Se XiVKOv VTTO pL€v Tujv TTaycov ov TTiqyvvTaL, a\X vypaiverai p^dXXov {ro S' amov eip-qrat, 77/30repov), TTvpovp^evov 8e ylverai arepeov 8to /cat 10 TTeTTOfievov Trepl rrjv yeveaiv rcov t,cpcov 7ra)(vverai, . €K Tovrov yap avviararaL ro ^coov, ro 8 ojxpov rpo^T] yiverai, /cat rot? aet avviarafievoLs rcov piopicov evrevOev rj av^Tqais. Sto /cat Stca/atoTat ro re (I))(p6v /cat to XevKov ;;^ct>pis' vpieatv cus" e^ovra rrjv (f>vaiv irepav. St' a/cpt^Seta? /xei/ ovv, ov rpovov 15 e)(ovaL ravra rrpog dXXrjXa Kar' dpxa? Te rrjg yeveaeojs Kal avviaraiievojv rcov l^cpcov, eVt Se Trepi re vpievoiv /cat Trept^ 6pi(f)aXcov, e/c rwv ev Tat? LaropiaL? yeypafXfxevwv Set decopelv Trpo? Se rrjv rrapovaav aKeifjLV LKavov (f)avep6v elvai roaovrov, on avardcrrjs Trpcorr]? rrjg KapSta?, /cat rrjs^ pLeydXr^g 20 cf>Xe^6s drro ravrr]? d(f)opia6eiar)s, Svo 6p.(f)aXol diTO ^ seel. Platt, sed fortasse sanandum : et propter hoc fit molle {^aXaKov scribendum pro fiaXXov ?) quando calefit. cum ergo acciderit ei humiditas ex superfluitate hrcmiditatum corrumpetur S. ^ Txepl codd.* : om. Bekker.

" Aristotle's observation that the yolk liquefies is quite correct. The white loses water, partly by evaporation through the shell, and partly to the growing embryo via the yolk-sac and the yolk.

    • Perhaps this should be emended to read " when it is



becomes fluid when it is concocted in the earth or by means of incubation," and in that condition it becomes nourishment for the animals that are taking shape. When subjected to fire, or roasted, it does not become hard, because it is by its nature earthy in the same way that wax is ; and that is the reason why, when eggs are overheated, [unless they are from a liquid residue] ^ they become serous, and turn rotten (puria). The white, on the other hand, does not congeal as a result of frost, but tends rather to become fluid (I have given the reason earlier) ; and when subjected to fire, it becomes solid. This is why, when it is concocted in connexion with the generation of the young animals, it thickens ; for it is the white out of which the animal forms and develops, while the yolk becomes nourishment for it, and is the source from which the parts as they are formed at the various stages derive their growth. That, too, is why the yolk and the white are kept distinct and separate from each other by membranes, as having a different nature from each other. For an exact account of how these stand to one another both at the beginning of the process of generation and during the process of the young animals' formation, also for an account of the membranes and umbilical cords, what is \^Titten in the Researches should be studied ; for our present inquiry it is sufficient that thus much should be clear, viz., that once the heart has been formed (this comes first of all) and the Great Blood-vessel has been marked off from it, two umbiUcal cords extend from heated, it becomes soft ; and so when it is subjected to fluid, it turns rotten owing to the excess of fluidity " (c/. 753 a 34, above).

  • H.A, 561 a 3 - 562 b 2 ; but the description there is no fuUer.



753 b

T'^S" (fjXe^os reivovaiv, 6 fxev elg rov vfxeva rov 7T€pi€xovTa TO d))(p6v , 6 8' €T€pog €1? Tov vfxeva TOP )^opio€tSrj,^ og kvkXco irepLexet to t,ojov' ecrrt 8' ovTog Trepl tov vfxeva tov tov ooTpaKov. 8td p,ev O'uv OaTepov Xapi^dvei ttjv e/c tov (h^pov Tpo(f)yjv, 25 TO 8' (jj^pov ytVerat ttXcov vypoTepov yap ytVerat depiJiaLvofievov, 8et yap ttjv Tpo(f)r]v acopbaTaihit) ovaav vypav elvai Kaddnep Tolg (f)VToZs, ^fj 8e to TrpcoTov Kai ra ev Tolg cools yiyvopueva /cat to, iv Totg t,ipoig (fiVTOV ^iov tco Tre^u/ceVat yap €K tlvos XapL^dveL TTjv TTpwT'qv av^Tjaiv /cat Tpocjirjv. 6 8' 30 eTepog o/x^aAos" Teivet elg to rreptexov x^pi^ov. Set yap VTroXa^elv tol (Lotokov pieva t(x)V t,(i)(ov rrpos piev to (v^pov ovTCog e^^iv \t6v v€ott6vY OiGTrep TTpog ttjv purjTepa to. t,a)OTOKovp,eva epu^pva, OTOV iv Tjj p.rjTpl fj, eTTet yap ovk €Kt p€(f>ovTai ye iv Trj p,r]Tpl TO. (hoTOKovfieva, e/cAa/x^ap'et tl p.ipos 35 avTTJs' TTpog 8e tov e^coTaTOj vpeva tov aipiaTioSrj 754 a cog irpog ttjv vaTcpav. dpia 8e Trepl re to w^pov /cat TO xopLov TO dvaXoyov Trj voTepa to ooTpaKov tov cpov TTepL7Te<j>VKev, wcTTTep av ei rt? rrepLdeirj TTepi T€ TO ep,Ppvov avTO /cat irepl tyjv pLiqTepa oXrjv. ej^et 8' ovTcog, Stort Set to epi^pvov iv Trj vaTepa 5 etp-at /cat rrpog Trj purjTpL iv puev ovv Tolg l^cooTOKOvpbevoig rj voTepa iv Trj pbrjTpi ecrriv, iv he Tolg ^ Xopoeihij vulg. ^ seclusit Sus.

" Aristotle's two umbilical cords here are (1) the yolk-sac stalk and (2) the allantois. See figure, p. 369. ^ " See above, 753 b 2, n. 1 •= Cf. Harvey, " An egge is, as it were, an exposed womb ; ^ wherein there is a substance concluded, as the Representative and Substitute or Vicar of the breasts." 294


this blood-vessel, one to the membrane which surrounds the yolk, the other to the chorion-Hke membrane which surrounds the animal on all sides ; this one goes round inside the membrane of the shell." Through one of these cords the embryo receives the nourishment from the yolk ; and the yolk increases in bulk, becoming more fluid as it is heated,* since the nourishment, being corporeal, must be available in fluid form, just as it must for plants, and the embryos that are in process of formation, either within the egg or within the uterus, are to begin with living the life of a plant, since their first growth and nourishment they obtain through being fastened on to something. The other umbilical cord extends to the chorion which surrounds the embryo. In the case of the animals that are produced oviparously, we should think of them (a) as having the same relationship to the yolk as the viviparously formed embryos have to the mother, so long as they are within the mother ; for since the nourishment of the oviparously formed embryos is not completed within the mother, when they leave her they take a part of her out \\ith them ; (h) as having the same relationship to the outermost - the bloodlike - membrane as the other embryos have to the uterus. Also, the eggshell which encloses the yolk and the chorion gives the egg an envelope analogous to the uterus : it is as though you were to envelop both a viviparously produced embryo itself and its mother entire. '^ The reason why this is so is that the embryo must be in the uterus, i.e., in contact with the mother. Very well then : in the case of the viviparously produced animals, the uterus is in the mother ; but with the oviparously produced ones 295

754 a

ARISTOTLE (hoTOKoviievoig avdrraXiv, oiOTrep av ei ti? etVot ti^v fjLfjTepa ev rfj varepa etvat* to yap 0,776 T'^s" firjrpog yLvojxevov [r] Tpo(f)7]]^ ro d))(p6v euriv. aXnov 8' ort . r] €KTpo^ri ovK ev rfj pnqrpi earcv.

10 Av^avofievoiv Se Trporepov 6 o/x^aAos" af^TTtTrret 6 Trpo? TO â– )(opiov, StoTt TavTj] Set to ^oiov i^eXdeZv, TO Se AotTTOV Tou (oxpov Kal 6 ojLK^aAos" 6 et? to d>Xpov vcTTepov Sci yap e;^eti' Tpo(fyrjv evdvg to yevojjievov ovtc yap oltto ttjs p^rjTpos TiTdeveTau, St auTou Te ouk: evdv? hvvaTai Tropit^eadai tt]v 15 Tpo(f>riv hioTTep evTos elaepx^rai to (oxpov fieTa Tov opL^aXov, Kal Trepi^veTai -q adp^.

Td p.€v ovv €K Tcjbv TeXeioiv (pcov yivop^va dvpat,e TOVTOV yiyvcTai tov TpoTTOv eTri Te tojv opvidcov Kal TCOV TCTpaTToScDV, Oaa W0T0K€L to d)6v TO (TKXrjpoSepfJiov. SiaSrjAa Se TavTa ixdXXov ettI tmv p.€Lt,6voiv iv yap tols eXaTToaiv d(f>avrj Std ju,i 20 KpoTrjTa tu)V oyKcov iaTLV.

Ill "Eti 8' icTTLV woTOKOv TO Twv l)(dvo}v ydvog. I TouTcoi' Se TO. jxev e^ovTa KaTOj Tiqv voTepav dreAe? chov tLktei Std Tr]V irpoTepov eLprjpbevrjv alriav, to. Se KaXovp,€va aeXd)(rj tcov Ixdvojv iv 25 awTOt? jLtev (hoTOKeZ TeXeiov coov e^co Se ^woTOKel, TrXrjv ivo? ov KaXovai ^dTpa^ov ovTog S' wotok€l dvpat,€ TeXetov cLov pbovos. aiTia S' rj tov aajp-OTog (f)vai?' Tiqv Te ydp KecfiaXrjv TroXXaTrXaaiav e;;^et tov XoLTTOv awp^aTos, Kal TavT'r]v aKavdcoSr] Kai a(f)o8pa ^ seclusit Sus.

» See 718 b 23.

  • Lophius piscatorivs does not conform to the habits of the Selachians because it is not in fact a Selachian ; Aristotle wrongly includes it among them.



it is the other way round - the mother is in the uterus, as you might say, because in this case that which comes from the mother [the nourishment] is the yolk. The reason is that the embryo's period of nourishment does not reach completion within the mother.

As the embryos grow, the first of the umbilical cords to collapse is the one which connects to the chorion, because that is the point at which the young animal v,i\\ have to make its way out ; the rest of the volk and the cord which connects to it collapse later, because the young animal must have nourishment immediately it is hatched, as it is neither nursed by its mother nor able immediately to get nourishment by means of itself. That is why the yolk goes inside it together with the umbilical cord and the flesh grows round it.

Such is the manner in which animals which are brought to birth out of perfect eggs are produced in the case of those birds and fishes which lay a hardshelled egg. The points mentioned are to be seen more clearly in the larger animals ; in the smaller ones they are not so obvious owing to the small bulk of the animals.

Another member of the Ovipara is the tribe of III fishes. (ii.) Fishes: Those fishes whose uterus is low dovvTi lay an imperfect egg. The cause of this I have stated prexiously." The Selachian fishes as they are called produce a (a) Seiachia perfect egg internally though they are externally viviparous, except for one which they call the fishingfrog ^ ; this is the only one that lays a perfect egg externally. The cause of this is the nature of its body. Its head is several times as large as the rest of its body, and, besides that, spiny and extremely 297


754 a

rpax^tav' tocrTe^ StoTrep ouS' varepov elahex^Tat 30 Tovg veoTTOv?, ou8' i^ '^PXV^ i,a)oroK€i' to yap fjidyedo? Kal -q rpa^^UTTj? rfjs /ce^aA-^s" wajrep /cat elaeXOelv KCjoXvei, ovrco Kal i^eXdelv. irrel 8e juaAa/coSep/xov eo-rt to coov to Tciiv CTeAa;)(a)V (oi5 yap SwavTat (jKXrjpvveLV Kal ^rjpaiveiv^ ro Trepi^' ijjv ^(poTepoL yap roJv opvidojv elalv), ro tcov ^arpd)(<J^v <x)6v pLovov oTepeov can Kal ari^pov rrpos rrjv e^cu 35 acoTTjpiav, ra Se tcov dXXcvv vypa Kal p,aXaKa rr^v 754 b (f>vaLV o/ceTra^eTai yap ivros tco acopari tw Trjg

  • H 8e yeveatg €k tov (Lov tols tc ^aTpa;^ot? e'^o) TeXeiovpivoLS Kal rols ivrog rj avrx], toutols Se Kal TOts" Ta)v opvidcov rfj puev opLoia rfj Se Std(f)op6s 5 ioTLV. TrpcoTov pLev yap ovk exovat tov erepov 6p,(f>aX6v TOV els TO )(6pcov TeivovTa, 6 eariv vtto to TTcptexov oaTpaKov, tovtov S' aLTiov otl to irepi^ ocTTpaKov OVK e^^oDCTtv ouSev yap auTot? ;^pT^CTtp,ov aK€7Td^€L yap rj fi'qrrjp, to S' octTpaKov icrTi, Tots' iKTiKTOjjievoLS cpoXs dXecopd npos tols Ovpadev jSAajSas". eVei^' r) yeveais e^ aKpov pbiv iari tov

10 WOV Kal TOVTOLS, dAA' OVX '§ 7Tpoa7Te(f)VK€ npos TTjV vaTepav ol yap opvides eV rod o^eos yivovTai, ravTrf. 8' ffv rj tov (hov Trp6a(f>vot,s. a'iriov 8 oTt TO pev rdJv dpvidoiv ;^a>pt^eTat rrjs varepas, rwv Se TOtouTOJV ov irdvroiv dXXd rdJv TrXetcrTaJV npos rfj ^ (Lore PZ : om. vulg. ^ Kal lijpaiVeiv PZS : om. vulg.

" In several of the Selachia the J'oung have the habit of swimming into the mouth of the parent for shelter. This «98


rough ; so that the reason why it does not take its young ones in afterwards " is also the reason why it does not produce them alive at the outset : just as the size and roughness of its head prevents them from going in, so also it prevents them from coming out. Since, then, the egg of the Selachia has a soft shell (because they cannot make the envelope hard and solid, being colder creatures than birds are), the egg of the fishing-frog is the only one that is hard and stout, so as to keep it safe in the outside world ; the others' eggs are liquid and soft in nature, because they are inside the mother and get their shelter from her body.

The process of generation out of the egg is the same Developboth for the fishing-frogs, which are perfected exter- ^^br/J/^ nally, and for those Selachia which are perfected internally ; and as between the latter and the birds, it is partly similar, partly dissimilar. First of all, they lack the second umbilical cord which extends to the chorion under the surrounding shell, and the reason for this is that they have not got this shell round them, as it is no use to them, their shelter being provided by the mother ; whereas for eggs that are laid externally the shell is there to act as a protection against injury from without. Secondly, with these, as with birds, the process of generation originates from the extremity of the egg, though not at the place where it is attached to the uterus. A bird's development begins from the pointed end, which is the place where the egg was attached, the reason being that a bird's egg becomes separated from the uterus, whereas the eggs of most, though not all, may be the foundation of this remark ; cf. also H.A. 565 b 24 ff.


754 b

ARISTOTLE varepa rrpocmecfiVKe to wov reXetov {ov).^ ctt' 15 aKpco Se yiyvopievov rov t,cpov KaravaXicrKerai, to (hov, oiQTTep Kol Ittl Tcbv opviBoiv KoL Tcbv aXXojv (^(hcovy^ Tcbv aTToXeXvfJievojv, Kal reAo? TTpos Tjj voTepa 6 o/x0aA6? 7Tpoa7Te(f>VK€ tojv 7J8rj TeXeLOJv. ojJLOLoys 8' e'x^ '^*^' oacov aTToAeAurat to. cool, ttjs voTCpa?- evioLg yap avTcbv, orav reAetor yei^rat to a)6v, OLTToXveTai. 20 'Anop-qaeLev dv ovv tls 8ia tl hiatfyipovaiv at yeviaeis toIs opviai /cara tovto /cat toZs Ix^vaiv. atTtov 8 OTL Ta [xev tcov opvidcov K€)(C0pi(TlXeVOV €)(€t TO XevKov Kal TO a})(p6v, to. 8e tcov L^dvcov IJiovoxpoa, Kal TToivTrj jxefiLyixevov to toiovtov, coot ovdev K(oXv€L i^ ivavTias e-^^iv ttjv apxr^v ov yap 25 fMovov KaTO. T17V irpoacfivaiv iaTi tolovtov dXXa Kal KaTOVTLKpV , TTjV 8e TpO(f>r)V paStOl'^ eXK€LV €K TT]S vcTTepag rropois tloIv airo TavT7]s T-qg o-px^]?S'^Aor 8' CTTi TCOV pLT] aTToXvopievcDV (ocov iv* ivLOLS yap TCOV aeXaxt^v ovk oiTToXveTaL ttjs vaTcpas to ipov, aAA' ixofxevov [xeTaxojpel kcxtco TTpos ttjv 30 t,cpoTOKLav , iv ols TeXecodev to l,cpov e^et tov 6p.(j>aX6v €K TTJg VGTepas avrjXcop,ivov tov coov. <j)avep6v ovv otl Kal rrpoTepov CTeLvov ol TTopoi ^ (ov) coni. Platt.

  • (wtDv) Peck ; cf. infra v. 27 ubi wcDv om. Z.

' paStov Y, Uviter S : paov vulg.

  • eV om. Z.

" As in the " smooth dogfish " ; see note on 754 b 34, below.

^ Excluding, of course, the statement immediately pre 300


fishes of this class remain attached to the uterus even when they are perfect. As the young animal develops at the extremity, the egg gets used up (just as in the case of birds and the other eggs that have been released from the uterus), and at the final stage, by which the animal has reached its perfect development, the umbilical cord remains attached to the uterus." The like ^ holds good in the case of those Selachia whose eggs have been released from the uterus, there being some whose egg is released as soon as it is perfected.*^ In view of what has been said, the puzzle may be Differences raised why the processes of generation in birds and gj^^^l^an^" fishes differ in this respect. The reason is that in Seiachia. birds' eggs the white and the yolk are separate, whereas fishes' eggs are single-coloured, the contents being mixed up together throughout, so that there is nothing to prevent the " principle " in them being at the opposite end ; the egg is of similar composition both at the end where it is fastened and at the opposite end, and it is easy for it to draw the nourishment out of the uterus by means of passages which lead from this principle. This can clearly be seen in those eggs which do not get released, for in the case of some of the Selachia the egg does not get released from the uterus, but remains connected as it proceeds downwards to produce the young alive. In these cases, the young animal, after it has reached its perfect development, retains its umbilical cord joined to the uterus when the egg has been consumed. Thus it is plain that during the earher stages also, while ceding. He means the embryo develops at the extremity. The process Ls similar (" Hke "), not identical.

' That of the '* fishing-frog ; but see 754 a 26, n." 301


754 b

rov coov en ovrog Trept €K€lvo Trpo? rrjv varepav. TOVTo 8e avjJiPaiv€L, KadaTrep €L7TO[xev, iv rols yaAeot? Tot? Aeiots".

Aia(f)€pei jJLev ovv rj yiveais Kara ravra rcbv 35 L)(dvtov Tots opviai, /cat 8ia ras" elprj fxevas air tag 755 a ra o ctAAa avpL^aivet, rov avrov rpoTTov. rov re yap ofi(f)aX6v exovat, tov erepov (Laavrws , waircp OL opvides TTpog ro (x))(pov, ovrcos ot l^^dveg vpog TO oXov cpov {ov yap eariv avrov ro [xev XevKov ro S' (vxpov, aAAa fxovoxpojv Trdv), /cat rpi^ovrai 5 €K rovrov, KaravaXtaKopievov re evepxerai /cat 7TepL(j)veraL rj aap^ o/xotcus".

Ylepl fiev ovv raJv ev avrols jxev cooroKovvrcov reXeiov d>6v 6vpat,e 8e t^iooroKovvrcov rovrov e;;^et IV rov rpoTTOV t] yeveai?, ol he TrXeiaroL rcov aXXoiv IxOvcov eKrog (horoKovaiv, dreXes 8' <pov rravreg TrXrjv ^arpdxov irepl 8e rovrov ro airiov e'lpr^rai 10 TTporepov. e'lpr^rai 8e Kal Trepl rcov dreXrj riKrovrcov ro atriov.

  • H 8e yeveats /cat rovrcjv -q fiev e/c rov chov rov avrov ep^et rpoTTov ovTrep /cat rcov aeXa^cov rcov ivros cporoKovvrcov, ttXtjv rj y av^rjacg Ta;^eta /cat e/c p.iKpcov, /cat to euxo-rov rod coov cjKXijporepov. 15 7] he rov coov av^rjais o/zota toi? aKcoXrj^tv eartv Kal yap ra aKcoXrjKoroKOVvra rcbv ^cocov puiKpov aTToriKrei ro rrpcbrov, rovro 8' av^dverai, hi,* avrov

" The Mustehis laevis. The remarkable description of the placentoid structure in the embryo of this species will be found in H.A. 565 b 3 if . The structure is similar both in form and function to the placenta of a mammal, although its origin is not the same. It was rediscovered by Johannes 302


the creature was still enveloped in the egg, the passages extended to the uterus. This occurs, as we have said, in the smooth dogfish.* I have now mentioned the respects in which the process of generation of fishes differs from that of birds, and also the causes thereof. Otherwise, they both follow the same course. The fishes have one of the two umbiUcal cords, just as the birds have (in birds it connects with the volk, in fishes with the entire egg, because the fish's egg is all single-coloured and lacks the distinction into white and yolk), and they obtain their nourishment by means of this ; as it gets consumed the flesh in like manner encroaches upon it and grows round it.

I have now described the manner of formation of those fishes which produce a perfect egg internally and are \aviparous externally.

The majority of the remaining fishes are externally IV oviparous ; and all of them except the fishing-frog jf\^^^* produce an imperfect egg. The reason for this exception I have given earlier. I have also given the reason whj- the others produce imperfect eggs.*^ So far as the process of formation is concerned, the development from the egg follows the same lines as the internally oviparous Selachia, except that they start very small and grow very quickly, and the outside of the egg is harder. The growth of the egg is like (that of) larvae, for those animals which produce larvae produce something small to start with, which Muller in the 19th century (see J. Miiller, i7ber den glatten Hai des Aristoteles, Berlin, 1843 ; paper read Apr. 1839 and Aug. 1840). An account of the discovery, with Miiller's letters, is given by W. Haberling, Archiv f. Gesch. der Math., der Naturw. iind der Technlk, 10 (1937), 166-184. » At 754 a 26. " At 718 b 8.


ARISTOTLE 755 a , , V / /cat 01) Sia 7rp6a(l>vatv ovSefilav. to S' airiov TTapaTrXrjGiov orrep inl Trjs ^u^mtjs" Kal yap rj ^u/xt] e/c jJiLKpd? jjLeydXr] yiverai tov /xev arepecDrepov vypaivofievov , rov 8' vypov TTvevp.arovix€vov. Srj 20 pnovpy^Z 8e tovto tj rov i/jv)(ikov Oepfiov (f)V(ng iv ToZg ^ojot?/ ev Se rai? ^u/Ltat? i^ rou x^yiov rov GvyKpadevros depfiorrjg. av^averai [xev ovv rd (pd i^ dvdyKTjs jxev Sta ravrrjv rrjv alriav (e^^et yap TTepLrrtopia ^u^tDSe?), X^P^ ^^ "'^^ ^eXriovos' ev rals varepais ydp dSvvarov avroZs Xajji^dveiv 25 oXrjv rrjv cCv^rjaiv Bid rr]v rcov ^(pcov TToXvroKiav rovrcov. Bid rovro ydp Kal puKpd TrdpiTTav diroKpiverai /cai Tap^eiai/ Xajx^avei rrfv av^rjaiv, p,iKpd jxev Bid rd arevoxojprj rrjv varepav eivai rrpos rd rrXrjdos ru>v cpu)v, ra^v B ottcos jxt) xP^^^C^^'^^^ ^^ "U yevdaei Trepi rrjv av^rjaiv ^Beiprjrai rd yevos, eiret .30 /cat vvv rd ttoAAo, <f>deiperai rcov CKriKrop^vcov Kvqjjidrojv. Biovep TToXvyovov iari rd yevo? rd rcov ixOvojv dvafxax^raL ydp rj (f)vai9 rco TTXrjdei rrjv (pBopdv. elal Be rives ot Biap prjyvvvr ai rajv IxQvcjJv, otov rj KaXovjJLevrj ^eXovrj, Bid rd jxeyedog rcjv (pcov avrrj ydp dvri rov noXXd jxeydXa rd 35 Kvrjpiara lax^i tov ydp ttXtjOovs rj (f)vcrig d(f)eXovaa TTpoaedrjKe rrpds rd jxeyedog. "On fjiev ovv av^dverai re /cat St' rjv alriav rra 755 b Tptauja rcJbv cpaJv, e'lprjrai.

^ wots coni. Platt. - i


7J -;•

" Such as an umbilical cord.

Or " becoming inflated with pneuma." Cf. 762 a 19.

" Lit., " of the natural substance of the soul-heat " (a periphrasis). " Cf. 739 b 23, n.

" Cf. H.A. 567 h 23. One of the " pipe-fishes," perhaps 304


grows by its own means and not in virtue of any attachment. The reason for this is on a par \\ith the reason why yeast grows. Yeast, hke these, is small in bulk to start A\ith anH gets larger : this growth is due to its more sohd portion turning fluid, and the fluid turning into pneuma.^ This is the handiwork of the soul-heat '^ in the case of animals, of the heat of the humour blent with it in the case of the yeast. Eggs thus grow of necessity on account of this cause (/.e., they contain a yeast-like residue), but also they grow /or the sake of rvhat is better, since it is impossible for them to obtain all their gro^\â– th in the uterus owing to the prolific habit of these animals. That is why the eggs are quite small when they are discharged and why they grow quickly : they are small because the uterus is not roomy enoug-h to hold so large a number of eggs, and they grow quickly to prevent the destruction of their kind which would occur as a result of their spending a long time over the growing period of their formation. Even as it is, the majority of the fetations that are laid externally get destroyed. That is why the fish tribe is proHfic : Nature makes good the destruction by sheer weight of numbers. There are also some fishes, such as the one known as belone,^ which burst asunder owing to the size of the eggs, the fetations of this fish being large instead of numerous ; here Nature has taken away from their number and added to their size.

I have now described the growth of eggs of this sort and h«tve stated the Cause of it.

Synffnuthus acus. In tliis group (of which the well-known " sea-horoc " is another member) the male incubates the eggs in a brood-pouch formed by the pelvic fins. Aristotle correctly states at H.A. loc. c'lt. that the fisb is none the worse for its " bursting asunder." 305

755 b

ARISTOTLE V "On 8' woTOKOvcn /cat ovtol^ ol IxOveg, arjiielov TO Kal TOVS ^a)OTOKOVVTag TU>V l^dvOiV, olov TO.

aeXayrj, choroKelv iv avrots Trpcorov. SrjXov yap OTL TO yivOS oXoV eOTLV (hoTOKOV TO TOJV l-)(dvojv.

5 TeXog ixevTOL ovOkv Xafi^dvei tcov tolovtojv wcov, oacvv eoTi to fjiev drjXv to S' appev Kal yiyvovTai i^ ox^las, eav fxr] eTnppdvr) 6 dpp-qv tov dopov. elal Se TLVes OL <f)aai Travra? elvai Tovg l^Qva?^ O-qXeig e^o) TCOV acXa^aJv, ovk opdotg XeyovTe?. o'iovTai yap Sta(f)ep€LV tcjv vopLLt^op-ivajv dppevcov tovs 10 d'qXcts avTOJV coairep tCjv <^VTGiv iv octois" to p.kv Kap7TO(f)op€L TO 8' d-KapTTOv CGTiv, olov iXaCa Kal KOTLVO? Kal avKTJ Kal ipiveos' o/xotojs" Se /cat tovs Ixdug ttXtjv tcov aeXa)(dJv tovtol? yap ovk a^^tcr^7]Tovcnv. KaLTOL (oaavTcos re StaKetrrat ol dppeve? TTepL ra dopiKa ol t€ aeXaxcoSei? Kal ol ev 15 TW y€V€L Tcp TCx)V (poTOKCov, Kal aTTcpfia /caret Tr]v ^ Kal ovroi om. Z. ^ sic SYZ : tx6vi vulg.

" The argument seems to be this. Aristotle is arguing from the principle that the production of eggs, if a characteristic of any fishes, must be a characteristic of the whole tribe of fishes (cf. his enunciation of a similar principle below, 755 b 36 : it would be fantastic, he says, if the distinction of sexes were found in some fishes and not throughout the whole tribe of them, just as it is found throughout the whole tribe of Vivipara. Cf. also 759 b 14. and 34). Nobody, however, disputes that the Selachia, which are fishes, are oviparous (internally), nor that they have the distinction of sexes. Hence, ex hypothesi, the whole tribe of fishes is oviparous (though of course the eggs are " imperfect " ones), and has the sexes distinct. Thus the argument will be against those who hold that fish produce not eggs but larvae (see 757 a 29 If.), and do not have the sexes distinct. No 306


A proof that these fishes as well as the others V produce eggs is that even the viviparous fishes, such theories"* as the Selachia, produce eggs internally at the first (i) Fish are stage. Why is this a proof ? Because " it is plain that ous and do the nhok of the tribe of fishes is oviparous. At the l^^^^^ same time, no eggs of this sort reach perfection, - i.e., eggs of species where both males and females exist, and which are formed as the result of copulation - unless the male sprinkles his genital fluid (milt) upon them ; though there are some people who hold - â– incorrectly - that all fish are female apart from the Selachia. Their \\e\v is that the females differ from what are reputed to be males in the same way as those species of plants in which one tree will bear fruit and another \vill bear none (e.g., the olive and oleaster, the fig and caprifig).*^ They say it is just the same with fish, except in the case of the Selachia, where they do not dispute the point. But as a matter of fact there is no difference as regards their seminal parts between males of the Selachian fishes and males which belong to the oviparous group, and semen can doubt there were some who maintained that the eggs of fishes, which Aristotle holds to be true, though " imperfect," eggs, were on a par with the " eggs " out of which caterpillars and the like developed : the latter, however, Aristotle holds to be " larvae " and not true eggs (see 738 b 9 ff.) ; and larvae, of course, are often found in connexion with creatures in which (according to Aristotle) the sexes are not distinct and are formed without copulation. Thus, the two points on which Aristotle insists, (1) that fishes have sexes and copulate, and (2) that they produce eggs, not larvae, are mutuallycorroborative.

  • The exception is the erythrlnus ; see 741 a 36, n.

' See at)ove, 715 b :?5 : also H.A. 557 b 31. There seems to be no similar phenomenon in the case of the olive, but it was a common practice to call some trees male and others female : see Theophr. Hist, plant. 1. 8. 5, and cf. Soph. Tr. 1 196.


755 b

ARISTOTLE ojpav (f)aLV€Tai iKQXi^ojxevov . exovat 8e /cat varepas^ at ^T^Aetat- eSet 8' ov ixovov rovg looTOKOvvrag dAAa Kal tovs dXXovg ^x^tv fteV, dAAa Sta^epouCTa? rcijv ojoro kovvt ojv , [waTrep at rjfxiovoL €v TO) yevet tcDv Ao^oupcop-,]^ eiTrep t^j/ ^t^Au to 20 yevo? Trdv, dAA areKvoi rives avroJv. vvv 8' ot fiev exovai dopLKo. ol ^' vcrrepas, Kal Iv airaaLV eqcj 8i;otr, ipvOpivov /cat x^^^V^> ^^'^'^ iarlv rj 8ta0opd- ot fjiev yap dopcKa exovaiv, ol 8' varcpas.^ -q 8' aTTopia 8t' rjv ovrcos VTTo\ap,^dvovat,v , evXvros TO avpu^aZvov aKovaaaiv. ovdkv yap tcov ox^vo{xevojv TToXXd (f)aat, tlkt€iv, Aeyovre? opdojg' oaa 25 ycup i^ avrajv yewa re'Aeta t] ^aia rj cod, ov ttoXvTOK€L ovrcos co(T7T€p OL cporoKovvres rcov Lxdvcov aTTAerov ydp ti ro^ rovrcov ttXtjOos tcov cocov iariv. dXXd rovro ovxl crvvecopdKeaav, on ovx ojxolo rpOTTCOS Tols TCOV OpvWcOV €X€l, TO, TTCpl TO. (lid TCOV Ixdvcov. ol fxev ydp opvides Kal tcov rerparrohcov 30 oora cooTOKeZ, /cat et rtva rcov aeXaxcoScov, reXeiov cpov yevvwai, Kal ov Xafx^dvei i^eXdov av^-qaiv ol 8' Ix^ves dreArj, /cat Xafx^dvei dvpat,€ rd cod rrjv av^rjaiv. ert /cat errl rcov [xaXaKicuv rov avrov kx^t rpoTTOv Kal iirl tcov fiaXaKoorpdKcov , d Kal ^ haec verba post rives avrwv transtulit Platt ; ego seclusi. fortasse plura corrupta.

" oi fiev . . . varepas secl. A.-W. ' Tl TO Z : Tl vulg.

" i.e., those which are in fact males.

See note on 777 b 5.

" Platt transposes these words to follow " of young " a few lines above ; no doubt they were part of a marginal note on 308


clearly be seen oozing out from males of both groups at the proper season. Also, the females have a uterus ; but if the whole tribe of fishes really were female, some of them being unproductive of young," then not only those fishes which lay eggs but all the others as well ought to have a uterus, though no doubt different in form from that of the ones which lay the eggs [hke female mules in the class of bushytailed * animals]. In fact, however, while some fish have a uterus, others have seminal parts, and this distinction is found in all species except two, the erythrinus and the channa'^ : some have seminal parts, others have an uterus. The puzzle which makes people put forward this theorj- is easily solved when we hear what the facts are. These people allege - and here they are quite correct - that none of the animals which copulate produces many young, for of all the animals which generate out of themselves either perfect animals or perfect eggs, none is so proUfic as the oviparous fishes, the number of their eggs of course being something enormous. But this point they have overlooked : eggs of fishes do not behave in precisely the same way as those of birds. Birds, o\iparous quadrupeds, and any o^^parous Selachians there may be,* produce a perfect egg, and once it has left the parent it grows no further ; fish on the other hand produce imperfect eggs, which do grow after they have left the parent. Furthermore, the same occurs in the case of the Cephalopods and Crustacea ; and these creatiu-es can actually be seen the word arcKvoi, but they are meaningless and irrelevant anywhere in the text.

â– * For erythrinus see note, 741 a 36 ; the channa is another species of Serranus, probably S. scriba.

' The fishing-frog ; but see 754 a 26, n.



755 b

(TvvSva^oiJieva opdrac Sid to xpovLov etvat top 35 avvSvaajjiov avrwv /cat tovtojv ^avepov iari to fiev dppev 6v, ro 8' e-)(ov varipav. drorrov 8e /cat 756 a ro jxr] ev Travrl (rcpy^ yevet, ravrrjv elvai rrjv hv vafjLLv, coGTTep ev rots' ^ojoro/cot? to fxev dppev to he drjXv. aiTiov 8e rot? eKeivw? Xeyovai Trjs dyvoias to tols hia^opds per] Si^Aa? eti'at rravTOSarrd? ovaas Trepi re rd? 6-)(eias tlov ^cpcov /cat to.? 5 yeveaeis, dAA' e^ oXiyoiv^ decopovvTas oieadat helv e)(eLV ojjLouos eTTt ttolvtcov.

Atd /cat ot XeyovTes rds" Kvqaeig elvai e/c tov avaKaiTTeiv to aTrepfia tov? OrjXeLg tcjv l)(^dvcov, ov KaTavevorjKOTe? eVia Xeyovatv ovTcog. vtto tov avTov yap Kaipov ot t' dppeveg tov dopov /cat at QrjXeiai to. <hd €)(Ovai, /cat oaro) av fj iyyvTepcv rj 10 ^T^Aeta TOV TLKTeiv, TOTe TrXeicov /cat vypoTepos 6 Qopos ev TO) dppevL eyyiveTai. /cat ojoirep rj av^rjai? /card TOV avTov xpovov tov dopov ev toj dppevL /cat TOV cpov ev Tjj drjXeia, ovtco /cat rj d(j)ecns avpL^aU'ef ovTe yap at ^rjAetat ddpoa eKTUKTOvaiv, dXXd /card p^iKpov, ov6 OL dppeves ddpoov dcfjidai tov dopov.

15 /cat TavTa TrdvTa avpc^alvet. /card Xoyov. coairep yap /cat to twv opvecDV yevos ev eviots 'ia)(ei, fjiev (hd dvev dp^etW/ oAtya Se /cat oAtyd/cts", dAA' i^ dp^et'as" Ta TToXXd, tovt' avTO avp^l^acvei /cat evrt tcov Ixdvcov, TjTTOv he. dyova he /cat dp.(f)OTepoi? yi 20 verat Ta aurd/xara edv p.r] emppavr) to dppev, ev oaoLS yeveaiv avTcov /cat to dppev eoTiv. tols p^ev ovv opviai, hid to reAeta efteVat Ta chd, ert evTos ^ TU) supplevit Platt. ^ sic PSYZ* : oMyov vulg. ' oxeias Peck : Kinjaecus vulg. 310


copulating, for with them copulation goes on for quite a long time, and it is plain here that one is male and the other has a uterus. Also, it would be odd if this characteristic *" were present in a portion of the group and not in the whole of it, just as male and female are found in all the ^'i\ipara. The reason for the ignorance of those who make the statement mentioned is that the differences in the copulation and generation of the various animals are manifold, but they are not obWous, and our friends base their study on a few instances and think the same holds good for all.

So too those who assert that female fishes conceive (2) The as a result of swallowing the male's semen have Jfrnii^" failed to notice certain points. Thus in fact milt is present in the male and eggs in the female at about the same time, and the closer the female is to laying the eggs the more abundant and the more fluid becomes the milt in the male. And just as the growth of the milt in the male and that of the egg in the female is simultaneous, so also the emission of them both is simultaneous : the females do not lay all their eggs at once, but a few at a time, and the males do not emit all their milt at once. All this is as we should expect. In the bird tribe, eggs are in some instances present without impregnation, though such eggs are not numerous and they occur but seldom, most eggs being the result of impregnation. Exactly the same occurs in fish, though to a smaller extent. These spontaneous eggs, both in birds and fish, are infertile unless (in those species where there are males as well) the male sprinkles them. With birds, o\^ing to the fact that the eggs have reached " Ihjnamis, i.e., the existence of the two sexes. Cf. the beginning of ch. 5.


756 a

ARISTOTLE ovTOJv avdyKT] rovro avfi^i]vai- rotg 8' lx6vai 8ia TO aTeXrj /cat e^co Xafx^dvetv rrjv av^rjaiv Trdaiv^ Kov i^ ox^ia? yevT]raL to (x>6v, oficos rd e^co imp 25 paivofxeva^ cr(x)t,eraL, Kal ivravda avaAicr/cerai o dopos Tols dppeuLv. Sto Kal cruy/carajSatVet iXarTOVfJL€vog dp.a TOLS (Lois TOLS iv ToXs Oif^XeaLv del yap Tot? iKTiKTop-ivoLs ivLppaLVOvcn rrapai^oXovdovvTeg. ' Q-are appeves fxev Kal dr^Xeis etVi Kal 6)(evovraL TTowre?, €1 fir} ev rcvc yeVei dSiopiarov ecrrt to OrjXv 30 Kai, to dppeVy Kai dvev ttjs tov dppevos yovi]s ov yiveTai tcjv tolovtcov ovdev.

Su/xjSaAAerat Se 7rp6? ttjv drrdTrjv avTols Kal to Ta^vv etvai tov crvvSvaafxdv twv tolovtcjdv Ixdvojv, woTe TzoAAoy? XavQdveiv Kal twv dXi€a)V ovdel? ydp avTcbv ovdev Trjpel toiovtov tov yvwvai xj^piv oAA' ojucos" wp^fidvos 6 avvhvaapLos icTiv. tov avTOV ydp TpoTTOv ot re SeA^ti^e? ox^vovTat Tvapa 7TL7TTOVT€S Kal ol l^OveS \oaOLS {j".^)* ep^Ttoht^eL TO oupatov],* aAAo. tcjv pev SeA^tVcov ;)^/30VtajTepa rj aTToAufftV eCTTt, Tcov 8e tolovtojv lx^vcov Tax^la. SioTTcp TavTTjv ovx opwvTeg, TO,? S' dvaKai/jets tov 5 dopov Kal TOiV (Lcov, Kal ol aXiels nepl Tfjs Kvrjaecos Toyv Ixdvcov TOV evT^drj Xeyovai Xoyov Kal TedpvXrj ^ locus fortasse corruptus. pro koX e^w Xajx^dvew habent avfiPalveiv PSY ; pro Kav habent el /xr] evros Y, el Kal fir/ evros PS. fortasse scribendum 8ia to aTeXrj {e^Uvai} koX e^to (eari tcAo?) Xafipdveiv {axmep koX e^co) avfi^aiveiv ttjv av^Tjaiv ndcnv, Kal fir] eWdj* (were) Kav kt\. cf. 757 a fin.

^ {fiovov) A.-W., <.fi6va> Sus., Btf. ; pro Kav €$ oxetas . . . aw^erai et cum mas eiecerit sperma super ipsa recipivnt virtutem suam et fiunt convenientia generationi {=yiverai yovifjLa) S. * <jirj) Platt, cf. H.A. 540 b 10 et 23.

  • seel. Platt, coll. H.A. loc. cit.



a perfected state when they are discharged, this must happen while they are as yet within the mother ; but the eggs of fish, without exception, are imperfect when discharged and continue their gro\^'th afterwards ; hence, even if the egg has come into being as the result of impregnation, still, the ones which persist safe and sound are those which get sprinkled after they have been discharged ; that is where the milt of the males is used up, and that is why it comes down in smaller quantities at the same time that the production of eggs by the females diminishes, for the males always follow up the eggs and sprinkle them as thev are laid.

Thus fish are male and female, and they copulate, all of them (unless there be some species ° where the sexes are not distinct), and no fish at all of any sort comes into being apart from the semen of the male.

Another point which helps to deceive these people is this. Fish of this sort take only a very short time over their copulation, with the result that many fishermen even never see it happening, for of course no fisherman ever watches this sort of thing for the sake of pure knowledge. All the same, the copulation has been observed. The fish copulate in the same way as dolphins do, by placing themselves alongside of each other [that is, those which are (not) hampered by the tail]. Dolphins, however, take longer to relieve * themselves, whereas fish of this sort do so quickly. The fishermen do not notice this, but they do notice the swallowing of the milt and eggs by the female, and so they join the chorus and repeat the same old stupid tale that we find told " Erythrinus and channa. *> See note, 718 a 2.


756 b

ARISTOTLE jxevov, ovTTep Kal 'H/adSoTo? o [JuvdoXoyo?, d)s KvtaKofievojv rojv txOvcov €k rov avaKairTeiv tov oopov, ov crvvopoJVTes on tout' earlv ahvvarov . 6 yap TTopos 6 Sia rov aropLaros elaioiv elg rrjv 10 KoiXiav cf>€p€L, dAA' ovK els to.? varepas' Kal to pi,€v €LS TTjv KoiXiav iXdov avayKT) rpo<^rjv yiveadai {KaTa7T€TT€TaL yap), at S' vcrrepai, (fyatvovTai TrX-^pcLs (pojv, d TTodev elaijXdev;^ VI '0/xoicos' 8e Kal Trepl rrjv rcov opvidoiv yevecriv e;^et. elal yap rives ol Xiyovat Kara ro arofia 15 jJilyvvaOaL rovs re KopaKa? Kal rrjv l^tv, Kal rcov rerpaiTobcxyv riKrew Kara ro arop^a rrjv yaXrjv. ravra yap Kal ^ Ava^ayopag Kal rcov dXXwv nves (f>vaiKcov XeyovuL, Xiav aTrAcDs" Kal daKe7Tra>g Xeyovres, Trepl [xev ovv rcov opvldcov e/c avXXoyLap,ov hia^jjevhop^evoi rch r'r]v p,ev d;^etav oXiyaKig opdadai 20 rrjv rcov KopaKcov, rrjv Se rolg pvyx^cri rrpos dXXrjXa KOLVcoviav TToXXaKis, rjv Travra TToielrat rd KopaKcoSr] rcov dpvecov ^rjXov 8e rovro evl rcov ridaaevop,evcov koXolcjov. ro 8 avro rovro TTOiel /cat ro rcov Trepiarepcbv yevos' dAAa 8ta rd /cat o^^^ev6p.eva ^alveodai, 8ta rovro ravrrjs ov rervxT^Kaac 25 rijs (f>iqp.r]s. rd 8e KopaKcoSes yivog ovk eanv dcfypohiaiacrriKov {eari ydp rcov dXiyoyovcov) , indJTTrai 8' •^'Stj^ Kal rovro ox^vop^evov. rd Se 817 p,7} cruXXoyit,eadaL ttcos el? rd? varepa? d(f>iKvelrai rd ^ sic interpunx. A.-\V. ; etV^^Aev. vulg. ; fortasse d ttoOcv elarjXOev. scribenduin.

^ encjTTTai, S' 1781; Z : ivel utTTTai y' T]8r] Vulg. (ye S';^ SY).



by Herodotus " the fable-teller, to the effect that fish conceive by swallowing the milt. It never strikes them 'that this is impossible, but of course it is, because the passage whose entrance is through the mouth passes do-s^-n into the stomach, not into the uterus, and whatever goes down into the stomach must of necessity be turned into nourishment, because it undergoes concoction. The uterus, however, as we can see is full of eggs ; so we ask, how did they find their way there ? It is the same with the generation of birds. Thus VI there are those who say that ravens and ibises unite ^rroneous by the mouth, and that one of the quadrupeds, the about weasel, brings forth its young by the mouth. This is, ^^frd"**" in fact, alleged by Anaxagoras and some of the other «*«physiologers ; but their verdict is based on insuflicient e^^dence and inadequate consideration of the matter. (1) So far as the birds are concerned, thev ' have reasoned themselves into an erroneous conclusion, since the copulation of ravens is seldom witnessed, whereas they are frequently observed uniting with each other by their beaks, which is something that all birds of the raven family do, as is plain for everyone to see in the case of domesticated jackdaws. Precisely the same thing is done by birds of the pigeon family ; but as their copulation is plainly observable as well, they have not succeeded in quaUf^ing for the heroes' part in this amazing storv'. Actually, birds of the raven group are not unduly sexual : it is one of the groups that produce but few young ; still, like other birds, they have been observed in the act of copulation. It is odd, however, that our friends do not reason out how the » Hdt II. 93.



756 b

aTTepfxa hia rrj? KotAi'a? Trerrovar]? del to iyyivo fjLcvov, KadaTTep ttjv Tpo(f}-qv, droTTOv. varepa? 8' 30 ep^ouai /cat ravra ra opvea, Kal wa (f)aLV€raL Txpos Tols v7Tol,(x)fxaaLV. Kal rj yaXrj, KadaTTep rdXXa rerpdiToha, tov avrov rpoTTov €)(€i e/ceiVots" Tag varepas- e^ cSv els to aropia tttj ^ahielrai ro epi^pvov; dXkd Sta to TtKTeiv TrapbiTav puiKpa ttjv ya\7]V, KadaTTep Kal rdAAa to. a;^t^d7ro8a, TTepl cSi' 757 a vcTTepov epovpiev, tco 8e OTopiaTi ttoXXo-kls /xera cf)epetv Tovs" veoTTovg, TavTTjv TTeTToirjKe ttjv 86^av.

^vr]6tKcbg Se Kal Atav 8t,eiftevapi€VOL Kal ol TTepl Tpoxov Kal vatvrjs XeyovTes. (f)aal yap ttjv pbev vaLvav TToXXoi, tov 8e Tpoxov YipoScopos 6 Hpa 5 KXewTT]?, 8uo alSola e)(eiv, dppevos Kal OiqXeoSy Kal TOV piev Tpoxov avTov avTov ox^veiv, ttjv 8' ti'aip'av ox^veiv Kal ox^veadai Trap* eTos. coTrrat yap rj uati^a ev exovaa alholov ev eviois yap tottois" ov arrdvLS ttjs deoipiag- aAA' exovcriv at vaivai vtto TTjv KepKov opLoiav ypapbprjv tco tov d-qXeos alBoio).

10 exovai piev ovv Kal ol dppeveg Kal at dr^Xeiai to TOtovTov crqpLelov, aAA' aAtWovrai ol dppeves /xdA XoV 8t6 TOt? €K TTapoSoV deCOpOVOL TaVTTjV eTTOLTjae TTjV ho^av.

« In Bk. IV.

  • This animal cannot be identified. It must be distinguished from the genus now called Trochus, which are shellfish. No species of mammal is normally hermaphrodite.

" See also H.A. 579 b 15 ff.



semen manages to pass through the stomach and arrive in the uterus, in view of the fact that the stomach concocts everything that gets into it, as it does the nourishment. Besides, these birds have a uterus, just like other birds, and eggs can plainly be seen up towards the diaphragm. (2) The weasel, too, like other quadrupeds, has a uterus of exactly the same sort as theirs ; and how is the embryo going to make its way from that uterus into the mouth ? This notion is really due to the fact that the weasel produces very tiny young ones (as do the rest of the fissipede animals, of which we shall speak later)," and that it often carries them about in its mouth.

(3) There Ls another silly and extremely wrongheaded story which is told about the trochos * and the hyena, '^ to the eifect that they have two pudenda,, male and female (there are many who assert this of' the hyena ; Herodorus of Heraclea ** asserts it of the trochos), and that whereas the trochos impregnates itself, the hyena mounts and is mounted in alternate years. In some localities, however, there is ample opportunity for inspection, and the hyena has been observed to possess one pudendum only ; but hyenas have under the tail a Une similar to the female pudendum. Both male and female ones have this mark, but as the males are captured more frequently, casual inspection has given rise to this erroneous idea.* •* Heraclea Pontica, a colony of Megara, on the south shore of the Black Sea, about 100 miles east of the Bosporus. Herodorus (fl. c. 400 b.c.) was the father of the sophist Bryson (both are mentioned at H.A. 563 a 7 and 615 a 9). He wrote a History of Heracles, which seems to have contained a great variety of matter. • See add. note, p. 565.



  • AAAa nepl /xev tovtcov aAts" ra eipr]yi4va.

VII Ylepl Se T-^s" TcDr l^Bvoiv yevcactos OLTToprjaeiev av 15 ris 8ta TtVa Trore alrlav rcjv p-ev creXaxiJ^BoJv ovd at ^TyAeiat to, KvqpLara ovd ol appeveg aTToppaivovres opojvrai rov dopov, tojv Se p.'fj ^iporoKOJV /cat at dr^Xeiai ra oia /cat ot dppeves rov dopov. oXtiov S' OTi TO yevo? ov TToXvaTrepp^ov oAoj? to TcDv (TeAa;)^coSajv /cat eTt^ at ye ^T^Aetai irpog ra> 20 Sia^tij/xaTt Tcts" varipas exovaiv. to. yap appeva Tcov dppevcov /cat to, ^T^Aea tcDv ^T^Aeajt'^ opLoicjs hia^epovoLV oXiyoxovarepoi yap irpos ttjv yovrjv OL CTeAa;;^c68ets" elaiv. to S' dppev yevos iv Tot? choTOKOL?, KadaTTep at diqXeiai to. cod Std TrXrjdo^ aTTOTLKTOvcriv , OVTOJS e/cetvot aTToppaivovaiv ttXcloj 25 y dp exovai 6op6v ^ oaov Trpos rrjv 6x^io.v LKavov /LtaAAov yap ^ovXerai tj ^vaig hanavdv rov 6op6v Ttpos TO avvav^eiv rd coa, orav aTToreKT] rj drjXeia, T] TTpos rrjv i^ '^PXV^ avaraaiv. KadaTrep ydp ev T€ Tot? dvco /cat Tots" UTToyuot? etpTjTai Adyots", rd p,kv rdJv opvewv a)d reXeovrai euro?, rd Se rtov 30 Ix^vcov €Kt6s. rpoTTov ydp Ttva eot/ce Tot? crKOjXrjKOroKovaiv eVt yap aTeAeWepov TTpoterat ro KV7jp,a TCt (TKCDXrjKOTOKa TCOV l^CpCOV . djJi^OTepOLS Se TTjV TeXelcoaLV /cat Tot? rdJv opvWcov cpols /cat Tot? tcov l^dvcov TTOtet TO dppev, dXXd toIs p,€v tcov opvidcov evTos (TeAeouTat ydp evTos), toXs Se tcov Ixdvcov 35 e/CTo? Sta to e^io Trpoteadai aTeAeV, eTret cryp.j8atVet 757 b 7^ ^^ dpL(j>OTepoiV tuvtov.

^ oTt Y. ^ StJAcwi' E, Btf. : Oj/Xeuov vulg.


GENERATIatION of animals, III. VII.

1 have now sa^-^^d-eggs become fertile," and eWith regard to t^npf^rl bv t>»»^ vix-iJix^rc.rJ'^K/zle VII may be raised, what the Cause can possibly be why I^^°s.^ neither the females of Selachian fishes are seen shedding their fetations nor the males their milt, whereas the males and females are observed so doing in the case of non-viviparous fishes. The reason is that in general the class of the Selachians is not rich in semen : and also in the females the uterus is up towards the diaphragm." Of course males of one class differ from males of another, and females similarly ; and the fact is that the Selachians yield less semen than most. With the oviparous fishes, the males shed their milt, just as the females lay their eggs, because there is such an abundance of both ; the males have more milt than the amount which suffices for copulation, because Nature prefers to expend the milt in helping to enlarge the eggs after the female has laid them, rather than in constituting the eggs at the outset. This remark is explained by what has been said both in our earlier discussion and also not long ago, viz., the eggs of birds are perfected inside the parent, but the eggs of fish outside. In a way, fish resemble the larva-producing animals, for the latter deposit a fetation which is even more imperfect still. The perfecting in both cases, birds' eggs and fishes', is accomplished by the male. With birds this is done within the parent animal, because a bird's egg is perfected inside ; vriih fishes, outside, because the egg is in an imperfect state when it is deposited outside. The upshot however is the same in both cases.

" And therefore the eggs are brought to perfection inside the parent.


757 b

ARISTOTLE 'A.AAa TTcpl iikv rovTCxiV aAt? ra elrcqve^iia ytverai 'y6vi,f).%- .^^ .w-^-.y^wPyoov '^>f=v^ac- ^T^pov yevov? rcjv appivcov /LierajSaAAet Tr]v (f)vaiv els rov vcrrepov o)(€vovra' /cat ra oiKela Se/ avau^Tjra^ ovra av 5 SiaAtVry* rrjv op^etW, orav 6)(^e'uarf ttolXlv, TTOiet Ta-)(eZav Xajx^dveiv ttjv av^rjacv ov fievroi Kara TTcivTa Tov xpovov, dAA' edvTTep Trporepov yevTjTai rj o;(€ta TTplv [Mera^aXelv'^ els rrjv tov XevKov olttoKpiaiv. ToZs he rGiv l)(9vcov ovdev copiarai' roiovTov, aAAo. TTpog to acj^eadai Ta)(eojg eTTippaivovoLV^ 10 ol dppeves. airiov 8' on ov hixpoa ravra- hioirep ovx wpLcrrai roiovros Kaipos Tovrotg oio? eTrl rwv opvidcov. TOVTO Se av[JL^€^T]Kev evXoycos' orav yap TO XevKov d<j)Cjopiap,evov rj Kal to wxpov a/n aXX'qXoiv, ex^i rjSrj rrjv (xtto tov dppevos dpx'^v'^ [^'•S"]^" TavTiqv yap avp^^aXXerai to dppev. Ta fiev oiiv 15 vTTrjvefiLa Xa/jL^dvei ttjv yeveaiv fJiexpi' tov ivSexofjievov avTOLS. TeXeaidrjvat jaev yap els C^ov dSvvarov (Set yap aladi](TeoJs) , ttjv Se dpeTTTLKrjv Swa/xtv T7y? ipvxyjs ^X^^ '^^ ™ df^Xea Kal to. dppeva ^ hie addit 2 quando femina coierit existentibus Hits ovis ■in matrice.

  • SrJ PSY. fort. (Jjxevfieva 8e scribendum, vel potius Kal TO, oxela 8e, dv dvav^rj ij rd oia 8ia ro SiaXemeiv ktX.

^ avav^Tj Z : dvav^ijadai S et om. ovra.

  • SiaXiTTTj Platt : SioAetVr? vulg.

^ dxevarj Platt : dxevdfj vulg. : 8' dx^vBrj PSY.

^ fifraPaXelv P: ^erajSaAAetv vulg. ' avvioTarai Z.

  • imppalvovaLV Z : dnoppaivovatv vulg.

  • lacunam hie statuit Platt.

^° etV om. S ; seclusi : els tovto coni. A.-W. et per hunc modum erit conveniencia spermatis maris S. fortasse alad-qaiv scribendum, vel els . . . dppev secludenda.



In birds, wind-eggs become fertile," and eggs Wind-eg previously impregnated by the treading of one sort of cock clxange their nature to that of the cock which treads the hen later ^ : and also, where one and the same cock is concerned,*' if he has left off treading the hen and the eggs are not growing on that account, he makes them grow quickly when he resumes the treu-ling. This however cannot happen at any and every period ; the treading must take place before the change occurs when the white of the Ggg becomes separate. In the case of fishes' eggs there is no such point fixed, but the males sprinkle *hem without delay to keep them in sound condition. The reason is that fishes' eggs are not doublecoloured : that is why in their case there is no such fixed time as there is for birds' eggs. This situation is what we should expect, for once the white and the yolk have been distinctly separated from each other, they already '^ possess the principle that comes from the male,* since the male contributes [towards] this. Thus wind-eggs attain to generation in so far as it is possible for them to do so. It is impossible for them to be perfected to the point of producing an animal, because sense-perception ^ is required for that ; the nutritive faculty of the Soul, however, is possessed by females as well as by males and by all " Probably there should here be inserted " if the hen is trodden by the male while they are in the uterus."

  • This is qualified below, 757 b 27 fF.

' The force of oiKela seems to be that the eggs are the cock's " own " in the sense that he and not some other cock originally impregnated them. But see critical note.

'* And therefore cannot be altered by another cock.

' See 767 b 17 ff., and references there given in note.

' Which is supplied by the male.

M 321

ARISTOTLE Kal iravra ra ^covra, Kaddrrep eipr^rat TToXXaKigbtoTTep avTO^ TO d)6v oi? fxev (f)VTOv Kvrjfjia reAetdv 20 eoTLV, d)s 8e t,coov dreXes. el jjiev ovv firj ivrjv dppev iv TO) yevei avTOJv, iyLyver av ojairep Kal enl raJv L-)(dvcoVy eLTrep eari tl toiovtov yevog olov dvev dppevos yevvdv elpiqTaL Se irepi avrojv /cat Trporepov, on ov ttcu (Lrrrat iKavcos. vvv 8' ecrriv Iv irdai rots opviai to puev drjXv to S' dppev, axrO^ fj 25 fJiev (fiVTOv, T€TeXeojKev (8t07re/3 ov pLera^dXXei rrdXcv jxeTa TTjv 6)(eLav),^ ^ 8' ov (jiVTOv^ ov TCTeXecoKev, oi)8' dTTO^aivei e^ avTOV erepov ovdev ovTe yap COS" (f>VT6v aTrAo)? ov9^ a»? Cd>ov* e/c avvSvaapid% yeyovev. Ta 8' e^ oxeias fiev yevojjieva cvd, 8taKeKpLfxeva 8' et? to XevKov, yiveTai Kara to TrpdJTOV 30 dx^vaav ex^L yap a/z^oTepa? -^817 Ta? dpxds.

VIII Tov avTOV Se Tpoirov Kal Ta fiaXdKia TTOLelraL Tov TOKov, olov ar]7TLai /cat Ta ToiavTa, Kal Ta fxaXaKOGTpaKa, olov Kdpa^oi Kal Ta crvyyevrj tov TOLS' Tt/CTet yap e^ dxelas Kal TavTa, Kal avvhval,6 35 p,ePov TO dppev to) diqXei TToXXdKLS wTTTai. BiOTrep oi38' loTopLKcog ovSe TavTr) (j>aivovTaL XeyovTes ol 758 a ^doKovTeg rovs Ix^vs navTag elvai drjXeis Kal ^ avro Platt : avrov viilg.

  • haec verba ad finem cap. transtulit Platt, recte, nisi omnino omittenda.

^ quia non sunt animalia S.

  • <f)DT6v , . . ^a)Ov Platt : (fyinov . . . t,a)Ov vulg.

" At 741 a 34 ff.

  • Platt transposes these words to the end of the chapter. " See 731 a 2, 3.

Nutritive soul and sensitive soul, the latter being supplied by " the principle of the male." 322


living things, as has been said repeatedly ; hence the egg itself, regarded as the fetation of a plant, is perfect, but regarded as the fetation of an animal it is imperfect. If there were no such thing as a male in the class of birds, the egg would have been formed as it is in fishes, supposing there really is some species which generates without a male ; though I mentioned earlier ° in this connexion that this has not yet been sufficiently observed. Actually, however, both sexes exist in all species of birds ; so that, qua plant, the >\ind-egg has reached perfection (and that is why it does not change any more after impregnation),^ qua non-plant, on the other hand, it has not reached perfection, and nothing else results from it, since it has been formed neither as a plant simply and directly '^ nor as an animal by means of copulation. As for eggs which are the result of copulation, however, but which have been distinguished into white and yolk, these are formed according to the male which impregnated them first, since by that time they possess both the required principles.** The production of their young is accomplished in VIII the same manner by the Cephalopods - sepias and l^- ^lood i_ 1-1 11 i" /-I f • 1 1 lessanimals.

the hke- and by the Crustacea - caraboi * and the (i.) Reprocreatures akin to them. They too lay eggs as a cephaio-"' result of copulation ; many instances have been pods and observed of the male uniting with the female. So â„¢' **'^' here we have another score on which we can con\ict of a lack of scientific accuracy those who allege that all fish are female and produce eggs without copula

  • At P. A. 683 b 25 Aristotle makes four main groups of of Crustacea : (1 ) caraboi, {2) astacoi, (3) carides, (4) carcinoi, corresponding roughly to ( 1 ) lobsters, (2) crayfish, (3) prawns and shrimps, (4) crabs.


758 a

ARISTOTLE TLKTCLV ovK i^ d;^eta?' ro yap ravra juev e^ ox^^ag OLeadai, eKclva he fx-q, dav^aarov eX re tout' eXeXiqdeL, or^j-ielov dneLpLas. yLveraL 8e o avvhva5 CT/Ltos" TOVTCov ;;^poviceJTepos" ttolvtcov, wanep rujv evropLCJv, evXoyoiS' avat^a yap eari, hioirep i/jvxpo.

T7)V (f)V(nV.

Tats" ju.ev ovv cn^Trtai? Kal rats revdiai Suo to. Old ^aiveTai Std to StrjpdpaxrdaL rr]v vcrrepav Kal (f)aLvea6aL hiKpoav to he rcov TToXvTTohojv ev d)6v, atriov S' Tj jJLopcfyrj arpoyyvXr] ttjv Iheav ovaa Kat 10 ocfyaLpoeihiqs' rj yap a^^c^t,? dhrjXos 7TXr]pa)de[a'qs eariv. hiKpoa he Kal r) rcjv Kapd^iov earlv varepa. aTToriKTOvai he to Kv-qp-a dreXes Kal ravra iravra hid rrjv avrrjv alriav. rd pcev ovv Kapa^cohrj rd 9rjXea irpos avrd TTOieZrai rov roKov [hiOTrep pueit^ovs ex€L rds TrXaKag rd drjXea avrwv 'q rd dppeva, 15 (j)vXaKrjs X^P^^ "^^^ 4^^v)> ™ he p^aXaKia e^cx). Kal TOts" p^ev drjXeaL rojv p,aXaKi.a)v errtppaLvet 6 dpprfv, Kaddrrep ol dppeveg Ix^ves rolg (hotg, /cat yiyverai avvex^s Kal /coAAcuSe?' TOt? he Kapa^wheaiv ovr* coTTTtti roiovrov ovr* evXoyov vtto re yap rj] drjXeia rd Kvrjpia Kal aKXrjpoheppiov eari, /cat 20 Aa/xjSdvet av^rjuiv Kal ravra Kal rd rcov pLaXaKicov e^co, KadaTTep Kal rd rdJv Ixdvcov.

IlpoG7T€(f)VK€ 8' Tj yiyvop,ev7] arjTTia roXs (pals Kard ro vpocrdiov ravrrj ydp evhex^rai piovov ex^i ydp pLovov 6771 TauTO ro OTriaQiov p^epo? Kai ro " See also 717 a 5 IF. * See 720 b 20.



tion. WTiat an extraordinarj' thing, to hold that Cephalopods and Crustacea lay eggs as a result of copulation, but fish ^v•ithout copulation I Or alternatively, if they were not already aware that the other creatures copulate, then it just shows how ignorant they are. The copulation of all these creatures takes quite a long time, just as that of insects does, which is not surprising, because they are bloodless, and therefore cold in their nature.

In the sepias and calamaries the eggs appear to be two in number, because the uterus is di\ided and appears to be double. The octopuses appear to have a single egg ; the reason is that the shape of the uterus is round and spherical in form, and when it is full the cleavage is not ob\'ious." The caraboi also have a double uterus. All these animals as well deposit the fetation in an imperfect condition, and for the same cause. Females of the caraboid group deposit their eggs on to themselves ; that is why they have larger flaps than the males - in order to protect the eggs ; the Cephalopods lay their eggs clear of themselves. The male Cephalopods sprinkle their milt over the females, just as male fishes do over the eggs, and it becomes a glutinous mass. Nothing of the kind has been observed to occur with the caraboids, nor should we expect it, because the fetation is situated under the female and is hardskinned, and both these eggs and those of the Cephalopods pursue their growth after they have left the parent, just as the eggs of fishes do.

The sepia while in process of formation is fastened to the egg by its front part, which is the only possible place, because its front and back parts face in the same direction (in this respect it is unique). For a 325


758 a

irpoadiov. TO Se CT;^^/xa t-^? deaecog ov e;^ei ytyvo 25 [xeva rpoTTOv, Set decopeZv eK rwv laTopLcov.

Uepl fx€v ovv tG)v a'AAcov l^cowv rrjg yeveaecos IX elprjrai, Koi TTet,a)v Kol TTTrjvcjv /cat ttXcotojv Trept Se rcov evTO/xoJv /cat tcov ocrTpaKohippicov Xcktcov Kara rrjv v(f)r]yrj jjievqv piedoSov. eLTTCopev Se TrpaJrov TTepl rcov ivropuxiv.

30 "Ort p.€V ovv TO. p,€V e^ d;^eta? yiverai raJv tolovTOJV TO, S' avTopara, nporepov iXex^r], rrpog Se TOUTOt? OTt aKco\rjKoroK€i Koi Sta rtV alnav aKCoXrjKOTOKel. crx^^ov yap eoLKe rravra rporrov TLva aKcoXrjKoroKelv ro^ Trpajrov to yap dreXeoTarov Kvr]iJ.a tocovtov ecrTtv, ev Trdat Se /cat rot? ^ojo 35 TOKovai /cat Tot? woTOKOvai reXetov u)6v to Kvrjpa TO TTpcoTOV dStoptcrrov 6V Xap^dvei rrjv av^7]uiv TOLavTT] 8' idTLV Tj Tov aKiLXrjKos (f)VGL?. p^eTa Se TOVTO TO, jLieV CpOTOK€L TO KVTjpa TeXeLov, Ta o 758 b areAe'?, e^w Se ytyverat re'Aetov, Kaddnep errt tcov Ixdvcov etprjTai 7roAAa/ct?. ra S' ev avrot? I^cooto KOVVTa TpOTTOV TLvd /AeTCt TO CTUCTTT^/Xa TO C^ ^PXl^ ^oetSes" ytVeTaf TTcpUx^Tai yap to vypov vp^evi XeTTTO), KadaTTcp dv e'i tls^ d(j>eXoi to tcov cocov 5 ooTpaKov Sio /cat /caAoucrt to,? roTe yiyvopievas TCOV Kvrjp.dTCov (f)dopd? eKpvaeis Ta S' evTop,a Kal yevvd Ta yevvcovTa OKCoX-qKag, /cat rd yiyvopueva pur] St' ox^iag dAA' avTopLara e/c ToiavT7]s ylyveTai irpcoTov (jvoTdaecvg . Set ydp ^ TO PZ : om. vulg. 326


figure showing the way in which it is situated during the process of formation, the Researches " should be consulted.

We have now spoken about the generation of the animals that walk, fly and s\vim. Following the IX plan we have laid down, there remain the Insects and the Testacea to be discussed. We wiM deal wWh the Insects first.

I said earlier that some Insects are formed by (ii.) Repromeans of copulation, others spontaneously ; further, insects :° that they produce a larva, and I stated the cause of their so doing. In a way, it looks as though practically all animals produce a larva to begin with, for the fetation in its most imperfect state is something of this sort ; and in all the Mvipara and all the 0\ipara that produce a perfect €:gg, the fetation in its earhest stage is still undifferentiated and is growing, and this is just the sort of thing a larva is. At the next step, some of the 0\ipara produce their fetation as a perfect ^^g,, some as an imperfect one which reaches its perfection after it has left the parent, as I have often stated ^\â– ith regard to fish. In the case of the internally %'i\iparous animals, the fetation, after it has been constituted at the outset, in a way beconjes egghke : its fluid content becomes enclosed in a fine membrane - like an egg with its shell taken off - and that is why a fetation aborted at this stage is known as an " efflux." * Those Insects which generate, generate larvae ; (a) Larrap. and those Insects also which are formed spontaneously and not by means of copulation are, to begin with, formed from an organism of this sort. This is » See H.A. 550 a 10 ff. * Cf. H.A. 583 b 12.


758 b

ARISTOTLE Kal ras /ca/MTra? eiSos" Tt^ TiOevai aKcoXrjKos, Kal 10 ra rcov apa)(^vtojv . KairoL Sdfetev av cpoig ioiKevai Sia TTjv rov (T^-qyiaTos 7Tept(j}ip€Lav Kal tovtcjov evia Kal TToXXa Tcov aXXcov dAA' ov ro) ax^P-o-ri XeKreov ovbe TTJ fj.aXaKorrjTL Kal aKXrjpoTrjTL {Kal yap aKXrjpa ra KvqpiaTa yiyverai eviojv) aiXXa to) oXov fiera^aXXeiv Kal ixrj eV [.Lopiov tlvos yiveudai ro 15 t,(hov. TTpoeXdovra Se Trai^ra ra aKajXrjKcoSr] Kal rov fxeyedov? Xa^ovra reAos" olov chov yiyveraf aKXrjpvverai. re yap Trepl avra to KeXv^os, /cat aKivrirityOvaL Kara rovrov rov Kaipov. StJAoi' Se Tovro iv rots' aKcoXrj^t rolg tcov fieXiTTCov Kal ar(f)'r]Ka)v Kal rat? KafXTrais. rovrov 8 a'triot' on rf 20 (fyvcri? ojairepavel irpo ojpas (LoroKel 8ta rr^v dreXciav rrjv avrrj?, co? ovros rod crKcoXrjKos ere ev av^rjoet, <l>ov /xaXaKov. rov avrov Se rporrov Kal inl rajv a'AAcov' avfi^alvei rravrajv rcov ixjf e| o;;^etas' yiyvo/xevcov iv eptot? 'Q riacv d'AAotS' rotouTOtS", Kai rcbv iv TOt? y'Saorti^. rtdvra yap [xerd rrjv rov 25 UKoiXrjKog (f)VGiv aKivqrLaavra, Kat, rod /ceAy^ous" TrepL^Tjpavdivros , pierd ravra rovrov payevrog i^€p)(€raL Kaddirep i^ coov ^a)OV ivLreXeadev e77t ^ Ti P : om. vulg. ^ firj om. PSZ.

" This apparently means the eggs from which they are 328


correct, for we are bound to reckon caterpillars ** and the product of spiders as a form of larva. True, some of these, and many belonging to other Insects, would appear to resemble eggs on account of their circular shape ; but our decision must not be determined by their shape nor yet by their softness or hardness (the fetations of some of these creatures are hard), but by the fact that the ivhole of the object undergoes change - the animal is formed out of the whole of it and not some part of it.*" All these larva-like objects, when they have advanced and reached their full size, become as it were an e^gg : the shell around them gets hard, and they remain motionless during this period. This is clearly to be seen with the larvae of bees and wasps, and with caterpillars. The reason for this is that their Nature, owing to its own imperfection, deposits the eggs as it were before their time, which suggests that the larva, while it is yet in gro^^•th, is a soft e^gg. A comparable thing occurs in the case of all other creatures which are formed independently of copulation in wool'^ and other such material and in water. All of these first have the nature of a larva, then they remain motionless once the covering has solidified round them ; after that the covering bursts and there emerges, as from an egg, an animal which, at this its third genesis,** is at last produced. Aristotle however calls them larvae, and not eggs, at this stage, because according to him the stage which really corresponds to the egg-stage is not reached until later, when the creature becomes immobilized as a " pupa."

  • The distinction which Aristotle makes here is an important one. See note on 1^-2 a 3-2.

" See H.A. 557 b 2 ; the dustier your clothes are, the more moths are produced.

•* The stages are : larva, pupa, imago.



758 b

rrjs rpLT-qg yevecreojg- cov to, [TrXelcTTa] TTrepwra Kara Xoyov Se cry/xjSaiVei Krai to davfxaadev av Si/<'atcos" VTTO TToXXoJv, at re yap /ca/XTrat Xafx^d 30 vovaai to irpwTOV Tpo(f)7]v fJieTa raura ovk€tl XafJL^dvovGLV, dAA' aKLvrjTti^ovGtv at KaXovfxevai VTTO Tivcov ;)^/3yCTaAAtSes', Kal tcov ctc^t^kcDv ot gkcoXrjKe^ Kal tcov jxeXiTTcov ixctol Tavra at KaXovfxevaL vvfjicfyai ylvovrai, [/cat tolovtov ovhev €-)(^ovaiv-Y Kal yap Tj T(x)v cpojv (fivai? otov Xd^rj reXos, dvav^r]s 35 ecrrt, to 8e npwTOV av^dvcTai Kal XapL^dvei Tpo(f)T]v, eatg av hiopiadfj Kal yivrjTac TeXeiov (hov. tcDv Se aKcoXrjKcov ol jxev €)(ovaiv iv eavTols to tolovtov 759 a odev Tpe(f)opL4voLS emyiyveTai [tolovtov^ TrepiT Tco/Jia, olov OL* Tcbv plcXlttcJov Kal cr(f)rjKa)v ol Se XapL^dvovoL dvpadev, ajarrep at re Ka/X7rat Kal tcov aXX(x)v TLves aKOjXr]KOiV.

Alotl jxev ovv TpLyevrj re ytyverat to. TOLavTa, Kal St' rfv aiTLav e/c KLVovfievcov aKLvrjTL^eL trdXLV, 5 €Lpr]TaL' yLyvcTaL Se to, jxev i^ op^eia? avTibv, Kaddrrep ol re opvLdeg Kal ra l^cvoTOKa Kal tcov Lxdvcov OL TrAetcrrot, to, 8' avTOfxaTa, Kaddrrep eVta TCOV cf)VO[X€Va)V.

^ correxi (cf. 763 a 23). 2 vertit et volatilia ex eis sunt maiora quani ambulantia.

^ ante haec verba lacunam plurimorum vv. statuit Platt {rpo<f>T]v pro TOLOVTOV conl. A.-W., cf. 739 a 1); ego seclusi : fort, transferenda ad 759 a 1-2 et ita scribendum ol Se ovhkv ToiovTov exovaiv (dAAa) Xafj-^dvovcnv ktX. cf. infra 763 a 12 sqq.



perfected. Of these creatures, the winged ones are larger than those that walk.

Another occurrence, which may well cause surprise to manv people, is reallv quite regular and normal. Caterpillars at first take nourishment, but afterwards they cease doing so, the chrysalis (as some call it) being motionless ; so too the larvae of wasps and bees afterwards turn into pupae as they are called [and have nothing of the sort]. This is not abnormal, for an egg also, when it has reached the perfection of its nature, does not grow, whereas to begin with it does grow and takes nourishment, until its differentiation is effected and it has become a perfect egg. Some larvae contain in themselves material from which as they feed on it residue is produced," e.g.. those of bees and wasps ; others get the material from Nsithout, as caterpillars and some other larvae do.

I have no^v stated why it is that it takes a threefold generation ** to produce creatures of this sort, and the cause which, after they have begun as mobile creatures, makes them become immobile again. Also, some of them are formed in consequence of copulation, just as birds, Vi%ipara and the majority of fishes are ; others are formed spontaneously, as certain plants "^ are.

" Cf. U.A. 551 a -29 flF. " the larvae of bees . . . and wasps, while they are young, take nourishment and are seen to have excrement " ; cf. also ibid, a 25.

  • See above, 758 a 28 et praeced. ' e.g., the mistletoe, 715 b 28.

' om. Z : ToiovTo 17 rpwfn) S : habent in se id quo cibantur et eiciunt superfluitatem cibi L.

  • olov 01 Peck {sicut S) : 01 re vulg.


759 a

ARISTOTLE X H Se TcDv ixeXiTTaJv yeveais €)(€i ttoXXt^v aTTopiav. enrep yap ecrri /cat vrept tous" tx^y? Toiavrr] ris 10 yevecrtg ivLcov cScrr' aveu ox^tas yevvdv, rovTo ovpL^aLveiv eot/ce koL Trepl ras /xeAtrra? e/< rcuv ^aivoixevojv . avdyKiq yap tJtol (f^epetv avras aXKodev rov yovov, ojaTrep rives (jiaai, /cat tovtov -1) (j>v6pL€vov avTOfiarov rj dXXov tlvos ^cvov tlkTOVTOS, rj yevvdv avras, rj rov fxev (f)ep€LV rov Se 15 yevvdv (/cat yap rovro Xeyovat rtves, cu? rov rcov KTjcjirivcDV jxovoiv <l)epovaL yovov), /cat yevvdv rj o-)(evojievas rj avo)(evrovs , /cat o^^voji-evas yevvdv rjroL eKaarov yevos Kad' avro rj ev ri avrcov rdXXa rj avvSva^ofievov dXXo yevos dXXco, Xeyco S' olov fJbeXirrag fxev yiyveaOai e/c jxeXirribv avvhval,o 20 lieviov, KTjcfyrjvag S' e/c Kri(j)rjvcov /cat rovs ^aaiXeZs e/c rcov ^aaiXeojv, rj rrdvra raAAa e^ ivos olov e/c rojv KaXovfievcDV ^aoiXecov /cat rjyejjiovajv, rj e/c rcov K7j(f)rjvojv /cat ra)v jxeXirra)v ^aal yap rives rovs ^ ecTTep Z : eVct vulg.

" The facts about bees, so far as they are known, are these. There are three sorts of bees : (1 ) the Queen, which is a fully developed female ; (2) the worker, which is a partially developed female ; and (3) the drone, which is a male. Eggs are laid by the Queen, and it is generally agreed that the unfertilized eggs produce drones and the fertilized eggs Queens or workers. When a hive becomes over-populated, " swarming " takes place, and after the colony has settled down in its new home, the Queen takes the " marriage flight," followed by a number of males ; copulation takes place in mid-air, and the Queen returns to the nest. At the end of the summer the drones are ejected by the workers. Queens 332



The generation of bees is a great '^ puzzle. If it X is a fact that certain fishes are generated without ^®®^copulation, the same probably occurs among bees as well - or so it seems from appearances. The possible methods are these : Bees must either (a) fetch the offspring ^ from elsewhere (some hold this view) ; in which case the offspring will either have sprung into being spontaneously' or have been produced by some other animal ; or (6) generate the young themselves ; or (c) fetch some and generate some (this, too, is a \'iew held by certain people, who maintain that the young of the drones only are fetched). If they generate the young themselves, this must be done either with or without copulation ; if with copulation, then either (i) each kind generates its own kind,*^ or (ii) one of the three kinds generates the others, or (iii) one kind unites with another kind. WTiat I mean is, e.g., either (i) " bees " are formed from the union of " bees," drones from the union of drones, kings from the union of kings ; or (ii) all the rest are generated by one kind onlv : e.g., by the kings or leaders as they are called ; or (iii) by the union of drones and " bees " (some people of course and workers are produced from similar eggs, though the queen-cells are larger ; but the larva of a Queen is fed on " royal jelly " (a special food produced by the workers) throughout its development, whereas those of workers are fed on this for a short time (3 or 4 days) only, and for the remainder of the time on honey and digested pollen. It is thought that in rare cases the workers may produce Queens and other workers from unfertilized eggs. A worker's development is completed in 3 weeks ; a Queen's in 16 days and a drone's in 24 days.

  • The larvae.

' The three " kinds " are : " kings " or " leaders " {i.e., queens) ; " bees " (i.e., workers) ; and drones.



759 a

fxev appevas elvai rovs 8e d-qXei?, ol Se^ ra? fiev IxeXiTTa? appevas rovs 8e K7](f>r]vag O-qXea'S.

25 Tavra 8' earl Trdvra aSvvara (Tv\Xoyit,o}xevoLS to. pukv €K Twv avjJi^aLvovroJv t8ia Trepl ras /xeAtrras', TO. 8 €K Tcbv Koivorepcov rots aAAoi? ^ojot?. eire yap (JLT) TiKTOvaat <f>ipovaLV dXXodev, e8ei ylyveadai /xeAiTras" xat [jlt] (fyepovacov rojv /xeAirrcDv ev rots TOTTotS" e^ c5v^ TO OTTepfia (f)epovatv. 8ta rt yap 30 pLerevexd^VTog fiev earai, €K€l 8' oi5/<r earai; TrpoaT^Kei yap ovSev rjrrov, eire (j>v6iievov iv rolg avOeaiv avropLarov elre t,a)ov rtvog riicrovros. Kav el ye t,ci)ov nvos erepov ro aneppia rjv, eKeZvo e8ei yiyveadai e^ avrov, dXXa p,rj pieXlrrag. en 8e ro piev pLeXt Ko/xt^eiv evXoyov (rp6(j>ri ydp)^ ro he rov 35 yovov dXXorpiov ovra Kal pirj rpo<^rjV drorrov. rivos yap ;)^aptv;* Trat-ra yap oaa tt pay piar ever ai 759 b Trepl rd reKva, Trepl rdv ^aivop^evov OLKetov 8ia TTOvelr ai yovov.

'AAAa pi,riv ovhe rag piev pLeXurrag drjXeiag elvai rovs 8e Krjcjjrjvas dppevas evXoyov 013861^1 yap ro TTpos dXKTjv ottXov tcDv OrjXeioJV dTToStScvaiv rj <f)v<7LS, elal 8' Ol piev Krj^rjves aKevrpoi, at 8e 6 pueXirraL Trdaai Kevrpov exovatv. ov8e rovvavriov evXoyov, rds p^ev pbeXirras dppevas rovs Se Kr^cfji^vag QiqXeLs' ovhev yap rcov dppevojv e'iojde hiaTTovelaOai Trepl rd reKva, vvv 8 at /xeAtrrat rovro TTOtovaiv. oXcos 8' eTTeiSr] (fyalverai 6 piev rcjv Kr](f>'qv<x>v yovos ^ ol Se PSYZ : olov vulg.

^ ev Tols roiTois ei &v Z : eV tov tottov e( oS vulg.

  • rpo<l>r] yap ova. SY. * tLvos yap X^'-P'-^ om. SZ.

^ di^Xeis P : drjXeias SZ : drjXeas vulg.



say that drones are male and " bees " female ; others that " bees " are male and drones female).

We have only to bring before our minds the special and particular facts concerning bees, on the one side, and on the other the facts more generally applicable to other animals, to see that all of these theories are impossible. Suppose they do not generate offspring themselves but fetch them from elsewhere. In that case bees ought to be formed, even if the, bees failed to fetch them away, in those places whence they fetch the seed (semen). For why should a bee be produced if the seed is fetched away, and not if it is left where it is ? Surely it ought to be produced none the less, no matter whether it springs spontaneously to Ufe in the blossoms or whether some animal generates it. Also, if the seed were that of some other animal, then that animal ought to be formed out of it, and not bees. Further, it is reasonable enough that bees should collect honey, for honey is their food ; but it is absurd that they should collect offspring which (a) is produced by some animal other than themselves, and (6) is not food. After all, why should they ? All creatures which concern themselves about young ones take that trouble over what appears to them to be their otvn proper offspring.

Nor is it reasonable to hold that " bees " are female and drones male ; because Nature does not assign defensive weapons to any female creature ; yet while drones are without a sting, all " bees " have one. Nor is the converse \-iew reasonable, that " bees " are male and drones female, because no male creatures make a habit of taking trouble over their young, whereas in fact " bees " do. But generally, since it is apparent that the brood of the drones is produced 335

759 b

ARISTOTLE iyyivofjievog Kal jxrjdevos ovros /crj^Tyvo?, o he tcov 10 fieXiTToJv ovK iyytvofxevos dvev riov ^aaiXccov (8t6 Kal (j)aai rives tov twv Krj<l>T^vcov <j>epeadai fjLovov), SrjXov cos ovK^ i^ ox^las ylvovrai, ovt* i^ eKarepov rov yevovs avrov avrio avvSva^ofievov , ovr ck fieXLTTCov Kal K'r](j>rjVOiV . to re tovtov (f)€peiv jjlovov 8ia re Ta^elprjfieva dSvvarov, Kal ovk evXoyov jjlt] 15 Trepl irdv ro yevos avrcbv o[jioi,6v rt avpL^aiveiv TTados. dXXd fxrjv owS' avrds rds fieXtrras ivhex^rat, ra? p^ev dppevas elvai rds 8e drjXeias' ev TTaai yap Siacfyepei rots yeveai to dfjXv /cat to dppev. Kav iyevvcov avral avrds' vvv S' ov (f>aLverat yiyv6p,evos 6 yovos avrdyv, edv p.r] evdjaiv ot 20 r]y€p,6v€S, ojs <j>aaiv. kolvov 8e /cat irpos ttjv i^ dXXi^Xcov yeveoLV Kal Tvpos rrjv e/c Toiv K'r](f)r]va)V , Kal x^P'-S '<^^^ juct' dXX'qXcov, to p,T]8e7roT€ ib(f)daL 6x^v6p,€vov p,7jd€v avTiov el 8' Tjv ev avrols to p,ev drjXv TO 8' dppev, TroAAa/cts' dv tovto avve^aivev. XeiTTeTai 8', eiTrep e^ ox^io-S ylyveTai, tovs ^aaiXels 25 yevvdv crvvSva^op,evovs . aAA' ot Kr](f)rjves (j>aivovraL yiyvopievoL /cat p.rj ev6vTCt)V •qyep.ovoiv, ojv ovTe (jiepeiv olov re tov yovov rds fxeXtTTas oirre yevvdv avrds ox^vop-evas. AetVeTat S-q, KaOaTrep ^atveTat ^ OVK Z : ovt' vulg.

" Cf. above, 755 b 3, n. 336


even when there is no drone present to start with, whereas young "bees " are produced only if the kings are present (and this is why some people say that the brood of the drones are the only ones they fetch from away), it is plain that they are not formed as a result of copulation, either (1) of" bee " vrith " bee " or drone with drone, or (2) of " bee " with drone. And anyway, not only is it impossible that drones are the only ones they fetch in, for the reasons stated, but also it is unreasonable to suppose that a similar thing does not happen in respect of the whole tribe of them." Again, it is impossible that some of the " bees themselves " should be male and some female, since in all kinds of animals the male and the female are different. And besides, if it were so, " bees " by themselves would generate " bees," but in actual fact we see that the brood of " bees " is not formed unless, as they say, " the kings are -within." And here is a point which strikes at either theorj' (that they are produced (o) by the union of " bees " with one another, and (6) by their union with the drones, i.e., by one kind apart from the other, or by the two kinds together with one another) : none of them has ever been seen in the act of copulation, whereas if there had been male and female among them this would often be occurring. The remaining possibility, assuming that they are generated by means of copulation at all, is that the kings unite and so generate them. But, as against this, the drones, as we see, are formed even if no " leaders " are " within " ; and as it is impossible that the " bees " should either fetch in the brood of drones from away or generate them by copulation themselves,* plainly the only possibility

  • Proved already.



759 b

avfji^alvov eVt tivcov l-)(dv<jov, ras /xeAtrras' avev o)(€Las yevvdv rovs K7](f)rjva£ , rep fjikv yewdv ovaag 30 dr]Xeias, €)(ov(jag 8' iv avralg, Oiair^p to. cf)VTd, /cat TO drjXv /cat TO dppev, Sto /cat to Trpog Trjv dXKrjv exovcTLV opyavov ov yap Set drjXv KaXclv ev a> dppev fXTj eari Kexi^pi'Op.evov.

El 8' eTTt TcDr K7](f>ijvcov TOVTO (fyaiverai avix^atvov /cat ytyvofievoL fx-q e^ o;^eia?, '^'St^ /cat /caret rcDr 35 ixeXiTTOJV /cat tcDv ^aaiXecov rov avTov dvayKOtov elvau Xoyov /cat /M17 yevvdadai e^ o;^eta?. et jLter ovv dvev Tcov ^aaiXicov ec^atVer eyyiv6[j,evos o 760 a yoi'os' rcov fxeXiTTCov, Koiv rds /xcAtTTa? avayKatoj^ rjv i^ avTcjjv dvev o;\;etas" yiyveadat. vvv 8 eTTetSri TOVT ov (f)aaLV at irepl rrjv OepaTreiav tovtojv rcov t,(x>tov ovres, AeiVcTat tovs ^aaiXels /cat avrov? yevvdv Kal rds p^eXirra?. 5 "OvTos hrf rrepLTTov rov yevovg /cat i8tou rov rdJv p-eXtTTWV, Kal Tj yeveats avrcov tSto? etv'at ^atVerat. TO [ji€V yap yevvdv to.? /xeAtTTa? dvev ox^ias etr) dv /cat ctt' aAAcor ^(pojv av/JL^alvov, dXXd to p,7] to^ avTO yevos yevvdv tStov"' ol yap epvOpivoi yewdJaLv epvdpivovs /cat at ;)^awat ;^avvas'. atrtov 8' otl 10 /cat aurat yewdjvTai at /xeAtrrat ou;^ ayarrep at fjLVLai /cat ra TOiavTa tcov l,o)Oiv, aAA' e^ eTepov ^ hi] Rackham : 8e vulg. ^ TO /X17 TO corr. Z : to /xt7 P : fxi] to vulg.

" e.g., erythrinus and channa (below, 760 a 9) ; see also 762 b 23, and H.A. 569 a 17, 570 a 2 {cestreus and eel).

  • See above, 759 b 4. They are as much male as female ; hence it is not irregular for them to possess a sting. 3S8


remaining is something parallel to what we find occurs in certain fishes " : the " bees " generate the drones -without copulation, i.e., although so far as generating is concerned they are female, yet they contain in themselves the male as well as the female (factor), just as plants do ; and this also is why they possess the organ for self-defence,* for of course it is wrong to apply the term " female " to creatures where no separate male exists.

We find then that this is what occurs in the case of the drones : they are formed independently of copulation. And if this is so, then surely the same argument must apply to the " bees " and the kings ; they too must be generated independently of copulation. Now if we were sure that the brood of the " bees " made their appearance ^vithout the kings being there, then it would follow of necessity that the " bees " as well as the drones are produced from " bees " ^vithout copulation. This however is denied by those whose business it is to look after these creatures. Hence the only possibility left is that the kings generate their own kind and the " bees " as well.

We see then that the manner in which bees are generated appears to be peculiar, in keeping ^nth their extraordinary and pecuUar character. Bees' generating without copulation might be paralleled by the beha\iour of other animals, but their generating some different kind of creature is peculiar and unique, for even erythrinoi and channae generate creatures of the same kind as themselves. The reason is that the " bees themselves " are not generated in the same way as flies and other such creatures, but from a kind which though different is akin to 339

760 a

ARISTOTLE ^€v (jvyyevovs Se yevovs' ycyvovrai yap ek rtov rjyeiJiovcov. 8to Kal e^et dvdXoyov ttcos T] yeveai'fjves Kara to fieyedog-] dvayKT] yap Ti TTapaXXdrreiv, el jxr] Set del to avTo yevog i^ eKdoTov yiveadai. tovto 8' dSvvaTov ttov yap dv TO yevos -qyepiove? rjaav. at piev ovv jueAiTrat /caro. Tr]V Swa/xtv avTol'S djpotojvTai [fcat Ta>^ 20 TiKTeiv], ol 8e Krjcfjrjveg /cara to peyedos' [el 8 elxov Kal KevTpov, rjy€p,6ve? dv '^aav. vvv 8e tovto AetVerat^ Trjg aTropta?*- ol yap -qyepoveg dp,(j)OTepoLS eoLKaoLV ev tlo avTO) tols yeveai, to) p.ev KevTpov cxei'V Tat? jLteAtTTat?, toj Be pbeyedet tol? Kr](f)rjaLV.]^ dvayKalov 8e K-at tous" rjyepiovas ylveaOai eK tlvos.

25 eirel ovv ovt e'/c TcJbv peXiTTcov ovt eK tcov Krj(f)'qva>v , avTol? dva.yKalov Kal avTovs yevvdv. [ytVov'Tat 8' errl TeAet ol KVTTapoi avTcbv Kal ov TToAAoi Tov dpidpLov.Y ojOTe avpi^alveL tov? puev â– ^ in seqq. plurima irrepsisse videntur. at /ier ovv . . . (leyedos om. 2.

^ TO Y : TOV coni. A.-W. ; kol tw tiktciv seclusi.

' AeAitrai coni. Platt.

  • hie addit Y /cai rjBr] Ae'Aurai- to. npoeipTjixeva yap rj Aucti? TTJs dnopias.

^ seel. A.-\V. ® haee verba hie aliena.

" The full explanation of this statement comes at 11. 27 ff.

below, but owing to a number of interpolations in the text the clarity of the passage has become obscured. The dvaXoyla is : Kings can generate two kinds, their own and another (viz., kings and " bees ") ; 340


them - they are, of course, generated from the " leaders." Hence their manner of generation is in fact arranged in a sort of proportionate series " ; [thus, the leaders are similar to the drones in size, but similar to the " bees " in possessing a sting ; therefore the " bees " are similar to them in this respect, but the drones are similar to them in size,] for of course the three kinds must of necessity fail to coincide in some respect, unless the same kind is always going to be bound to be generated from each, and this is impossible, because then the whole tribe of them would be " leaders." Therefore the " bees " have been made similar to them in respect of characteristic properties,* [i.e., in \irtue of generating young,] while the drones have been made similar to them in respect of size [and if they had a sting as well, they would be " leaders." As it is, this portion of the puzzle remains, since the leaders resemble both kinds at the same time, the bees in possessing a sting, the drones in size.] "^ But the leaders too must be generated from something ; and since they are generated neither from the bees nor from the drones, they must of necessity generate their own kind as well. [And their cells are the last to be formed, and are not many in number.] ^ So it turns " Bees " can generate one kind, i.e., a kind other than their own (viz., drones) ; Drones can generate no kind. This is the irtpas of the avaXoyia (see 760 a 33).

  • Dynamis : referring to the special and distinctive characteristic, viz., ability to generate, as the gloss explains.

' I have tentatively bracketed the passages which seem to have been interpolated. The main argument is about the power to generate, not about size or sting.

    • This sentence seems to have been misplaced ; it is more relevant if moved to 760 b 27 below.



760 a

riye/xova? yevvdv /xev /cat avrovs, yewdv Se /cat (zAAo Tt yeVo? (touto 8' eari to tcDv jLieAirrctiv') , ra? 30 Se jLteAiTTa? ctAAo jU,eV Tt yei/vav, tou? Krj(f)rjvas, avras 8e fxrjKeTi yewdv, dAAa tout' d(f)r]prjadaL auTtov. CTret 8' aet to /caTct (f)vaLV e^et rd^Lv, Sta rovTO Tix)v Krj<j)iqva>v dvayKolov koI to dXXo Tt yevos yevvdv d(j>rjpfJGdai. OTrep /cat (jyaLverai avp,^aZvov avTOi fxev yap ylyvovrai, dXXo 8' ovdev 35 yevvdJaiv, dAA' ev Toi Tpircp dpidjJiU) nepas kax^v 760 b 'Tj yeveai?. /cat ovrco hrj avvearrjKe rfj cfyvaei KaXdJg oior atei SiapieveLV ovra rd yevr] /cat ixrjSev iXXeirreiv, p,r) Travrcov yewcovrcvv. [evXoyov 8e /cat Tovro avfjb^aCvetv, iv fxev Tat? eveTt]piaig /xe'At /cat KT](f)rjvag yiveadai ttoXXov?, iv Se Tat? e770ju,^ptat? 5 oAa»? yot'ov ttoAw. at pcev yap vyporrjTeg TrepLTTcofxa TTOLOvai ttXclov iv TOt? oto/xaCTt rcjv rjyepioviov , at 8' everrjpLai iv TOt? Tajv pLeXiTTixiv eXarrco yap ovra^ TO) fxeyidei 8etTat ttj? everrjpia^ pidXXov.f ev 8e /cat TO Tou? jSaotAet? axnrep 7T€7TOLr][X€vov9 cttl T€Kva>aLV eao) jxeveLV, d(j}€Lixivovs rcov dvayKaioJV 10 epycjv, /cat p-iyedos 8e ejS^eti^, wuirep em reKvoTToiiav CTvardvTos tov aco/xaTo? auTcDv tou? tc Kr](f)'fjvag dpyovg dr* ovhev k^ovras ottXov vpos to hiapidx^odai rrepl ttjs Tpo(f}rj?, /cat 8td ttjv ^pa8vTTJTa TTjv TOV CTcujLtaTO?. [at Se pbiXiTTai pieaai^ to fieyedog elaiv dp,(f)oZv (xp'^cri-p^ai* yap ovtoj rrpos ttjv ^ eAoTTO) yap ovra P : iXarTov yap ov vulg. ^ aliena hie.

  • ixelovs coni. Btf. ; to [xeyedos del. Sus.


Xpijcnixai P : ;cp'^crt/xot vulg. This passage also seems to be out of place.


out that the leaders generate their own kind, and another kind as well (viz., the " bees ") ; while the " bees " generate another kind (the drones), but not their own kind ; this they have been deprived of doing. And since any business of Nature's always has an orderly arrangement, on that account necessity requires that the drones shall have been deprived even of generating some other kind. And this is what is found to be the case in actual fact : they are generated themselves, but generate no other creature ; thus the progression of generation reaches its limit at the third term of the series. And this arrangement has been so well constituted by Nature that the three kinds continue ever in existence and none of them fails, though not all of them generate. [Another point about them, which is in accord with what we should expect, is this. In fine seasons, much honey and a large number of drones is produced, in rainy seasons a large number of offspring generally. The reason is that wet conditions produce more residue in the bodies of the leaders, whereas fine seasons do the same in those of the bees, for being smaller in size they have greater need of fine weather.] ° Besides, it is well that the kings, who have, as it were, been made specially for the purpose of procreation, should stay within, released from the drudger}- that has got to be done by somebodv : and that they should be large, since their bodv lias been constituted as it were for procreation, and that the drones should be idle, as they have no weapon for engaging in combat to secure their food, and also on account of the slowness of their bodies. [The be'es, however, are as regards size midwav between the two, for thus they are ser\iceable for active work, 343

760 b

ARISTOTLE 15 epyaacav) , /cat ipydnhe? ws Kal reKva rpecfiovaai Kai irarepas^ opuoXoyovpievov S' earl /cat to irraKoXovdetv tols ^aaiXevui ra> rrjv ylveaiv eK rov TOJV €LVaL TTjV Tcbv peXlTTcbv (ft yap pLTjdeV TOLOVTOV VTTrjpx^v, ovK elxe Xoyov ra uvpi^aivovTa rrepl rrjv rjyepioviav avTOJv), Kal to tovs p€v idv p-qOkv ip 20 ya^opLevovs to? yovclg, tovs Be KTq^rjvas KoXd^etv ojs reKva' /caAAiov yap to. TeKva KoXd(,€tv Kal a)v pirjdev eoTLV epyov. to 8e Tas /.ieAirras' yevvdv iroXXds avTovs ovrag oXtyovs Tovg rjy€p,6vag TrapaTrXiqaLov €oiK€ avpL^aivetv ttj yevlaei ttj tcov XeovTcov, at TO TTpoJTOV 7T€VT€ yevvT]aavT€S vcTTepov eXdTTOJ yev 25 vwoL Kal Te'Aos" eV, etr ovhev. ol S' rjyepioves to juev TrpoJTOv nXijOog, varepov 8' oAtyous" avTovs, KaKeivcov^ p,€V iXdrrco tov yovov, avTcov S' inel Tov TrAry^ou? d^etAe, t6^ piiyedos avToZs^ direScoKev T] (f>vats.^ 'E/<r p.€v ovv TOV Xoyov Ta Trepl ttjv yeveaiv rwv p^eXlTTcbv TOVTOV €X€tV (f)ai.V€Tai, TOV TpOTTOV, Kal 30 eK TCOV avp^aiveiv Sokovvtojv rrepl avrds' ov p,rjv e'iXrjTTTai ye Ta uvpi^aivovTa tKavo)?, aAA' edv rroTe Xrjcfidfj, Tore tjj aladiqaeL p^dXXov twv Xoycov Tnarev ^ monent corrupta esse A.-W. : pro npos ttjv . . . varepas creationi pullorum S (=7rpos ttjv TeKvojaiv). unde et credo leg. esse v. 17 (jas fieXiTTas) tois ^aaiXevai . . . [ttjv TCOV fieXlTTCVv], ^ KOLKelvoi PS. * a^ftXe to] d^eiAero YZ.

â– * o ainois Y.

^ avTovs . . . (^uCTtj] quoniam diminuuntur superfluitates que sunt in corpore 2. 344


and they are workers inasmuch as they support and feed their children and fathers alike.] " Other facts which fit in well are these : (a) the bees attend upon the kings - because the bees are generated from the kings ; since, if nothing of this kind were the case, the facts about their leadership would be lacking in reason ; (h) they allow the leaders to do no work, as being their parents, and they punish the drones, as being their children, because it is a finer thing to punish children and those who have no function to perform.* The fact that the leaders, though few themselves in number, generate a large number of bees looks like a parallel phenomenon to the generation of hons. Lions '^ to begin with generate five, then fewer, finally one, then none at all. The " leaders " generate a multitude to begin with, and later on a few - these are of their own kind,** and though the brood of these is smaller in number, Nature, because she has taken away from their numbers makes up for it by giving them more in the wav of size.

This, then, appears to be the state of affairs ^nth regard to the generation of bees, so far as theory can take us, supplemented by what are thought to be the facts about their behaviour. But the facts have not been sufficiently ascertained ; and if at anv future time they are ascertained, then credence must be given to the direct e\idence of the senses more than " Part of this sentence is inconsistent with what has already been said about the comparative sizes of the three kinds, and part anticipates what is to be said in the next sentence.

  • I suppose attention should be called to this statement.

' See ToO a 31 flF, ^ The statement at 760 a 26 above seems relevant here.



760 b

T€ov, Kal Tols Aoyois", iav ojjLoXoyovfJieva SeLKvvoJUL roils (fiaivojxivoL?.

[Il/aos" Se TO jx-q i^ o;^etas" yiveadai arjidLelov Kal TO Tov yovov (f)aLvea6aL yuKpov iv rolg rov Krjpiov 35 KVTraptoig' oaa S' i^ 6)(^eLas rwv ivr6[xiov yevvdrai, 761 a avvSvdl,€Tai jxev ttoXvv xpovov, tlktcl Se Ta-)(^ecx>s Kal fjieyedo? ^X^^ cr/cajAr^KoetSe?.]^ Hepl Se TTjv yeveaiv rrjv tcov avyy evojv t,a)a>v avrals, olov dvdprjvojv re Kal a(f>iqKa>v, rpoTTOV tlv^ ep^et TTapaTTXrjcricog irdaiv, dt^rjprjrat 8e to TTepirrov 5 euAdycos" ov yap e-)(ovatv ovdev delov, oiairep to yevo? TO ToJv fxeXiTTOJv. yevvaxjrt fiev yap at fXTJTpaL KaXovpievai, Kal to. TTpaJra avpuTrXaTTOvai TOJv KripLoyv, ox^vojxevat Se yevvcocTLV vtt^ dXX-qXajv djTTTai yap TToXXaKi? 6 avvhvaapLos avTcov. rroaa? S k)(ovai, hiaffyopds t] rrpos dXXrjXa tcov tolovtcov 10 yevoJv eKaoTov rj rrpo'S ra? /xeAirras', e/c tcov rrepl TO.'S LGTopias dvayeypafifjieviov Set decopelv.

Kat TTcpl pLev TCOV ivTopLcov TTJs yeveaecog etprjTaL TTavTcov, rrepL Se tcov oaTpaKoSepjicov XeKTeov. XI E;(;ei Se Kal tovtcov Ta rrepl ttjv yeveatv ttj jxev 15 OpLoicOS TTJ S' OVX OpiOLCOS TOiS CtAAot?. Kal TOVT euAdycu? cru/x^atVef rrpos pev yap Ta t,cpa (f)VTols eoiKaai, Trpos Se to. (j)VTd ^coois, cooTe Tpoirov p,ev TLva dno ajreppaTos cfiaLveadai yivd/xeva, Tponov S' oAAot' ovK drro a7Tepp,aTOS , Kal rfj puev avr6p,aTa ^ haec non proprio loco sita.

" The most important principle announced in this paragraph deserves very special attention.

    • This is another misplaced paragraph. 346


to theories, - and to theories too pro\ided that the results which they show agree Avith what is observed." [Another piece of evidence which goes to show that bees are generated A\ithout copulation is that the brood appears to be quite small in the cells of the comb, whereas those insects which are generated by means of copulation (a) spend a long time in intercourse, and (6) quickly bring forth their offspring, which is of the nature of a larva and of considerable size.] *• With regard to the generation of the animals that Hornete are akin to bees, such as hornets and wasps/ the "^^^v^ situation is in a way similar in all of them, but the extraordinary features are lacking, and this is what we should expect, because they contain no diWne ingredient as the tribe of bees does. Although the " mother-wasps " as they are called do indeed generate, and mould the first of the cells, it is by copulation with one another that they generate, as their copulation has often been observed. To find out the various differences between each of these kinds of creatures, and between them and bees, the records given in the Researches ^ should be studied.

We have now described the generation of all the Insects, and we have next to describe the Testacea.

The circumstances of the generation of these XI animals also is to some extent similar, to some extent j" cti^ of^ dissimilar, to those of the others. And this is what Tesuc«u we should expect, for compared with animals, they resemble plants, compared with plants, they resemble animals, so that in a way it seems that they are generated from semen, but in another way not ; <= See U.A. 627 b 23 flF., 628 b 32 flF. ' At H.A., locc. cit.



761 a

rij S d(f) avTCJV, â– ^ ra jxev ovrws ra S' eKelvcu's.

20 Sta §€ TO TOL? (f)VToXg dvTLaTpO(f)OV €)(^€IV TTjV <f>vaLV, Sta TOVTO iv [xev rfj yfj tojv ocTTpaKoScpfxcov ovdev 7] jjiLKpov Ti yiyverai yevos, otov to tcov ko')(\lix)v Kav 7] TL roLovrov erepov /xev OTrdviov he, iv 8e tt^ daXdrrr) kol roZs opioioLS vypols TroXXd /cat TravroSanrjv e)(ovTa piopcfy-^v. to 8e twv (f)VTa)v yevos ev 25 p.ev TTJ daXaTTTj /cat Tot? tolovtols^ pciKpov /cat rrdpLTTav <bs elnelv ovdev, iv 8e Tjj yfj Ta TOtaura ytVerat ndvTa- ttjv yap (f>vaLv dvdXoyov e^^i, /cat SieaTrjKev, oaco^ t^ojTiKOJTepov to vypov tov ^rjpov /cat yrjs vBcop, tooovtov tj twv ooTpaKoSeppicov (f)vais T-qs Tcov i^vTcbv, inet jSouAerat ye cos ra 30 (l>VTd TTpos TTjv yrjv, ovTOJs ex^iv TO. ooTpaKoSeppLa TTpos TO vypov, (hs ovTa to. p,€V <f>VTd chaTTepavel ocTTpea x^paala, Ta 8e oaTpea (harrepavel <f)VTd evvSpa.

Aid TOiavT-qv 8' airiaj/ /cat TToXvpiop^a ra iv to) vypo) jxaXXov ioTt tcov iv ttj yfj- to re yap vypov evTrXaoTOTepav exet ttjv (f)vaiv ttjs yrjs Kal croj/xart 35 KTjv ov TToXXw '?JTTOv, Kal fidXiCTTa Ta iv Tfj daXaTTTj 761 b Totaura* to jxev yap ttoti/xov yXvKv fiev /cat ^ TTorafiois Z. ^ Saw 8e PSY.

" The scheme which Aristotle has in mind is : Place : Earth Water Air Creature : Plants Testacea Land-animals. (From the passage 761 b 16-33 (see n., p. 352) we may add a fourth pair, Fire, and Moon-animals ; but it is not essential to Aristotle's main argument, and Aristotle himself does not seem too sure of the existence of such creatures.) Aristotle holds that water supports life better than earth (1. 27) ; and also that the more " perfect " animals are those which breathe, i.e., which live in the air (see 732 b 28 ff.) ; hence the three 348


and in one sense that they are spontaneously generated, in another that they are generated from themselves, or some by the one method, some by the other. In \irtue of the Testacea being in their nature the correlative of plants," no part, or only a small part, of this tribe comes into being in the earth (examples are snails, and any such species there may be besides, but there are not many), whereas many species, of all kinds of shapes, Uve in the sea and similar watery places. The plant tribe, on the other hand, makes very little show - practically none at all, in fact - in the sea and such places, but all members of this tribe grow in the earth. The reason is that in respect of their nature the two tribes stand in a correlative position ^ : the nature of Testacea is removed from that of plants by an interval corresponding to that by which water and fluid matter are better able to support hfe than earth and sohd matter, since Testacea aim at being so related to the water as plants are related to the earth : it is as though plants were a sort of land-shellfish, and shellfish a sort of water-plant.

And it is for some such cause as this that the things Various which grow in the water are more various in shape pro^r\o than those which grow in the earth. It is because various a fluid substance is in its nature more plastic than earth, and not much less substantial ; and this is a characteristic possessed to a marked degree by the creatures in the sea, since fresh water, though sweet

stages are in order of increasing " perfection." We thus get the avaXoyia (1. -21) : Testacea : Water : : Plants : Earth, or Testacea : Plants : : Water : Earth. * Or, " proportionate relationship."



ARISTOTLE rpocl)ifxov, TjTTov 8e acofxaTcbSes Kal ij/vxpov iariv. hioirep ocra ai^ai/xa /cat /jlyj depfxa rrjv ^vaiv, ov yLverat iv rat? Xlfivacs ouSe rwv dX/JLVpcov iv tols 5 TTOTLIXOJTepOLS (xAA' rjTTOV, oloV TO. OGTpaKoSepfjia Kai ra [xaXaKia /cat to. fiaXaKoarpaKa {TTavra yap avaipia /cat ipvxpo. ravra rrjv (f)vaiv J.Griv) , iv Se rats- XiixvodaXdrraL? /cat rrpos rals e/c^SoAat? tcDv' TTorafxcbv yivovTai' l,rjTov(n yap dpua riqv t' aAe'av /cat TTjv Tpo(f)-qv, rj Se ddXarra vypd re /cat ctcd 10 p.arwh'qs ttoXXo) {xaXXov rod ttotljxov /cat depfjir] T7]v (f>vatv eari, /cat KeKoivojvrjKe vdvTOJV rdJv fMopicDV, vypov /cat Trvevixaros Kal yrjs, cScrre Kat TTavrcov jxerex^i'V twv /ca^' cKaarov yivofievcov [iv ToZs TOTTOis ^cpcov].^ Ttt fiev yap ^vrd delr) ti? dv yrj?, uSaros" 8e ra evvBpa, ra Se Tre^a depos' ro 15 Se /AaAAov /cat rjrrov Kal iyyvrepov Kal noppcorepov TToXXrjv TTOtel Kal davpuaarrjv hia<f)opdv.^ rd ok reraprov yivog ovk errl rovrcuv rcbv roTTOiv Set ^ seclusit Platt, (Lore Kal . . . ^aiiov om. 2. ^ haec sensu carere monet Platt, post iroppanepov addit Z Set TiOevai, et pro TToiei PZ habent Troietv.

" Aristotle apparently did much of his zoological work in lakes and lagoons ; he refers to the lake at Siphae, P. A, 696 a 6, LA. 708 a 5, H.A. 504 b 32. The difference between a lake and a lagoon, as distinguished in the present passage, is that the former is fresh, the latter salt. For lagoons cf. H.A. 598 a 20; the whole passage is apposite. Cf. also 763 a 29, 763 b 2.

    • It is now known that the blood serum (the fluid part of the blood remaining after the cellular portion has been removed by clotting) of both sea- and land-vertebrates has



(palatable) and nutritious, is less substantial and is cold. Hence, those animals which are bloodless and not hot by nature are not produced in lakes nor in the fresher of brackish waters, except to a somewhat small extent - such as the Testacea, Cephalopods and Crustacea, all of which are bloodless and cold by nature - whereas in lagoons " and near the mouths of rivers they art produced. ** The reason is that they seek both warmth and food together ; and sea-water is fluid and much more substantial than fresh water and it is hot by nature,*^ and it contains a quota of all the parts ** - of fluid, of pneuvia, and of earth - so that it also contains a quota of all the creatures which grow in each of them, because we may sav that plants belong to the earth, aquatic creatures to the water, and land-animals to the air, but the more and less and nearer and further make a surprisingly great difference.^ As for the fourth tribe, we must not look for Fire


a composition closely approximating to that of sea-water, which suggests that all vertebrates originated in the sea : and this receives support from comparative anatomical and embryological studies. Anaximander had asserted that human beings originated in fishes ; see Plut. Symp. viii. 8. 4, p. 730 E ev IxQvaiv eyyeveadai to nparrov dvdpwnovs . . . wcrrrep ol yaXeoi [naXaioL mss.] (see note, 754 b 32).

â– ^ The rest of the paragraph from this point is obscure, and other passages do not help much in its elucidation. For Aristotle's theorv of the structure of the universe, see App. A â– * As Platt says, the sea " shares " in all three, earth, water, and air : it is fluid ; it is aiofiaTiKov, and so contains earthy matter ; and it has pneuma in it, being warm - for TTveu/io is " hot air" (736 a 1 ), and also, as Aristotle says at 762 a 19 if., the things which are produced spontaneously in water are produced mainly in virtue of the pneuma in it, which contains Soul.

' It is difficult to attach any meaning to this statement.



ARISTOTLE tprirelv Kalroi ^ovXerai ye tl Kara rrjv rod TTvpos elvai rd^tv rovro yap reraprov apid p^elr ai roJv (Ta>ixdroiv. dAAa ro fxev irvp del (jiaiver ai rrjv 20 fxopcfyrjv ouk ISiav exov, aAA' ev erepco rcbv acofidrcov rj yap drjp rj Karrvog rj yrj ^aiverai to TTeTTvpojpievov. dAAa Set ro roiovrov yevo? ^Tjretv €771 rrjs aeXijvrjg- avrr] yap cfyaiverai KOLVOivovaa rrj? rerdpnrjg aTroardaeco? . dXkd rrepl pukv rovraiv dXXos dv e'lr) Xoyos.

H Se roJv oar paKohepp-cov ovvicrraTai (f>vaig rcov 25 fxev avropbdrcjog, ivlwv he Trpo'Cepuevcov rivd hvvapiLV dcf)' avrtov, TToXXdKis Se yLVOfxevoiv /cat rovrojv ano avardaeois avroixdrrjs. Set Stj^ AajSetv rds yeveaeis rdg Tojv <f)vra)V. rovrcov yap yiverai rd p-ev drro (TTTepfxarog, rd 8' dird OTrapayfidrcov d7TO(f)vrevofjievcov, evia 8e rco Trapa^Xaardveiv, otov ro rcbv 30 Kpop,pLVCx)V yevog. rovrov piev ovv oi pLveg yivovrai rov rpoTTOV TTapa<f)VovraL yap eXdrrov? aei -napa 1 hri Peck, coll. 762 b 6 : 8e vulg.

" According to Aristotle, the " heavens " and the heavenly bodies were composed of the " fifth element," aither, whose natural movement is circular (see 736 b 35 if. and n., and App. A § 2). As fire is the outermost of the sublunary elements and is therefore in contact with the "heaven" which is nearest to the earth, and as this " heaven " carries the moon, it follows that the moon can be said to " have a share in the fourth degree of remove," viz., fire. Aither must be clearly distinguished from fire ; and, according to G.A. 737 al (c/. Meteor. 382 a 7), fire generates no animal, whereas aither, the " element of the stars," is a form of depfiov which caii produce living creatures {noiei yoviyia ra aneptxara ; see 736 b 30-35). But at H.A. 552 b 10 Aristotle speaks of a creature which is engendered in the fire in places where ore is smelted ; and also mentions 352


it in these regions, although there wants to be a kind corresponding to the position of fire in the series, since fire is reckoned as the fourth of the corporeal substances. But always, as we see, the shape and appearance which fire has is not its own ; on the contrary, fire is always in some other one of the substances, for the object which is on fire appears either as air or smoke or earth. No ; this fourth tribe must be looked for on the moon, since the moon, as it appears, has a share in the fourth degree of remove. However, these matters should form the subject of another treatise.

With regard to the Testacea,"^ then : some of them (a) Sidetake shape spontaneously, others by means of the paction? emission of some special substance from themselves, though these too are often formed from a spontaneous composition. We must here apprehend the ways in which plants are generated. Some plants are formed from seed, some from sUps planted out, others by sideshoots (e.g., the onion tribe). Now the last-named is the method by which mussels are formed ; small ones are always gro\^ing up by the the salamander, which cannot be destroyed by fire ; the History of Animals passage is, however, excised by A.-\A'. There is a long discussion in Jaeger, Aristotle, 144-14.8, in which the doctrine of fire-animals is involved. Jaeger tries to prove that the doctrine that there were animals that were engendered in fire must have come in one of Aristotle's dialogues {On Philosophy), and by a curious blunder states that it does not come in History of Animals {loc. cit., to which he actually refers) ; but in fact Aristotle's words are yivercu drfpLa ev t(x> irvpi. Jaeger makes no reference at all to the present passage.

" Cf. P. A. II. 649 a -2-2 ff., G. cjr C. II. 331 b 25, Meteor. I, chh. 3, 4, etc.

' Lit., the nature, i.e., the physical structure, of the Testacea. See Introd. §^ 26, 21.

N 353



rrjv dpxijv- KT^pvKeg Se Kal TTop<j>vpai koI ra XeyojJieva Krjpid^eLV olov diTo aTrepjJLaTiKrjg (f>va€OJg TTpotevTat fXV^wSeLS vyponqrag {cnrepiia 8' ovOev TOVTOJV Set vo[xi,i^€iv, dXXd Kara rov elprjfxevov 35 rpOTTOV p,€T€X€lV T7J? OpiOLOTrjrOS TOt? (f)VTOLS' StO /cat ytVerat ttXtjOo? rwv tolovtcov orav drra^ 762 a yevr^rai, tl, Trdvra fxev yap ravra Kal avrop-ara avpL^alvei yiveadai, Kara Xoyov 8e Kal vnap^dvrwv (Twiaraadai pidXXov). TrepiyiyveadaL ydp tl TreplrTOJ/xa TTpos" eKdarcp rrjg dp)(rjg evXoyov, d(j) rjs 5 TTapa^XaardveL tojv Trapa^vofxevcjiiv eKaarov. evret Se 7Tapa7TXr](jlav €)(€L rrjv Suvajxiv r] rpo(f)r] /cat to TaxjTTj's TTepiTTCofia, (roy^ tojv kt] piat,6vTajv opboiov^ eiKos eariv elvai ttj i^ dpxTjs^ avardcrei, [ouatav]"' StoTrep evXoyov yiveadai Kal e/c TavT7]s.^ "Oaa 8e /XTjre Trapa^XaoTdvei iirjTe KrjpLdt,eL, TOVTOJV Se TrdvTOJV rj yeveaig avTOfJuarog eoTiv. 10 irdvTa Se to, avvLaTapLCva tov Tpovov tovtov /cat ev yfj Kal iv uSart (f)alveraL yivopueva jLiera arjipeais Kal jjLtyvvfjievov tov ofx^piov vSaTos' dTTOKpLVO[xevov ydp tov yXvKeog els Tr]v avviaTap.evT]v apxf]v TO irepLTTevov TOiavTTjv Aa/u-jSavet piop(j>iqv. ytVerat S' ovdev arjTTOpLevov dXXd TTeTTopuevov r) Se arji/jtg 1 df oS Platt. 2 <^j5) Peck.

^ ofioiov Peck : oftoiav vulg. * fort, t^? o-PX'ls ^^S ^ ovaiav om. Z, seel. A.-W. : pro ovalav coni. Platt ti^v TTapa^ucriv.

  • TTeptylyveadai (a 3) . . . rairrrjs om. 2.

" The " honeycombs " are really the eggs of these Gastropods, and Aristotle rightly recognizes their nature, as against later scientists who regarded them as distinct species of animals.

"" As against none, in the case of spontaneous generation.



side of the original one. The whelks and purpuras and those which, as the phrase goes, are " honeycombers "" emit quantities of slimy fluid emanating as it were from some seminal substance. (We must not, however, consider any of these substances as being semen proper ; instead, we should regard them as sharing in the resemblance to plants in the way already mentioned. And that is why a large number of such creatures is produced when once one has been produced, since, as all these creatures are in fact produced spontaneously as well, pro rata more of them arise if there are actually some * present to start with.) After all, it is reasonable to suppose that there is a surplus portion of residue close by each of the original stock, from which each of the sideshoots springs up. And since the residue is a substance possessing one and the same character as the nourishment of which it is the residue, it is probable that the stuff produced by the " honeycombers " is similar to the substance out of which they were originally constituted ; hence it is reasonable to suppose that it too " gives rise to young ones.

All which neither produce sideshoots nor make (6) Spon" honeycombs " reproduce by spontaneous genera- '^nerafjon tion ; and all which arise in this manner whether on land or in the water come to be formed, as can be seen, to the accompaniment of putrefaction and admixture of rainwater : as the sweet ingredients are separated off into the principle which is taking form, that which remains over assumes a putrefying aspect."* Nothing, however, is formed by a process of putrefaction, but by a process of concoction : the putrefaction

  • i.e., as well as residues such as semen. ** i.e., putrefies,


762 a

ARISTOTLE 15 Kal TO arjTTTOv TrepLTTCOfia rov 7Te(f)6evTog cotlv ovdkv yap e/c TravTog yiverai, Kaddvep oj}8' eV rots' V7TO rrjg T€)(vrjg Si^/xioupyou/xeVois" ovdev yap av eSet TTOielv vvv Se to fxev rj rexvr] raJv dxpijcrroiv d(f>aLpel, TO hi' Tj <^vais.

FiVerat 8' ev yfj Kal ev vypw to. ^a>a Kal to, zO yTJTV. hid TO €v yfj fxkv vScop vndpx^LV, iv S' vSari TTvevpia, ev Se tovtoj iravTl deppLOTrfTa i/jvxt'K'r]V , oiOTe TpoTTOv TLvd TTavTa ijjvx^S elvai TrXrjpr]' Sto avviaTaTai Ta;^ea>?, onoTav ipTTepiX'qcfyOfj. eprrepiXap^dv€Tai Se Kal yiveTai, depfxaLvo/xevcov tcov (jcopiaTiKcbv vypdjv olov d(f)pa)Srjs 7Top.(j)6Xv^. at 25 p.€V ovv Si,a(f)opal tov Ttpn.a)T€pov etvat to yivo'S Kal dTipiOTepov to avvtaTdp,€Vov iv ttj jrepiXrufjet TTJs apx'fjs T7JS" ipvxi-Krjg eccnv.^ tovtov^ Se /cat ot TOTToi a'tTLOi Kal TO CTco/xa TO 7Tepi\apL^av6pi€vov. iv Se Tf] daXaTTTj ttoXv to yecuSe? eveoTiv hiOTrep iK Trjg TotavTrjg avaTaaecos -q tojv OGTpaKoSepp^cov 30 yiveTai (f>vaig, kvkXo) p.ev tov yewSov? crKXrjpvvopievov Kal TTTjyvvp.evov tt^v avT7]v vrj^iv tols oaTols Kal TOt? Kepaai (rrvpl yap ctTi^/CTa Tayr' ecrrtV), ivTOS Se TTepiXafi^avoiJLevov tov ttjv ^cot^v e^ovTos awpbaTos .

Movoi' Se Twv ToiovTojv avvSva^ojxevov ecopaTai TO TU)v ko^Xlcov yevog. el S' e/<r tov avvSvaapiov ^ elaiv Peck : iariv vulg. ^ tovtcov P.

" This of course is not intended to cover the development of a larva once it has been constituted.

" Cf. above, 736 b 35 ff., and App. B §§ 13-17.



and the putrefied matter are a residue of that which has been concocted, for no creature's formation uses up the trhole of the material," any more than in the case of objects fashioned by the agency of art, otherwise there would be no need to make anything at all, whereas what happens in actual fact is that the useless material is removed in the one case by art and in the other by Nature.

Animals and plants are formed in the earth and in the water because in earth water is present, and in water pneuma is present, and in all pneuma soul-heat is present,* so that in a way all things are full of Soul ; and that is why they quickly take shape once it has been enclosed. Now it gets enclosed as the liquids containing corporeal matter '^ become heated, and there is formed as it were a frothy bubble. The object which thus takes shape may be more valuable in kind or less valuable ; and the differences herein depend upon the envelope which encloses the soulprinciple ; and the causes which determine this are the situations where the process takes place and the physical substance which is enclosed. Now in the sea earthy substance is plentiful, and that is why the Testacea "^ are formed and constructed out of a composition which is earthy in character : the earthy substance hardens all round and congeals in the same way that bones and horns do (since these cannot be melted by fire), while within it the physical substance that contains the life becomes enclosed.

Of such creatures the only tribe which has been observed to copulate is that of the snails ; but whether ' Sea-water is such a liquid ; see above, 761 b 9 and immediately below, 1. 27. Also App. B §§ 13-17.

•* Lit., the nature of the Testacea ; cf. above, 7til b 24.



762 a

35 7] yeveOLS avTwv iarlv t) fx-q, ovttoj avvoJTTTai LKavcos Zr^TTjorete 8' dv Tt? ^ovXofxevos opOws ^rjreZv, ri 762 b TO Kara T'qv vXikt^v dp)(r)v avviardjJievov iariv ev Tolg ToiovToig. iv fiev yap rot? ^rjAecrt TreptTTOJjMa Tt Tov t,(x>ov TOUT ioTLV , o 7) Txapd Tov dppevo? apxf] Kivovaa, Svvd[X€i tolovtov 6v olov dcf)' ovirep TjXdev, aTToreAet to t,a)ov. ivTavda 8e Tt Set Xeyeiv 5 TO TOLOVTOV, Kal TTodev /cat Tt? rj Kivovaa dpx'Q f] Kara to dppev ; Set hrf Xa^elv otl Kal iv tols ^ojot? Tot? yevvdjoLV ck ttjs elaiovar]? Tpo(f)rJ9 7] ev TO) t,ci)cp depixoTT]? diTOKpivovaa Kal avixireTTOvaa TTOiel TO TTeptTTOipLa, rrjv dp-)(y]v tov KVT][JiaTO?. ofioLCos 8e /cat iv (f>VTOi9, TrXrjv iv fxev tovtois Kal 10 €v Ttcrt Tcjv t,(Loiv ovdev TTpoaheiTai ttjs tov dppevos dpxrjs i^x^i' ydp iv avTolg jxepnyixiv^v) , to he tcov TrXetaTCov t,cpa)v TreptTTCO/Lta TrpoahelTat. Tpocfyr] 8' CCTTt Tot? fxev vhcop Kal yr], TOt? Se Ta iK tovtcvv, '\ doad^ direp rj iv Tot? t,d>OLg deppLOTrj^ iK ttjs Tpocl)rj? d7Tepydt,€TaL, Tovd' r) Trjg copas iv to) TreptexovTi 15 depixoT-qs iK daXaTTfjs Kal yfjg avyKptvei TreTrovaa Kal avvLCTTrjacv. to 8' iva7ToXapi^av6p,evov t) (xttoKpLVOfJuevov iv tco TTvevfJLari ttjs ifjvxi'KrjS dpxT]5 Kvrjfia TTOtet /cat KLvrjcnv ivTtdrjaiv. rj fiev ovv tCjv « See note, 767 b 17. 358


or not their generation is the result of such copulation has not so far been adequately observed.

Anyone who \\'ishes to follow the right line of in- Theory of quiry might well inquire what it is which, as it takes deration!' shape, corresponds in the case of these creatures to the " material principle." In females of course this is a residue produced bv the animal, a residue which potentially is such as the parent is from which it came, and which is perfected into an animal by the principle from the male " imparting movement to it. In the present case, however, what are we to describe as holding this sort of position ? and whence comes the principle that imparts movement , corresponding to the male, and what is it ? Now we must apprehend that, even in the case of those animals which generate, it is the incoming nourishment that is the material out of which the heat residing in the animal produces the residue - the " principle " of the fetation - by setting it apart and concocting it. Similarly ^^•ith plants, except that with them and certain of the animals there Ls no need of the principle of the male over and above that, because they contain in themselves this principle mixed (with the female) ; in most animals, however, the residue does need this principle. Of the one set, the nourishment is water and earth ; of the other, it is the things that are formed out of these ; so that in their case the seasonal heat present in their en\ironment causes to accumulate and to take shape by means of concoction out of sea-water and earth that which in the case of animals the heat present in them produces out of the nourishment. And that portion of the soul-principle which gets enclosed or separated oflF within the pneuma makes a fetation and implants movement in it. Now 359

762 b

ARISTOTLE cf)vra)v Tcbv oltto ravrofjidTov yivofJievajv avaraais ofxocLSijg iartv e/c nvos yap jjiopiov yiverai, /cat 20 TO fxev a.p)(r] ro 8e Tpo(f)rj yiverai rj Trpcorrj rot? e/c^yo/xeVotS'/ ra he raJv l,ipojv aKcoXrjKoroKeLTai /cat Twv avaiiioiv oaa fir] oltto t,cpa>v yiverai /cat Twv ivaifiiov, oiov yevos ri Kearpecov /cat aAAoii' TTorajjiiojv i^Ovcjdv, en he ro rcbv ey)(e\eo)v yevos ' 25 diravra yap ravra, Kaijrep oXiyaijxov e^ovra rrjv (f>vaiVy ojxojs evai[xd eari, /cat Kaphiav e^ovai rrjv dp)(r]v rrjv rcov pbopicov atjLtart/CTjv. ra he KaXovfxeva yrj? evrepa GKwX'qKog e)(ei <f}vaiv, ev ots" eyyiverai ro aaypua ro ra)V ey^eXeajv. hio /cat ire pi TTJs Tcov dvdpcoTTcov /Cat TerpaTTohcDV yeveaeojg VTToXd^oi Tt? dv, eirrep eyiyvovro rrore yrjyeveis, 30 Oiarxep (f)aai rives, hvo rpoircov rovrcov^ yiveaOai Tov erepov rj yap co? OKOjXrjKos avviarapievov ro TTpcjrov rj e^ cocov, dvayKaiov yap i) ev avrols e)(^eiv rrjv rpo(f>rjv etV rrjv av^rjcriv {ro he roiovrov Kvr]fxa aKojXrj^ eariv) rj Xajx^dveiv dXXodev, rovro ^ hie lacunam statuit Platt. * TovTcuv PZ, istornm £ : oni. vulg.

° Cf. 715 b 27 " they are formed when . . . certain parts in plants become putrescent ... as for instance the mistletoe,"

  • See above, 741 b 1. 360


as for plants, the manner in which those plants take shape which are generated spontaneously is uniform : they are formed from a part " of something, and some of it forms into the " principle," some into the first nourishment of the germinating plants. As for the animals, however, some of them are brought forth as larvae, both the bloodless ones that are not formed from li^ing animals, and some blooded ones (examples are a kind of cestreus ^ and other river fishes, also the eel tribe) : all of these, although by nature they have but little blood, nevertheless are blooded animals and have a heart, which is the " principle " of the parts and bloodlike in constitution. The " earth 's-guts " as they are called have the nature of a larva ; the body of the eels forms within them.'^ Hence, too, with regard to the genera- Tr.-idiiionai tion of human beings and quadrupeds, if once upon ori^n*^of^* a time they were " earthborn " as some allege, one man and might assume them to be formed in one of these two *°""* '• ways - ^either it would be by a larva taking shape to begin with, or else they were formed out of eggs, since of necessity they must either contain the nourishment for their growth within themselves (and a fetation of this sort is a larva) or they must get it from elsewhere, and that means either from â– â– Ttie " earth's-guts " are apparently the round-worm 'Tordius. Cf. H.A. 570 a 15 ff., where they are said to be " formed spontaneously in mud and humid ground . . . for it is by the water's edge that the heat of the sun is strong and causes putrefaction." See note on eels, p. oG5.

â– * This was an old and traditional belief; cf. Plato, Politicals :269 B ; in Hdt. \'II I. 55 there is a reference to " Erechtheus, who is said to have been yryyfVTjs " : cf. also Empedocles, Diels, Vorsokr.' 31 B 6:2 " First whole-natured forms sprang up from the earth, having a portion both of water and fire " ; and ibid. B 57 ; 96 ; 98, And above, G.A. 122 b 20 fF.



762 b

8' â– ^ e/c T-iy? yevviLarj's -q e/c jJiopLov rod Kvrjfjiaro?' 35 cSctt' et ddrepov dSvvarov, eTTippelv €K Trjs yrjs 763 a uxjTTep iv rolg^ ^cool? €K ttjs ixrjrpo?, dvayKolov e/c pLopiov XafjL^dvecv rov KvrjpuaTos' rrjv Se roiavrrjv i^ (hod Xeyo/xev eti^ai yeveaiv. on [xev ovv, e'lrrep r^v TLS dp^Tj rrj? yerecrecos" Trdai rots ^wocg, evXoyov TOLV SvoLV TOVToiv elvaL TTjv iripav, cftavepov tJttov 5 S' e;!^et Xoyov €K tojv (hibv ovdevos yap roiavTrjv 6pa)pL€v l,(x)ov yeveoLV, dXXd rrjv erepav, Kal t(x>v ivaLfxajv twv pr^devrajv Kal raJv dvaljjiojv. rotavra 8' earl rcov t' evropujjv evia /cat rd oarpaKoSepfxa Trepl cLv 6 Xoyos' ov yap e/c pbopiov yivovrai rivog, (Lairep rd (LoroKovpieva, TTOLovvrai 8e /cat tt^v 10 av^7]aLV opLOLOJS rots ctkcoX-q^lv evrt Ta dvcu yap /cat rr]v dpx^jv av^dvovrai at aKcoXrjKes' ev tu) /cctTco ydp 7] Tpotj^T] rot's dv<x>. /cat rovro ye opLOiws e;)^ei rols e/c rcbv axhv, nXrjv e/cetra jxev Karava XiaK€L TTav, iv 8e rot? aKajXrjKoroKovpievots , orav av^r]dfj e/c ri]? iv rep /carcu p-opno avaraaeoj'S ro 15 dvu) puopiov, ovrojg e/c rov vttoXoittov hiapOpovrai rd Kdrwdev. alriov 8' on Kal varepov rj rpo(f)r] ev rd) p,opicp rd) vird ro vTr6t,a>pia ylverai vdcrLV. on 8e rovrov rov rpdirov Troteirat rd aKOiXi)K(Lhr] rr]V ^ dXXois post TOiS vulg. : om. PZ.

" i.e., in the uterus.

  • i.e., the egg. Thus the three possibiUties are - production as larvae ; viviparously ; oviparously. It should not be supposed that Aristotle seriously envisages the possibility of this sort of " evolution " ; but in view of the popular nature of the belief he thinks fit to show by which of the three modes of generation these " earthborn " men would have been produced, if they had been produced.

" Spontaneous generation from eggs.



the female parent " or from part of the fetation ^ ; so that if the former way is impossible (i.e., if it cannot flow to them out of the earth as it flows to animals from the mother), of necessity they must get it from part of the fetation, and generation of this sort we call generation from an egg. Thus much, therefore, is plain : if there were a " principle " of their generation in the case of all animals, we should reasonably expect it to be one or other of these two, larva or egg. It is, however, less reasonable to hold that their generation would take place out of eggs, because in the case of no animal do we observe this sort of generation '^ to occur, whereas we do see the other, in the case both of the blooded animals I mentioned •* and the bloodless ones. Under this latter heading come certain of the Insects, and also the Testacea with which our discussion is concerned : they are not formed out of a part of something as are the creatures produced from eggs, and further, they effect their growth in a similar way to larvae, for larvae grow towards the upper part, towards the " principle," the nourishment for the upper parts being in the lower part. In this respect they resemble the creatures that are produced from eggs, except that the latter use up the n-hole of the egg, whereas, in the case of those produced from larvae, when the upper part has grown by drawing on the substance in the lower part, then the lower part becomes articulated out of what remains. The reason for this is that (not only in the early stages but) afterwards as well * the nourishment is produced in the part below the diaphragm in all animals. That the larva-like creatures effect their growth in

  • ' Cestreus and eels. ' When they are fully grown.



763 a

avgrjaiv, SrjXov eirl tcov fxeXiTTchv Koi rcov roiovruiv Kar ap)(a? yap to fxev koltoj fxopiov jxeya 20 exovcrt, to 8' dvco eAarrov. Kal evrt tcov ooTpaKOSepfxcDV Se Tov avTov Tporrov e;)^et to. Txepl ttjv av^iqaiv. (f)av€p6v 8e Kal tovt eTrl tcov crrpo/xjScoScDv (ivY Talg eAt/cat?- aet yap av^avofievcov yivovTat p.eil,ovs^ errl to Ttpoadiov Kal Tr]v KaXovjjieviqv Ke^aXr]v'.

Ov [xev oiiv TpoTTOv e;^et 7^ yeveats Kal tovtcov Kal 25 TCOV d'AAoji' TCOV avTopbaTwv, eLprjTai ap^^eSov.

"On Se avvLOTaTai ayro/xara TTOVTa tol ocrTpaKoSepfJLa, (f)av€p6v €k tojv tolovtcov, otl npos re TOL9 irXoiois yiveTai arjTTop.evr]s rrjs d(j)p(LSovs lAuos", Kal 7ToXXa)(ov, ov rrpoTepov ovdkv VTrrjpx^ TOLOVTOV, voTepov St eVSeittv vypov tov tottov 30 ^op^opcodevTos iyevcTO tol KaXovfxeva XipbvooTpea TCOV ocjTpaKrjpcbv , olov rrepl 'Vohov vapa^aXovTos vavTiKov OToXov Kal eK^XrjdevTCov K€pa[XiCov eiS" TTjv ddXaTTav, xpovov yevop^evov /cat ^op^opov rrepl avTa crvvaXiadevTO?, ooTpea evpiaKOVT' iv aufot?. OTL S' ouS' d(f)LrjcrL to, rotayra ovSev d^' avTwv 763 b yevvqTiKov, TeKp^T^pLOV errel yap Xtot Ttveg e/c Uvppag TTJg €v Aea^cp tcov ooTpecov hieKop^iaav ^ {iv) A.-W. : Kal Tals S : eVt rat? PZ : rats vulg. * fiei^ovs Platt : nXeCovs vulg., om. Y.

" This does not entirely square with what has been said, although Aristotle seems to think that even those which are generated otherwise are also spontaneously generated ; see 761 b 25 ff. - * Cf. 736 a 13 ff.

•^ i.e., when there is only mud and no water in the lagoon ; cf. H.J. VI, ch. 15.



this manner is plain in the case of bees and insects of that sort, as their lower part is large to start with and the upper part smaller. The arrangements for growth in the Testacea are on the same lines. This is shown in the convolutions of the spiral-shelled creatures, which as thev grow always become larger towards the front and the " head " as it is called.

This practically completes our description of the manner of generation of these animals and of the others that are generated spontaneously.

The fact that all " the Testacea take shape spon- Examples of taneously is shown by considerations like the follow- spontaneous ing : They form on the side of boats when the frothy ° slime * putrefies ; and also, in many places where nothing of the kind had been present pre\'iously, after a time when the place has become muddy owing to lack of water, "^ lagoon-oysters, as they are called, a kind of testaceous animal, have been formed ; for example, on an occasion when a naval squadron cast anchor off Rhodes, some earthenware pots were thrown out into the sea, and as time went on and mud had collected round them, oysters were continually found inside them. Here is a piece of evidence to show that animals of this kind emit no generative substance : people from Chios transported some live oysters across from Pyrrha in Lesbos,'

    • Cf. H.A. 547 b 11. Apparently barnacles, which are, however, Crustacea, not Testacea.

' The lagoon at PjTrha seems, as D'Arcy Thompson (prefatory note to translation of H.A.) suggests, to have been one of the chief places where Aristotle carried on his researches. The strait leading to it is mentioned again at P.A. 680 b 1 (a passage where also the " eggs " of seaurchins and ovsters are discussed), and several times in H.A. Cf. 761 b 4.


763 b

ARISTOTLE tjixivra Koi els tottou? tlvols rrjs OaXarnqg evpiTTouSei? Kal ofxoppovs^ affyeiaav, TrAeto) jxev tw Xpovcp ovhkv iyevero, to 8e fieyedo? elg av^iqaiv 5 enehajKe ttoXv. to. 8e Xeyofxeva (ha ovdev avpu^aXXerai Trpos rrjv ycveaiv, aAA' iarlv ewrpo^ta? CTTJ/XetOV, oloV €V TOIS" ivalfMOLS T] TTLOTrjS' hio Kai TTpos rrjv iScoSrjv yiverai ei';^u/>ta Kara rovg Kaipovg TOVTOvg. arjijL€Lov 8' on to. Toiavra aet e^ovcrLV, otov at TTLvaL Kal ol KrjpvKf? Kal at TTop^upai, ttXtjv 10 oT€ /Aev /xei'^oj ore 8' iXdrrco. evia 8' oy/c aet, aAAa ToiJ ^ei' eapos exovai, Trpo^aivovcrrjs he (^dlvet rrjs wpag, Kal reAos" di^avt^erat TrafXTrav, oiov ol re Kreves /cat ot puves /cat to. KaXovfieva Xifivoarpea' 7] yap ojpa avrr) avficJiepeL Tot? cco/xaCTtv auTcDj/. Tot? 8e CTfjLtjSatVet roiovrov ovSev errlhriXov, oiov 16 TOts TTjdvoLS. TO. 8e /ca^' eKaara Trepl tovtcov, Kal ev of? yivovrai tottols, e/c t-^? laTopiag dea)peia6a>.

^ oixoppovs Platt : oixopovs Z : ofiolovs vulg.

" The characteristic of a evpiiros is the force and violence of the currents sweeping through it ; hence there is no opportunity for mud to collect and so for any Testacea to arise. Platt's conjecture ofMoppovs is also supported by the use of the



and deposited them in some sea-straits where the currents met." As time passed the oysters did not increase at all in number, but they grew greatly in size. As for their " eggs," * as they are called, these contribute nothing to generation ; they are just a sign of good nourishment, like fat in blooded animals, and that too is why they are tasty to eat at these seasons. A proof of this is that these creatures - e.g., pinnae, whelks and purpurae - have such " eggs " as these always, only sometimes they are larger, sometimes smaller. Others - e.g.. pectens, mussels and the lagoon-oysters as they are called - do not have them always, but only in the spring ; as the season advances they wane, and finally disappear altogether ; the reason being that the spring-season is favourable to their physical condition. In others - e.g., the seasquirts - nothing of the kind is to be detected. For an account dealing with these indi%"idually, and the places where they grow, the student should consult the Researches.

verb p€(t} elsewhere in connexion with evpinos, e.g. E.N. 1167 b 7 ^e'vet rd ^vXevfiara kcu ov fierappei utcrnep evpiiros: cf. Prob. 940 b 16 oi evpirroi, peovaiv, and De somno et vig. 456 b 2\. Gaza's translation luto similia seems to imply the reading ^opfiopmheis, which is entirely against the sense. ' See note on 763 b 1.


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SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM (LONGITUDI^'AL SECTION) TO ILLUSTRATE THE MEMBRANES OF THE CHICK EMBRYO The dotted lines represent mesoblast. The diagram shows the state of development after about ten days. The embryo itself is in the central part of the diagram. Immediately above the gut is the notochord (shown in black), and immediately above that is the nerve-cord, of which the right end is the brain. The two " umbilical cords " mentioned by Aristotle (III. 753 b 20 £f.) are shown : (a) the yolk-sac stalk, (b) the stalk of the allantois.

To begin with, the embryo is a sort of thin plate on top of the yolk ; and as time goes on, both the amniotic cavity (which encloses the embryo) and the allantois (which acts as a respiratory organ and as a receptacle for excreta) progressively encircle the yolk, which finally becomes enclosed in the embryo (as Aristotle says). The chorion and allantois coalesce after a period, and the resulting chorio-allantois then corresponds to the fetal placenta of mammals. The chorion is really the outer layer of the amnion. The extra-embryonic coelom, wliich is lined with, is an extension of the coelom proper (the main body-cavity), which is also lined with mesoblast.


763 b 20 I HepL fiev ovv rrjs yeveaews rrjg ra>v t,(l)U)v etprjTaL Kai Koivfj Kal ;^a)pts" Trepl ttolvtcov. errel S' ev rot? TeAecoTctTots" aLvru)v earl to dijXv /cat to dppev Kextjopiajjievov, Kal Tay'ra? tols Sfva/xei? dpxo-S (f)ap.ev elvai ttolvtcov Kal l^cpcov Kal <^vt(2)v, aXXd to.

25 fJL€v ainds dxcuptcrrovs ex^t to. §€ Kex^jptapievas , AeKT€ov 7T€pl TTJs yeveacojs ttjs tovtojv rrpojTov €Ti yap OLTcXcov ovTCov €v TO) yev€L Siopi^eTat to drjXv Kal TO dppev. TTOTepov Se Kal Trplv hrjXrjv Trjv SLa(f)opdv etvai Trpos Trjv atadrjaiv rjiiaJv to fxev drjXv TO 8' dppev ioTiv, iv Tjj pbrjTpl Xa^ovTa ttjv 30 hiatjiopdv rj TrpoTcpov, dp.(f)ta^r)TeLTai . (ftaal ydp OL fxev iv Tols GTTepixaaLv elvai TavTr]v ttjv evavtLcoolv evdvs, otov 'Ava^ayopas Kal eVepot tcov (jtvaioXoyajv yiveadai t€ ydp c/c tov dppevos to " See Introd, § 76.

See Introd. § 26. " See Introd. § 11.

"* The first microscopically visible signs of sex-diiferentiation occur about the fifth day in the chick. Aristotle was quite justified in his belief that sex-differentiation occurs early. We know to-day that sex is determined genetically from the moment of fertilization, since some animals have two kinds of sperm and others have two kinds of egg. 370

BOOK IV The formation of animals, both in general and as con- I cems all of them separately, has now been dealt vrith. ^^n-"'. Since, however, in the most perfect " of them the entiation. male and the female are separate, and we hold that theories: these characteristics ^ are " principles " "^ of all animals and all plants ahke (the only difference being that in some these " principles " are inseparable while in others they are separate), we must deal with the formation of these first of all, for male and female become distinct while animals are still imperfect in kind.*^ It is however not agreed whether one is male and another female even before the difference is plain to our senses, the difference being acquired by them either within the mother or earlier. Thus, Anaxagoras. some people, such as Anaxagoras and certain other physiologers, say that this opposition exists right back in the semens,^ alleging that the semen comes Aristotle's view will be found in the passage below, 766 a 30b 3. The heart is the first thing to be formed in the embryo, because it is the seat of to dpeirriKov, the nutritive part of the Soul; and to BpermKov is also ro yewrjriKov (see 735 a 17 fF., 744 b 36, n.). Sex can be ultimately traced back to the heart, which, as also containing the principle of vital heat, is the source of concoction, upon which ability to produce semen, etc., depends.

• See pp. xvi f.

^ This is an example of the view that the diflFerence is acquired " earlier " than in the mother.



763 b

GTrdpfjia, TO Se drjXv rrapex^iv tov tottov, /cat eivai TO fiev dppev ck twv Se^iwv to Se drjXv e/c tojv apiaTepcjv [Kal ttjs ixTTcpag to, [xev appeva iv rot? 764 a Seniors' etvai to. Se dy^Xea iv tols dptcrre/jots'].^ ot 8' iv TTJ [xrjTpa, Kaddirep 'EjLtTreSoKrATy?- to. jxev yap etS" depfxrjv iXdovTa ttjv voTepav dppeva yiveadai <f>iqai TO. 8' elg i/jvxpo-v drjXea, Trjg Se depfxoTrjTog 5 /cat Trjs ifjvxpoTT^TOS ttjv tcov KaTafxrjVLCov aWiav etvai pvaiv, -r) ipvxporepav ovaav ^ depfiOTepav, /cat rj TTaXatoTepav -r) 7Tpoa(f)aTCOTepav . ArjixoKpiTog Se 6 'AjSST^ptTTj? iv p,ev Trj jU-ryrpt yiveadai (jyqoi ttjv SLa(j>opdv TOV drjXeos /cat tov dppevog, ov fxevTOL 8ta dep^OTTjTa ye /cat ipvxpoTTjTa to jxev yiyveadai 10 driXv TO 8' dppev, dXX oiroTepov dv KpaT-qarj to avepixa to (xtto tov jjiopiov iXdov ch Sia<f)epovaLV dXX'qXwv TO drjXv Kal to dppev. tovto yap cog dXrjddJs 'EjLtTTeSo/cAT^S" paOvjJiOTepov VTreiXrj^ev, olofxevog ipvxpoTTjTi /cat depjJiOTrjTi Sta(f>ep€iv p,6vov dXXi^Xcov, opdjv oXa ra pLopia fxeydXrjv exovTa 15 SLa(f)opdv TTiv re tcov atSotojv /cat T'r]v Trjg vaTepag. el yap TreTrXaafxivcov tcov ^cocov, tov jiev Ta /xdpta ^ seclusi, nam argumento aliena ; cf. 765 a 22.

" This is a view put forward also in the Eumenides of Aeschylus (658 ff.) by Apollo, who cites the apposite example of Athena standing by his side : ovK earl /xTyrijjO rov KeKXrjfievov reKvov TOKivs, Tpo(f>os 8e Kvfiaros veoarropov.

TLKTil 8' O dpCpOKiOV, etC.

{tov in the first line is Headlam's emendation for tj.) In his commentary, ii. 293-294, G. Thomson gives references to a similar belief among the Egyptians and primitive peoples in Australia and South America ; the reference which he gives 372


int# being from the male, while the female provides the space for it," and that the male comes from the right side * and the female from the left [and, as regards the uterus, that the males are in the right side and the female in the left]'^. Others, like Empedocies Empedocles, hold that the opposition begins in the D^mocritus. womb ; according to him, the semens which enter a hot womb become males, those which enter a cold one, females ** ; and that the cause of this heat and cold is the menstrual flow, according as it is hotter or colder, older or more recent/ Democritus of Abdera holds that the difference of male and female is produced in the womb, certainly, but denies that it is on account of heat and cold that one becomes male and another female ; this is determined, he asserts, according to which of the two parents' semen prevails, the semen, that is to say, which has corne from the part wherein male and female differ from one another/ After all, Empedocles was really rather slipshod in his assumption, in supposing that the two differ from each other merely in virtue of heat and cold, when he could see that the whole of the parts concerned - the male pudenda and the uterus - exhibit a great difference^ for supposing that once the animals have been fashioned, and one has got all the parts of the for the Pj^thagoreans is, however, to a diflFerent doctrine from this. See also G. Thomson, Aeschylus and Athens (1941), and for other references to such views and their social consequences, J. Needham, History of Embryology, '25 fF,

  • i.e., the right testis.

' These words must be an interpolation, as they are inconsistent with the view just described. Cf. 765 a 23.

â– * See quotation, 733 a 2i.

' These terms, as Platt suggests, may echo Empedocles' own words. The hotter will of course be the more recent.

' See note on the theory of " pangenesis," 721 b 9.


764 a

ARISTOTLE exovTog ra rov d-qXeog iravTa, rov Se ra rov iipp€vo?, KaOdirep elg /ca/xivov €ts rrjv varlpav redeirj, TO /xev exov varepav els Oepixrjv, to Se [Jbrj e^ov eiV ifjvxpoiv, ecrrat drjXv to ovk ^xov voTepav Kal dppev 20 TO ^xov. TOVTo 8' dSvvaTov. waTe TavTTj ye ^iXriov dv XeyoL ArjfjLOKpiTOS' t,rjTel yap TavT7]s ttjs yeveaecos ttjv hia(f)opdv^ Kal neipaTai Xeyeiv el 8e KaXdJg rj jXTj KaXdJs, eTepos Xoyos. dXXd [xrjv Kav el^ Tcbv jjioplcov TTJg Sia^opa? aiTtov rj depfioTrjg Kal 25 rj i/jvxpoTrjs , tovto XeKTeov rjv tols eKeivws Xeyovaiv TOVTO ydp eoTiv d>s elrrelv to Xeyecv Trepl yeveaecog dppevos Kal d-qXeos' tovtols^ ydp Sia^epet cf)avepd)S- ov puKpov Se* epyov to dir" eKeivqs ttjs dpxT)S TTepl Trjs yeveaecos toutojv tojv fjLoplwv Tr]v alTtav avvayayelv , d)S dvayKalov^ dKoXovdeZv ifjvxojjLevo) [lev Tcp t,4>cp yiveadai tovto to fjLopiov rjv 30 KaXovatv voTepav, depixaLvofxevcp Se fxrj yiveadai. Tov avTov Se Tpoirov Kal Trepl tcov ets" Trjv opuXiav (TvvTeXovvTOiv pLopicxiv Kal ydp raura 8ia(f)epei, Kaddrrep eiprjTai irpoTepov.

"Eti Se yiveTai hihvfxa drjXv Kal dppev a/xa iv TO) avTO) fxopio) TToXXdKis Trjg vuTepas, Kal Tovd^ ^ 8ia(j)opds T')7i' yeveaiv coni. Platt.

2 ft PSYZ : 2? vulg.

^ TovTOLs Peck : tovto vulg.

  • 8c Platt : re vulg. * <ov> coni. Platt.

" Viz., primarily testes and uterus, not the parts employed in intercourse ; these are mentioned separately, 11. 30-32 below. See also 716 a 35-b 3.

  • Empedocles'. Aristotle seems to assume all through this discussion that according to Empedocles the fundamental difference between male and female was one of heat 374


male and the other all the parts of the female, they were to be put into the uterus as though it were into an oven, the one which has a uterus into a hot oven, and the one which has no uterus into a cold one, then it follows that the one that has no uterus will turn out a female and the one that has a uterus a male. And this is impossible. So that we may allow that in this respect Democritus's statement is the better of the two, because he is trying to find out what is the difference inherent in this process of formation of male and female, and endeavouring to state it, though whether he is right or not is another matter. Yet indeed, if heat and cold were the cause of the difference of the actual parts," then those who hold the other \-iew * ought to have stated this, because, one might say, this is tantamount to making a statement about the process of formation of male and female, since it is in these parts that the evident difference between the two lies. And also, if you start from this principle,"^ you have your work cut out to prove the cause of the process of formation of these parts, and to show that it necessarily follows that when the animal is cooled the part called the uterus is formed in it, but that when it is heated it is not formed. The same may be said about the parts which serve for intercourse, since these too differ, as has already been stated.

Further, male and female twins are often formed together in the same part of the uterus. This has and cold (see above, 1. 13), and that this had little or nothing to do with the difference of the sexual organs. But it seemsimpossible that Empedocles could have meant anything else than that heat and cold were the cause of the difference of the sexes, including that of the distinctive organs. ' i.e., of heat and cold.


764 a

35 LKavo)? red^copriKa^ev €k row dvaro^cov eV Traon rot? ^cpoTOKovai, Kal iv rotg Tre^ot? Kal iv rots' L)(9vaiv TTcpi (hv el jxev jjirj avvecopoLKet, evAoycog 764 b rjixaprave Tavrrjv Tr]V alriav elircjv, el 8' ecopaKwg, droTTOv TO eVt vopLit^eiv alriav elvaL rrjv rrjg varepas depfjior-qra rj ifjvxporrjra- a/it^co yap av eyivero Tj drjXea r) dppeva, vvv Se rovr* ovx 6pcb[Jiev avfjL^alvov.

Aeyovri re rd piopia hiearrdadai rov yivofxevov 5 [rd puev yap iv rep dppevi (f)r)cnv elvai rd S' ev ra> drjX^i,, Sio Krai rrjs dXX'^Xwv ofJuXlag Imdvp^eZv) dvayKaZov kol rcov roiovrcov hir^prjadai rd pieyedos KaL yiveadai avvohov, dXX ov 8ta ipv^iv rj deppaaiav. dXXd rrepl pev rrjg roLavrrjs alrias [rod arrepparosf^ rax ^^ ^^V '^oXXd Xeyeiv oXcog ydp eoiKev 6 rpoTTog 10 rrjg air tag nXaapiarwBTjg elvai. el 8' eari Trepl GTTepparog ovrcog exov ojaTTep rvyxo-vopev eiprjKoreg, /cat /xtjt' a770 Travrdg aTrepxerai p^i]d^ dXojg rd aTTo rov dppevog rrapex^t rotg yivopbevoig vX-qv prjSepLLav, /cat Trpdg rovrov /cat Trpdg ArjpoKpirov, 15 /cat et rig dXXog ovroj rvyxdvei Xeycov, opoiwg aTTavrrireov . ovre ydp hieairaapevov evSexerat ro ^ seel. Platt, qui post depfxaaiav supra transfert.

° See quotation, 722 b 12, 764 b 17 and context. " For fieyedos = od>fj.a, cf. G. cf C. 321 h 16 ; and 765 a 13 376


been amply observed by us from dissections in all the \'ivipara, both in the land-animals and in the fishes. Now if Empedocles had not detected this, it is understandable that he should have made the mistake of assigning the cause he did ; if on the other hand he had detected it, it is extraordinary' that he should still continue to think that the cause is the heat and cold of the uterus, since according to his theorv the twins should both turn out male, or both female ; whereas in actual fact we do not observe this to occur.

Also, he says that the parts of the creature which gets formed are " torn asunder " " ; some, he savs, are in the male and some in the female, and that also explains why they desire intercourse with each other. If so, necessity requires that the physical substance ^ of these parts as well as of the others is " torn asunder " and that a junction takes place, not that the difference is due to coohng or heating. However, discussion of a cause of this sort might well prove lengthy, as the whole cast of this cause seems to be a product of the imagination. If on the other hand the truth about semen is as we have actually stated - i.e., that it is not drawn from the whole body and that the secretion from the male provides no material at all for the creatures which get formed^ - then we must take up our stand against Empedocles and against Democritus and against anyone else who maintains this position, because (a) it is impossible below. fieyeBos thus means something which has size, i.e., a physical body or substance. Empedocles, says Aristotle, is inconsistent in saying (a) that the physical substance of the parts is present as such in the parents to begin with, and (6) that the formation of the sexual parts is due to the action of heat and cold.

" Viz., testes and uterus.


764 b

ARISTOTLE crcD/xa Tov (nrepixaro?^ elvai, ro jxev iv rco diqXeL to 8' iv to; dppevi, Kadajrep ^^^fineSoKXrjs (f)T]aiv elrrajv dXXa hUaTTaarai /xeAecov <j>vais, rj fiev iv dvSpos • . ., OVT* i^ eKarepov ttoLv dTTOKpivojJievov, ro) Kparrjaai 20 TL fJiipos dXXov pbipovs yiveadai, ro juev dT]Xv to 8' dppev. oXcos 8e to ye rrjv tov fiipovs VTT€po-)(rjv KpaTT^aacrav TTOceiv drjXv ^e'ArtoK /xev rj jXTjOev (f>povTlaavTa to depjxov atTtdadai jjiovov, to jxevToi CTU^jSatVetv a/xa /cat ttjv tov atSoiov p,op(f)7jv erepav Setrat Xoyov Trpos to crvvaKoXovdelv aet raur 25 dXX-qXoLS' €L yap otl avveyyvg, /cat Tcjv Xonrcbv e/cacTTOV e8ei piopicov dKoXovdelv ire pep yap krepov iyyvg tcov vlkcovtojv, ware djxa dfjXv r av rjv /cat TT] fJLTjrpL ioLKO'S, T] dpp€V /Cat TO) TTttTpt. CTt aTOTTOV /cat TO jjiovov TavT* o'Uadai Seiv yiyveadai Ta fxopia, /cat jjiT] TO avvoXov ^eTajSejSAi^/cei'at acbpia, 1 Tou anepixaros velit secludere Platt.

" See above, note on fieyeOos, 1. 7.

  • " Perhaps " of the semen " should be deleted.

« Cf. 7-22 h 12.

    • This is Democritus's view. Empedocles had said that each parent supplied only half the tale of the parts ; Democritus said that each parent supplied a full tale of parts. See also note on pangenesis, 7:31 b 9.

  • i.e., one sexual part over the other ; see 764 a 10, 11.

f i.e., the conformation of the part employed in intercourse as well as the conformation of the uterus : in all cases they both exhibit a diflference from the corresponding parts in males, the penis and the testes respectively.

" e.ff., why no individual is found having uterus and penis.



that the physical substance " of the semen ^ exists " torn asunder," one part in the male and the other in the female, as Empedocles alleges- But torn asunder waits The substance of the limbs ; part is in man's ..." and (6) it is impossible that a complete tale •* of parts is secreted off from each of the parents and that a male or female embryo is formed according as one part prevails over another part/ Considering the matter generally : To hold that the superiority of one part prevails and that this is what makes the embryo female is certainly better than saying that heat alone is the cause \^'ithout having stopped to think about it ; but the fact that at the same time the conformation of the pudendum as well ^ is different requires an explanation to show why these parts are always of a piece with each other.^ If the answer is " Because they are in close proximity," then every one of the remaining parts ought to be all of a piece as well,'* since while the parts are gaining the mastery * any one of them is close to any other, so that on that showing all the characteristics should go together, i.e., the offspring, if female, should also take after its mother, and if male after its father.^ Besides, it is fantastic to imagine that these parts alone can be formed, without the whole body also having under

  • i.e., as well as the sexual parts : e.g., if the oflFspring has sexual parts resembling those of its father - i.e., male ones - then it ought to resemble its father in all its other parts too.

  • This refers to the " prevailing " mentioned above, 1. 21, etc.

' i.e., the offspring should take after the parent whose sex has determined its own, and take after it not only in respect of sexual parts but in all other respects as well. But of course this is not borne out by the facts.



764 b

30 /cat ixaXiara Kal Trpwrov ra? ^Ae'jSas", Trepl as cog 7T€pl v7Toypa(f)r]v to ucofia Trept/cetrat to twv aapKcjv. a? ov Sto. TT^r vcTTepav evXoyov yeveadai TTOtag Ttvag, dXXa juaAAov 8t' eKeivas tt]v vaTepav V7ToSo)(rj yap ai/xard? Tivog eKOLTepov, irpoTepa S' 7] Tcov (f)X€^a)v. TTjv Se Kivovcrav dp)(r]v dvayKalov 35 aei vpoTepav etj^ai /cat tt^? yeveaecog aiTiav tco TTOiav elvai Tiva. crujUjSatVet jLtev ovv r) Sta^opd TcDv fjiepwv TOVTOiv TTpos dXXrjXa rot? ^rjAeat /cat Tot? dppeaiv, aAA' oi5/c dp)(rjv olrjTeov 01)8' atrtav 765 a eivat TavT7]v, aAA' cTepav, Kav el [x-qdev dnoKpL v€Tat aTTepjJia fxr^Te diro tov drjXeog yLrjT aTro tou dppevog, dAA' OTTCOS" St^ Trore ovviaTaTai [to OTreppiaf TO yiyvofJievov.

'0 8' auTo? Adyo? /cat Trpds" rous" XeyovTag to •T juev appev ano tcov 8e^iajr etvat to 8e ^-^Au aTTo TCOV' apLOTepaJv oanep /cat 77/30? 'E/x7Te8o/cAea /cat TTpog A7][x6KpLTOv. etxe ydp ixrjhepiiav vXrjv avjx^dXAerai to dppev, ovdev dv Xeyoiev ol XeyovTCs ovtojs' etT€ /cat avix^dXXeTai, Kaddirep ^aalv, oju-oicos dvayKalov drravTav /cat Trpog tov 'KfiTreSoKXeovg Xoyov, 10 o? Siopi^ei TO d-qXv irpog to dppev deppLOTTjTi /cat ijjvXpoTrjTt Trjs voTepag. ol Se to avTO tovto^ ttolougl, TOts" Se^tot? /cat TOtS" dpiOTepolg opl^ovTeg, opaiVTes ^ seel. Platt : to Kvrjfia coni. A.-W. ^ TovTo PSYZ*, cm. Rekker per errorem.

" See 716 b 2 if . and 766 a 24 ff. >> Cf. 743 a 2, n.

" This is the statement of the general rule of which the foregoing is an example ; Aristotle makes a similar criticism (of Empedocles) for putting the cart before the horse at P.^1. 640 a 20 tf., e.f/., dyvouiv . . . on to Troiijaav npoTepov vTTtjpxev : the whole context is apposite.

av^paivei : it happens KaTO, av^i^e^rjKOS, not Kad' avro : it 380


gone a change,* and first and foremost the bloodvessels, on to which the fleshy structure of the body has been applied all round, as on to a framework.* And it is reasonable to suppose not that the bloodvessels have been formed to be of a particular character on account of the uterus, but rather that the uterus has been so formed on account of them, since although each is a receptacle of blood in some form, the blood-vessels are prior to the uterus ; and the motive principle must of necessity be prior always and be the cause of the process of formation in \irtue of possessing a particular character.*^ So then, this difference of the sexual parts as between males and females is a contingent phenomenon ** : we must not look upon it as being a " principle " or a cause : this function is fulfilled by something else, even though no semen at all is discharged either by the female or by the male and whatever the manner may really be by which the forming creature takes shape.

The same argument which we used against Empedocles and Democritus holds good against those who allege that the male comes from the right side and the female from the left * : thus if the male contributes no material at all, then those who take this \-iew are of course talking nonsense ; if on the other hand it does contribute something, as they assert, we have to counter them in the same way that we countered Empedocles' argument which draws the line as between male and female by reference to the heat and coldness of the uterus. They make the same mistake as he does, ih drawing the line by is an " accidental," not an " essential," characteristic. For the sentiment, see 766 b 3 ff .

' e.g., Anaxagoras ; see 763 b 33.


765 a

ARISTOTLE hia^epovra to OrjXv /cat ro dppev Kal /xoptot? oXois, (hv Sta TtV alrtav virdp^ei rols €k rcbv dpcaTepwv, Tols S' €K Twv Se^Lwv ovx VTrdp^eL to acojjia ro 15 TTJg varcpas; dv yap eXdrj p,€V firj axfj Se rovro TO pLopiov, earat drjXv ovk €)(ov voTepav /cat dppev €Xov, dv Tvxi). [ert 8' orrep etprjTai /cat TrpoTepov, djTTTai /cat drjXv iv Tip Se^toj jLtepet rrjs vaTcpag Kal dppev iv TO) dpLOTepcp /cat dp.(j)co iv tco avTW /xepet, 20 /cat TOVT ovx on drra^ dXXd 7rAeova/ct?, â– ^ to dppev fiev iv Tols Se^tot?, to drjXv S' ev Toty dpiOTepol?' ovx V'^'^'^^ ^^ dpL^OTepa yiveTai iv tols Sc^tot?].^ TTapaTrXrjaLCOs 8e Ttve? TreTreiapievoi tovtols etal /cat Xeyovaiv wg tov Se^iov opx^-v d7ToSoi»/xeVot? -^ tov dpiaTepov CTu/xjSatVet Tot? o;;^euoi'otv dppevoTOKelv 25 '^ drjXvTOKelv ovtoj yap /cat Ae(x}(j)dvqg eXeyev. 6771 Te Tcov iKTepLVOjjievojv TOV eTepov opx^v to avTO TovTo avfx^aivecv Ttve? (fiaaiv, ovk dXiqdrj XeyovTes, dAAa pLavTevopievoL to avpL^rjaopievov iK tcov cIkoT60V, /cat TTpoXapi^avovTeg d)? ovtcos exov Trplv yLVopcevov ovtoj? ISelv, ctl S' dyvoovvTeg dig ovBev 30 avpu^dXXeTaL rrpog ttjv yeveaiv Trjg dppevoyovia? Kal B'qXvyovLas Tct piopia TavTa ToXg ^(Lols. tovtov Se arjpbelov otl ttoAAo. TtDj/ ^wwv avTa Te dijXea Kal dppevd iaTi, Kal yevva to. piev di^Xea Ta 8 dppeva, "^ ri TO dppev . . . ytVerai eV rot? Se^toi? secl. Platt ; cm. 2 ; credo equidem etiam In 8' onep hue usque secl,, nam argumento aliena ; cf. 764 a 1.

" Lit., " body of the uterus," drawing special attention to the fact of its physical existence : cf. fi4yeBos above, 764 b 7.

  • This sentence, which has nothing to do with the argument, must be deleted.

  • Leophanes is quoted by Theophrastus, De caus. plant. II.



reference to right and left, although they can see for themselves that male and female differ in fact by the entirety of the parts concerned. By what cause, then, will the uterus " be present in those which come from the left side but not in those which come from the right ? Supposing dne comes (from the left) ^vithout having got this part, there ^vill be a female without a uterus - or if it so chance, a male with one ! [Again, as has in fact been said before, a female embryo has actually been observed in the right part of the uterus, and a male one in the left part, and both male and female in the self-same part, and that not once but several times over ; or the male one on the right side, and the female on the left, and no less both are formed on the right side].** There are some who are firmlv con\-inced of a similar view to this, and maintain that males who copulate with the right or left testicle tied up produce male or female offspring respectively : this used in fact to be maintained by Leophanes."^ Some allege that the same occurs in the case of those who have one testis excised. This statement is untrue, and is a mere piece of guesswork on their part. They start from probabihties and guess what will occur ; they prejudge that it is so before they see it happen. Added to which they do not know that these parts of animals contribute nothing at all to generation so far as producing male and female offspring is concerned ; and a proof that this is so is that many animals, although thev are themselves male and female and generate male and female offspring, 4. 11 ; and the fact that in Aetius' Placita V. 7. 5 {Doxogr. 420 a 7) he comes between Anaxagoras and Leucippus may give a rough indication of his date.



765 a

opx^i'? ovK exovra, Kaddrrep ra [jlt] e^ovra rroSag, OLOv TO re tcov ly^dvwv yevos koI to rwv 6(f)eaiv.

35 To fxkv ovv depfjLOTTjTa Kal xjjvxpoTrjra alriav OLcadai rov appevos /cat rod OrjXeos, /cat to ttjv 765 b aTTO/cpiCTiv aTro raJv Se^icov yiveadai 7} t(Jl>v apL arepcbv, e^^i rivd Xoyov depfiorepa yap ra Se^ta rov aoipcarog rcjv dpiorepaiv , /cat to aTripfxa ro TTeTTepnievov deppiorepov, rocovrov 8e ro avvearos, yovipuxirepov he ro avvearog pboXKov. aAAa Xiav 5 ro Xeyeiv ovrco Troppcodev ecrrtv airreudaL rrjs atria's, Set 8' oVt p^dXiara Trpoadyeiv e/c rd)v ev8e)(ofievcov eyyvs rwv Trpcorcov alriwv.

Hepl [xev ovv oXov re^ rov awfiaros Kal raJv fioplcov, ri re eKaarov eari /cat 8ta tiV alriav, e'ipr^rai -rrporepov ev erepois. dX}\ iiTel ro dppev /cat 10 TO drjXv Sicopiarai 8vvdp.eL rtvl /cat dhvvapia {ro fjbev yap Swdpcevov rrerreiv /cat aui^ioravat re /cat CKKpiveiv aireppia e^ov rr^v dpx'^v rov etSovg dppev Xeyoi 8' dp)(rjv ov rrjv roiavrrjv e^ rjs coairep vXrjg yiverai roiovrov olov ro yevvdJv, aAAa rrjv KLvovaav Trpcorrjv, edv r ev avro) eav r ev dXXcp rovro 15 Sui^Tat TTOieZv ro Se he)(6puevov puev dhvvarovv he "^ T€ PY : om. vulg.

<• See 716 b 14 f.

  • Thus the semen which comes from the right side vrill he hotter. <= Cf. above, 747 a 5 flF.

â– ^ And therefore, of course, capable of producing males.

  • Compare the method described in Physics, 184 a 10 if. ^ In the Parts of Animals and in the first book of the

Generation of Animals.

" Dynamis : see Tntrod. § 30. 384.



possess no testes - as is the case with the animals that have no feet, e.g., the tribes of fishes and serpents." Now the opinion that the cause of male and female is heat and cold, and that the difference depends upon whether the secretion comes from the right side or from the left, has a modicum of reason in it, because the right side of the body is hotter than the left ^ ; hotter semen is semen which has been concocted ; the fact that it has been concocted means that it has been set and compacted,*^ and the more compacted semen is, the more fertile it is.** x\ll the same, to state the matter in this way is attempting to lay hold of the cause from too great a distance, and we ought to come as closely to grips as we possibly can \\"ith the primary causes.* • We have dealt already elsewhere ^ with the body as The ftmdaa whole and with its several parts, and have stated â„¢i3°^etion what each one is, and on account of what cause it is betweon so. But that is not all, for (1) the male and the "^4"^ female are distinguished by a certain ability and inability.* Male is that which is able to concoct, to cause to take shape, and to discharge, semen ' possessing the " principle " of the " form " ; and by " principle " I do not mean that sort of principle out of which, as out of matter, an offspring is formed belonging to the same kind as its parent, but I mean the Jirst motive principle, whether it is able to act thus ' in itself or in something else. Female is that which receives the semen, but is unable to cause

  • Thus much has already been stated at 716 a 18 ff., but Aristotle now develops it more fully.

• With this passage cf. the discussion at 72i a 29 ff. ' i.e., act as the cause of movement.

O 385

765 b

ARISTOTLE avvtaravai Kal eKKplveiv drjXv), en et^ Tracra iretfjtg epyd^erai depfjco), dvdyKT) [Kal]' tojv ^uxov to, dppeva Tcuv 6r]Xea)v depfxorepa etvat- Slol yap ifjv^porrjTa Kai dSwa/jLLav TroAuaijuet Kara tottovs rivas to drjXv jJidXXov. Kal eariv avro Tovvavriov ar]p.eLOV r) 20 8t' TjVTTep alriav olovrai rives to drjXv depfxorepoi^ €Lvat Tov dppevos, 8«x n^v Ttov KaTap,rjviaiv irpoeaiv TO jxev yap atfxa deppiov, to 8e ttXclov e^ov /xaAAov. VTToXafx^dvovai 8e tovto ytveadai to irddos St' VTTep^oXrjv alpuaTog Kal deppLOTrjTos, oioirep ivBexdIJi€vov alfjia elvai trdv ofjLotcog, dvirep [jlovov vypov 25 17 Kal TTjv XP^^^ aLjJiarcoSeg , Kal ovk eXaTTOv yivofievov Kal KaOapcoTcpov Tolg €VTpo(f)ovatv. ol 8' cooTTep TO Kara ttjv KoiXtav TrepLTTtofia, to nXelov tov eAaxTOVo? otorrai arjfjLetov elvai depiii^s (j)vaea>s pidXXov. KaiToi TOvvavTtov iariv. woTrep yap Kal e/c Trjs TrpcoTTjg Tpo(f>rjg e/c TToXXrjg dXlyov 30 aTTOKpLveTai, to ;^/37)crt/u.ov ev rat? Trepl tovs Kapjrovs epyaaiais , xai tcAo? ovdev p-epos to eaxaTov npog TO TTpwTov TrXrjdos ioTLV, ovTco rrdXiv Kal ev to) aco/xart 8ta8e;;^o/xei'a rd p-^pf] Tats ipyaaiais, to TeXevTalov irdp^rrav p^iKpov e^ dTtdarjs yiVerai' t^s" Tpo^TjS- TOVTO 8e €v puiv TLGLV at/Ltd ioTLV, iv Se 35 TiCTi TO dvdXoyov .

'Ettci 8e TO [M€V SvvaTai to 8' dSwaTil cKKpl ^ inel Se coni. Platt ; fort, ert enel scribendum. ^ seel. Platt. * eKKpivei Btf.

" C/. 725 a 17 f. 386


•^emen to take shape or to discharge it. And (2) all I Ducoction works by means of heat. Assuming the truth of these two statements, it follows of necessity that (3) male animals are hotter than female ones, since it is on account of coldness and inability that the female is more abundant in blood in certain regions of the body. And this abundance of blood is a piece of evidence which goes to prove the opposite of the vievr held by some people, who suppose that the female must be hotter than the male, on account of the discharge of menstrual fluid : blood, they argue, is hot, so that which has more blood in it Is hotter. They suppose, however, that this condition occurs owing to excess of blood and heat, as though it were possible for anything and everything to be equally blood if only it is fluid and bloodhke in colour, without allowing for the possibiUty of its becoming less in quantity and purer in animals that are wellnourished. They apply the same standard here as they do to the residue in the intestine : if there is more of it they imagine that is a sign of a hotter nature. Yet in fact the opposite is the truth. Take a parallel case, that of fruit. Here the nourishment in its first stage is large in quantity," but the useful product resulting from it through the various stages of its treatment is small, and in the end the final result is nothing in proportion compared -with the original bulk. So too in the body, the various parts receive the nourishment in turn at the different stages of its treatment, and the final product resulting from all that amount of nourishment is quite small. In some, this is blood ; in others, its counterpart.

Now as the one sex is able and the other is unable Determination of sex 387

ARISTOTLE 765 b , /} ' < ' s ^ s ' " vai TO TTepLTTCOfia Kauapov, aTraorj oe ovvafieL opya 766 a vov ri iari, /cat ttj ^elpov dTToreXovcrr) ravro /cat rfj PeXriov, to 8e OfjXv /cat to dppev, TrXeova^oJ? Xeyofjidvov rov Swarov /cat rov aSwdrov, rovTov dvTLKeiTai Tov rpoTTOv, dvdyKT] dpa' /cat ro) diqXeL /cat toj dppevi elvai, opyavov^' rco puev ovv 5 tJ varepa rco S' o Trepiveog earcv. a/xa 8' i^ (f)vat? Trjv re hvvapnv dTTohihuiaiv eKdarcp /cat TO opyavov ^iXriov yap ovrojs- Sio e/caaTOt ot TOTTot d'/xa Tat? eKKpioeai ylvovrai, /cat Tats Sumfieatv, warrep ovr^* oipLS dvev o^daXpiCxiv ovr^ o^^aA^o? TeAetoiJTat dvev oijjeojg, /cat /cotAia /cat 10 /cyoTt? d/xa toj 8vvacr6ai rd TTept,TTCop,aTa yiveadai. ovTOs Se TOV avTov e^ oS t€ ytVcTat /cat av^eTai, TOVTO 8' eaTtv' 17 Tpo^rj, €KaaTov dv yivoiTO tojv flOpLOJV €K TOCaVTTjS vXt]S rj9 ScKTtKOV ioTi, /Cat TOtouTou TTepiTTcoixaTOS . CTt 8e ytVeTat TTCtAtv, ctt? (fyafiev, e/c toi? evavTiov ttcus". Tpirov 8e Trpos" tou15 TOtj Xr]7TT€ov on eLTTep rj (f)9opd et? TovvavrLov, /cat TO /i')7 KpaTovjjLevov vtto rod hr]p.Lovpyovvros dvdyKT] /xtTajSctAAetv et? ToyvavTiov. toutojv 8' vtvokcl ^ eKKplvai vulg. {eKKpivai O^*) : eKKpiverai PSYZ {exit 2) : yiveadai. coni. Btf. : to seel. A.-\V.

^ dpa quod conieceram O" exhibet* {ergo H) : yap E*, vulg., seclusit Platt: ovv Aldus, A.-W. (sed avayKoiov coni. A.-W.).

^ o/)yavov PwSYZ* ; opyava E*, vulg.

  • ovt' P : OU0' Tj vulg.

" i.e., here " able " means " can do it better," " unable " means " can do it less well."

  • Cf. 716 a 23 If.

•^ Cf. 716 ei 3-2, and H.A. 493 b 9 "the part between the thigh and the buttock is the perineos" 388


to secrete the residue in a pure condition ; and as in the there is an instrument for every abiUty or faculty, for ®™ '^°" the one which yields its product in a more finisheck condition and for the one which yields the same product in a less finished condition ; and as male and female stand opposed in this way (" able " and " unil)le " being used in more senses than one ^) ; there•re of necessity there must be an instrument * both for the male and for the female ; hence the male has the perineos '^ and the female has the uterus. Nature gives each one its instrument simultaneously with its ability, since it is better done thus. Hence each of these regions of the body gets formed simultaneously with the corresponding secretions and abilities, just as the abihty to see does not get perfected without eyes, nor the eye without the abiUty to see, and just as the gut and the bladder are perfected simultaneously ^\•ith the ability to form the residues. Now as the stuff out of which the parts are formed is the same as that from which they derive their growth,*^ namely the nourishment, we should expect each of the parts to be formed out of that sort of material and that sort of residue which it is fitted to receive. Secondly, and on the contrary, it is, as we hold, formed in a way out of its opposite. Thirdly, in addition, it must be laid down that, assuming the extinction of a thing means its passing into its opposite condition, then also that which does not get mastered by the agent which is fashioning it must of necessity change over into its opposite condition.* With these ^ For this distinction between the grades of nourishment, see 744 b 32 if.

' This is explained at length at 768 a 1 fF. The whole of the present passage should be read in conjunction with the later and fuller discussion. See also 766 b 1 5 if.


766 a

ARISTOTLE fxevojv lacog av rj^r) juaAAov 6117 <j)avep6v hi r]v alriav yiverai to [xev drjXv to 8 appev. orav yap [XT) Kparfj 77 apx^] /xTjSe Svvrjrat Trei/jat 8t' evSeiav I 20 depfJi6T7]TOS /M-77S' aydyj] els to tStov etSos" ro avTov, dAAa ravTj] rirr-qOfj, dvdyKrj elg rovvavnov fxera^dXXcLV. evavTLOv 8c rch dppevi ro 6t]Xv, /cat ravrrj •^ TO uev dppev to Se drjXv. errei 8' evet Sia(f)opdv €V Tr; ovvapi€L, e;;^ei Kat to opyavov otacpepov ivar els TOiovTov jjLera^dXXei. ivos 8e [xoptov eVt/caipou 25 nera^dXXovTos oXr] rj ovaraais rod ^coov ttoXv ro) ei8ei 8i,a(f)ep€i. opdv 8' e^euriv cttI rcjv evvov^oiVy oX evos puopiov TTrjpcudevros roaovrov i^aXXarrovcrt, rTJs dpxcilo-S p,op4)r\s kol puKpov eAAetTroufft^ rov d-qXeos rrjv Ihlav. rovrov 8' aircov ore kvia riov jjLopccov dpxo.1 elaiv dpxfjs 8e KLvrjd€Lcn]s TToXXa 30 avdyKT] fieOiaraadaL rcov aKoXovOovvrcov .

Et ovv ro [JL€V dppev dpx'r} ns Kal alrLov, eari 8' dppev fj hvvarai ri, drjXv 8e 17 dhvvarel, rrjs 8e Svvdixeojs opos Kal rrjs dSwafxlas ro TreTTTiKov eivai 1 avTov Peck (cf. 766 b 16, 767 b 17) : avrov vulg. ^ eXXeirrovai. P : Xiiirovai vulg.

" The " movement " derived from the male, the male " principle." See 767 b 17 ff.

  • i.e., male.

' Cf. the terminology of this and the two following chapters with Hippocrates, 77. SiatTrjs I. 25 ff. The following examples may be given : I. 28 (vi. 502 Littre) tqv ernKpar-qcrrj to dpaev ; ibid. TO 6t}Xv fjieiovrai Kal Sia/cpiWrat es dXXrjv (xoipav ; I. 27 (vi. 500 L.) SiaXveTai, is ttjv ixetoj tol^lv.

" See, e.g., 716 a 27 ff., 766 b 2 ff .

' i.e., the condition of possessing the female generative organs.

f Cf. above, 716 b 2 ff., and 764 b 28 ff.

" Aristotle seems to haver between asserting and denying 39P


as our premisses it may perhaps be clearer why and by what cause one offspring becomes male and another female. It is this. When the " principle " " is failing to gain the mastery and is unable to effect concoction OA\ing to deficiency of heat, and does not succeed in reducing the material into its own proper form,^ but instead is worsted in the attempt, then of necessity the material must change over into its opposite condition.'^ Now the opposite of the male is the female, and it is opposite in respect of that whereby one is male and the other female.** And since it differs in the abiUty it possesses, so also it differs in the instrument which it possesses. Hence this is the condition * into which the material changes over. And when one \'ital part changes,^ the whole make-up of the animal differs greatly in appearance and form. This may be observed in the case of eunuchs ; the mutilation of just one part of them results in such a great alteration of their old semblance, and in close approximation to the appearance of the female. The reason for this is that some of the body's parts' are " principles," and once a principle has been " moved " [i.e., changed), many of the parts which cohere ^ with it must of necessity change as well.

Let us assume then (1) that " the male "is a The principle and is causal in its nature ; (2) that a male ^u^'^^f s male in \irtue of a particular abiUty, and a female "ex u the female in virtue of a particular inabiUty ; (3) that the ** ine of determination between the ability and the nability is whether a thing effects or does not effect hat the sexual parts, as distinct from the sexes, are " prin•iples " ; but his position is made clear by the passage 66 b 2 flF.

" Are of a piece with it " : cf. 764 b 24, 25.



766 a

^ jXTj 7T€7ttlk6v TTj? voTarTj? Tpocfyfjg, o iv [xev rols evat'jLioi? af/xa KaXelrai iv he toIs dXXois to dvd35 Xoyov, TOVTOV Se to oltiov iv Tjj dpxjj Kal to) jJLOpiO) TO) e^OVTl TTjV TTJS (jiVaLKT^S depfXOTrjTOS apxT^v, dvayKOiov dpa iv toIs ivaip-ois avvioTaadai 766 b KapStav, Kal rj dppev eaeadai rj drjAv to yivojJLcvov, iv Se Tots dXXoL? yiveaiv (^olsY VTrapx^t to dfjXv /cat TO dppev to TTJ KapSia dvdXoyov . r] p,ev ovv fi-px^ Tov 6T]Xeos Kal dppevos Kal rj atria avTrj Kal iv 5 TOVTO) ioTiv. drjXv 8' -^817 Kal dppev ioTlv orav exj) Kal rd fxopia of? Sta^epet to drjXv tov dppevos' ov yap Kad^ otlovv p.epos dppev ovde dijXv, coaTrep oi)8' opcbv Kal aKovov.

'AvaXa^ovTes he TrdXiv Xeyopiev^ ort to fxev CTTTepfxa VTTOKeiTat, TrepiTTOjpLa Tpo^rjs ov to eap^aTov. (eaxcTov 8e Xeyoj to rrpo? eKaaTov (f>ep6ixevov. 10 hio Kal eoLKe to yevvcofxevov to) yevvqaavTi' ovOev yap hia^epei d^' eKauTov tcov pbopicov aTreXdelv r) Trpos eKaoTov TrpoaeXdelv, opdoTepov 8' ovTCog.) oia(f)epei 8e to tov dppevos aTrepfxa, on exei dpxrjv 1 {oh) Platt, P*. ^ Xiyoiix€V P.

" The bloodless animals.

  • Cf. note on 763 b 25. This extremely important paragraph gives Aristotle's view on the seat of the distinction of sex, and its main conclusions must be borne in mind tliroughout his discussion of this subject. It also serves to elucidate the apparent contradictions in his statements elsewhere (e.g., 716 a 28, 764 b 86, 766 a 28) as to whether or not the sexual parts are to be considered " principles."



concoction of the ultimate nourishment (in blooded animals this is known as blood, in the bloodless ones it is the counterpart of blood) ; (4) that the reason for this hes in the " principle," i.e., in the part of the body Avhich possesses the principle of the natural heat. From this it follows of necessity that, in the blooded animals, a heart must take shape and that the creature formed is to be either male or female, and, in the other kinds " which have male and female sexes, the counterpart of the heart. As far, then, as the principle and the cause of male and female is concerned, this is what it is and where it is situated ; a creature, however, really is male or female only from the time when it has got the parts by which female differs from male, because it is not in \-irtue of some casual part that it is male or female, any more than it is in virtue of some casual part that it can see or hear.* To resume then ^ : We repeat that semen has been Consequent posited to be the ultimate residue of the nourish- fo^^'a\^on^° ment. (By " ultimate " I mean that which gets car- of sexual ried to each part of the body - and that too is why ^'^* the offspring begotten takes after the parent which has begotten it, since it comes to exactly the same thing whether we speak of being drawn from every one of the parts or passing into every one of the parts, though the latter is more correct.**) The semen of the male, however, exhibits a difference,

  • The following paragraph is a short recapitulation, with additions, of the main points of the preceding argument, 765 b 8 - 766 b 7. (For the use of imoKinai with jjarticiple, c/. 778 b 17 ~oi.6vh€ t,iuov vnoKfiTcu 6v.)

"* See Bk. I. 721 b 13 ff., and especially the conclusion of that discussion, 725 a i?l if.


766 b

ARISTOTLE €V eavTCo TOiavrrjv otav klvclv [/<rat ev rco ^ojof]^ /cai oiaTTerreiv Trjv iaxo-Trjv rpo^rjv, ro 8e rov drjXeos 15 vXrjv fjiovov. Kparrjaav pcev ovv el? avro ayei, Kprxriqdev S' et? rovvavriov /zera^aAAet r] els cf)dopdv. evavTLOV he rco dppevL to drjXv drjXv 5e rfj aTreifjia, Kai rfj ifjuxpoTTjTi TTJs aljjuaTiKrjs^ rpo<f)rjg. tj he (pvaLs eKdarqj ra>v TTepiTruiixaTiov oLTTohlhajGi to heKTiKov pbopiov. TO he anepfia TTepLTTOjpba, tovto 20 he Tols fiev deppcoTepots Kal appeal tcov evaipnov evoyKov tco TrXrjdei, hio rd Se/crt/ca p,6pta TTopoi Tavrrjs rrj? TrepLTTCoaews elai Tot? dppeaLV rot? he drjXeaL 8t' a,7Tetplav TrXrjdos alp^aTiKov (a/carepyaarov yap), ojcrre /cat p^opiov heKTiKov dvayKotov eivat, Tt, Kal elvai tovto dv6p,oLov /cat p^eyedos 25 e;j^etr. hid tt]? varepas TOiavTT) tj <j)vais ecrrtV. TOVTO) he TO drjXv hia^epei to) p^oplco tou dppevos. Ata Ttt'a piev ovv alriav ytVerat to pikv 6-qXv to S' dppev, etprjTai.

II TeKpnqpia he Ta avp,paLVOVTa tols elprjpievois . Td re ydp vea d-qXvroKa pidXXov rcov dKp,a!^6yrojv, ^ Kal iv TO) ^a;a> et mox to 8e rov OrjXeos vXrjv fxovov suspicati sunt A.-W. ; pro koX iv tco ^wcu coni. A.-W. ev tw dijXei, seel. Btf. ; pro to 8e tov d-qXeos vXrjv jxavov habet S et facer e ipsnm (sc. ultimum cibum) transire ad matricem feminae. infemina autem est creatio embrionis. cf. 765 b 10 seqq.

" The passage following has been corrupted. It should probably read : " a principle of such a kind as to set in movement and to concoct thoroughly the ultimate nourishment, and to cause it to pass into the uterus of the female ; whereas the formation of the embryo takes place in the female." Cf. the parallel passage above, 765 b 10.

There is no subject to this verb in the Greek ; at 766 a 18 it is " the principle " ; at 767 b 17 it is " the movement derived from the male " - where also Aristotle explains that 394


inasmuch as the male possesses in itself a principle of such a kind °' as to set up movement [in the animal as well] and thoroughly to concoct the ultimate nourishment, whereas the female's semen contains material only. If (the male semen) gains ^ the mastery, it brings (the material) over to itself; but if it gets mastered, it changes over either into its opposite or else into extinction. And the opposite of the male is the female, which is female in \irtue of its inability to effect concoction, and of the coldness of its bloodUke nourishment. And Nature assigns to each of the residues the part which is fitted to receive it. Now the semen is a residue, and in the hotter of the blooded animals, i.e., the males, this is manageable in size and amount,*^ and therefore in males the parts which receive this residual product are passages ; in females, however, on account of their failure to effect concoction, this residue is a considerable volume of bloodlike substance, because it has not been matured ; hence there must of necessity be here too some part fitted to receive it, different from that in the male, and of a fair size. That is why the uterus has these characteristics ; and that is the part wherein the female differs from the male.** We have now stated the cause why some creatures are formed as males, others as females.

And our statements are borne out by the facts. II Thus : Young parents, and those which are older too, â– ^^® ^^^f^.

c x^ ' 13 support€a tend to produce female offspring rather than parents by the facts, it is all one whether we say " the semen," or " the movement which causes the growth of each of the parts," or " the movement which originally sets and constitutes the fetation." Cf. 771 b 19 ff.

' Because it is more compact ; see above, 765 b 3.

•* Cf. 738 b 3o fF.



766 b

30 Kal TO. TTpeaftvrepa}' rols fxev yap ovTToi rdXeiov TO depjxov, rolg S' aTToAeiTret. Kal to, fjcev vyporepa Tcbv acopidroiv Kal yvvaiKiKwrepa drjXvyova fxciXXov, Kal TO. CTTepiJiara ra vypa rcbv avveaTrjKorojv. TTavra yap ravra yiverai hi evheiav depfxar-qros (f)vaLKrjs.

35 Kat TO ^opeioLS dppevoTOKelv /xaAAot' t) votlols (hid TavTo avpi^aivef vypoTepa yap to. acofiaTa voTtoi?,)^ ojCTTe Kal TTepLTTCOfxaTiKcoTepa. to 8e TrXelov TTepLTTCvp^a SvaneTTTOTepov Sio rot? fiev 767 a appeatv vypoTepov to OTTeppLa, Tals Se yvvai^lv rj Tchv KaTafJi7]VLCOV eKKpLoig.

Kat TO ycveadac Se to. KaTap,tjVLa /caret' <f)V(nv (f)6iv6vTCx}v Tcbv pb'r]V(Jbv fidXXov 8ta ttjv avTrjv atrtar au/Ltj8atVet. ifjvxpoTepos ydp 6 ^povos ovTog tov 5 p:r]vos Kat vypoTepo? 8ta ttjv (j)dicnv Kal TrjV diroXenJjLV TTjs aeXijvr)?' 6 piev ydp tJXlos iv oXco to) ivLavTcp TTOiet )(^Lp,dJva Kal depog, r] Se oeXi^vr] iv tw pirjvi. \tovto 8' ov 8ta ra? Tponds, dXXd to p.ev av^avopiivov CTU/xjSaiVet tov cJ^ojtos, to 8e (fydtvovTO^.]^ cf)aaL 8e Krat ol vopieZs Stacfjepeiv rrpog drjXvyoviav 10 /cat dppevoyoviav ov pcovov edv avpL^aivr] ttjv ox^iav ylveadai ^opelois rj votlols, dXXd /car ox^vopeva ^ ra irpea^vrepa P : yj^pacT/fovTa ftaXXov vulg.

  • supplevi ; quia corpora sunt hmnida quando ventus movetur meridionalis 2.

' Kara P : ra Kara vulg.

  • seclusi ; om. 2 : avfi^aivei om. SY, jx-qvos pro ^ojto? S.

" Cf. H.A. 573 b 34.

^ Cf. the effects of the south wind described in Hippocrates, TT. iprjs vovaov 13, tt. dfpcov vhdrcov roncov 3. 'â– â– See 777 b 24 ff. â– * This explanation sounds like a gloss. Its meaning is 396


which are in their prime ; the reason being that in the young their heat is not yet perfected, in the older, it is faihng. Also, parents which are more fluid of body and feminine tend to produce females : this is true also of fluid semen as opposed to that which has " set " : all these things are due to a deficiency of natural heat.

Also, the fact that when the wind is in the north " male offspring tend to be engendered rather than when it is in the south (is due to the same cause : animals' bodies are more fluid ^ when the wind is in the south) so that they are more abundant in residue as well. And the more residue there is, the more difficulty they have in concocting it ; hence the semen of the males and the menstrual discharge of the women is more fluid.

Also, the fact that the menstrual discharge in the natural course tends to take place when the moon is waning '^ is due to the same cause. That time of month is colder and more fluid on account of the waning and failure of the moon (since the- moon makes a summer and \\inter in the course of a month just as the sun does in the course of the whole year. [This is not due to its turning at the tropics ; no, the one occurs when the moon's light is increasing, the other when it is waning.'*]). Also, shepherds say that it makes a difference so far as the generation of males and females is concerned not only whether copulation occurs when the wind is in the north or in the south, but also whether that whereas summer and winter result from the " turnings " of the sun, viz., the solstices, the " summer " and " winter " of the moon are not due to the moon's " turnings," but to its waxings and wanings, which are completely independent of its " turnings."

767 a

ARISTOTLE ^XeTT-Tj rrpos voroi' tj ^opeav ovrco [xiKpav ivlore poTTiiv alriav yiveadai rrjg tfjvxporrjTos /cat depIxorrjTos, Tavra Se rrjg yevecrecog.

Ate'crrrj/ce jiev ovv oAco? rrpos dXX-qXa to re drjXv 15 Kal TO dppev npos ttjv appevoyoviav Koi dr^Xvyoviav 8ia TO.'S elprjixevas atrta?, ov pLrjv dXXd /cat Set av/xfjieTpias^ tt/jo? ctAAT^Aa- TrdvTa yap Ta yivofjieva Kara rexvrjv 7} (f)vaLv Xoyw rivl iariv. to Se depp-ov Xiav jxev Kparovv ^"qpaivei rd vypd, ttoXv he iXXelTTOv ov avvtaTYjaiv , dXXd Set Trpos to S-qpnovpyov 20 p.€VOV ex^iv TOVTOV Tov^ Tov p^eaov Xoyov et 8e /xrj, KadaTTep iv rots' ei/jop^evoLg TrpoaKaei fiev to TrXelov TTvp, ovx eiftei 8e to eXaTTOV, dp,(f)OT€pa)s Be avp,jSatVet p.rj TeXecovadaL to yivop-evov, ovroi /cat iv TTj TOV dppevog /Ltt^et /cat tov dr^Xeos Set t-^S" avpipLiTpias. Kal Sto, TOVTO TToXXotS' /cat TToAAais 25 CTU/Ltj8atVet jLter' aXX-qXaiv p,ev p,rj yevvdv, Sia^eu;^^eto't 8e yewdv, /cat 6t€ fxev veotg ore 8e Trpea^vrepois ovat TavTag yiveadai ra? vrrevavTiojaeig , 6p,OLCog TTept T€ yeveaiv /cat dyoviai^ /cat appevoyoviav /cat drjXvyoviav. Sta^e'pet Se /cat xcu/aa p^cupa? et? TavTa /cat uSa//3 uSaro? Sto. rd? ayrct? atrta?* 30 TTOtd yet/a rt? i^ Tpo(j>rj ytVerat /xctAtCTTa /cat rou CTdj/xaros" 17 Std^eat? Stct re tt^v Kpdaiv tov Trept^ TOVTOV TOV PZ^* : TOVTOV om. vulg.

« C/. /f.^. 574 a 2.

" Cf. 723 a 30, 772 a 17, 777 b 25, and Introd. §§ 39 f. " With the following passage, cf. Hippocrates, it. depcov vSaTcov Towcov, chh. 1-8 (ii. 12 flF. Littre), id. n. SiaiVijs 11. 37-39.



the animals face north or south while they are copulating <* : such a small thing thrown in on one side or the other (so they say) acts as the cause of heat and cold, and these in turn act as the cause of generation.

Male and female, then, differ generally with regard importance to each other in respect of the generation of male and ^^^e-pia. female offspring on account of the causes which have been stated. At the same time, they must stand in a right proportional relationship to one another,^ since everj^thing that is formed either by art or by nature exists in virtue of some due proportion. Now if " the hot " is too powerful it dries up fluid things ; if it is very deficient it fails to make them " set " ; what it must have in relation to the object which is being fashioned, is the mean proportional, and unless it has that, the case will be the same as what happens when you are cooking : if there is too much fire it burns up your meat, if there is too little it \\ill not cook it - either way what you are trying to produce fails to reach completion. The same applies to the mixture of the male and the female : they require the right proportional relationship, and that is the reason why it happens that many couples fail to effect generation with one another, but if they change partners they succeed ; and also that these oppositions occur sometimes in young people, sometimes among those who are older, both with regard to failure and success in generation and also vriih regard to the generation of male and female offspring. •^ Also, one country differs from another in these Effect of respects, and one water from another, on account of '^^""^*^^the same causes, for the quality of the nourishment especially and of the bodily condition of a person 399


767 a

eaTajTo? adpos /cat tcov elaiovrcov, /xctAtara 8e Sto. TTjv Tov uSaro? rpocfj-qv tovto yap TrAetarov ela^epovTai, /cat ei' TracrtV ecxTt Tpo(l>r] rovro, /cat ev Tots" ^TjpoZs. Sto /cat rd arepafxva vSara /cat 35 ijjvxpo. ra fiev are/cvtav TTOtet rd 8e drjXvroKLav.

Ill At S' aurat atriat /cat toC rd ^ei' eot/cora ytj^e CT^at TOt? T€Kvco<jaaL ra Se jLti^ eoiKora, /cat rd ju-ei' 767 b TTarpl ra Se pbr^rpi, Kara, re oXov ro acbpua /cat /card p,6pLov eKaarov, Kal fjidXXov avrols rj rots TTpoyovoL?, Kal rovrois r^ rots rv)(OvaL, Kal ra fiev appeva jxaXXov ra> narpl ra Se drjXea rfj pcr^rpiy ra 5 S' ovhevl ra)V avyyevcov , o/xcu? 8' avdpojTTcp ye rivi, ra 8' ouS' dvOpcoTTcp rrjv Ibeav^ dXX* TJSrj repari.

Kal yap 6 jxtj eoiKojs rots yovevaw rjSr] rporrov riva repas eariv TrapeK^e^r^Ke yap rj (f>vais ev rovrois eK rov yevovs rporrov rivd. a.px'f) 8e Trpcorr] ro drjXv yiveaBaC^ Kal pirj dppev. dXX avrrj p,ev dvayKala rfj (f^vaei, Set yap aco^eadat ro yevos rwv 10 Kexiopiafievcov Kara ro drjXv Kal ro dppev evSexofxevov Se firj Kparetv TTore ro dppev^ r] 8td veorrjra rj yrjpas "q Si' dXXrjv rivd alriav roi,avrr]v, ^ Trjv iSe'av] tlvI SY. ^ yiv€odai P : yeveadai vulg.

' TO dppev Rackham : tov dppevos vulg.

" See Introd. §§ 39 f., and Hippocrates, tt. StatVijs I. passim. For another reference to Kpdais in connexion with the " surrounding air," see 777 b 7.

' Cf. Hippocrates, it. depcov vSdrcov toitcov, ch. 4 (ii. 22, 2 ff. Littre).

' Cf. 775 a 15 : the female is a " deformity," though one 400


depends upon the blend " of the surrounding air and of the foods which the body takes up, and especially upon the nourishment supplied by the water, since this is what we take most of, water being present as nourishment in everything, even in solid substances as well. Hence hard, cold water in some cases causes barrenness, in others the birth of females.* The following things are due to these same causes. Ill Some offspring take after their parents and some ^„"â„¢\o do not ; some after their father, some after their parents and mother, as well in respect of the body as a whole as '^°" *'"^' in respect of each of the parts, and they take after their parents more than after their earlier ancestors, and after their ancestors more than after any casual persons. Males take after their father more than their mother, females after their mothor. Some take after none of their kindred, although they take after some human being at any rate ; others do not take after a human being at all in their appearance, but have gone so far that they resemble a monstrosity, and, for the matter of that, anyone who does not take after his parents is really in a way a monstrosity, since in these cases Nature has in a way strayed from the generic type. The first beginning of this deviation is when a female is formed instead of a male, though (a) this indeed is a necessity required by Nature,^ since the race of creatures which are separated into male and female has got to be kept in being '^ ; and (b) since it is possible for the male sometimes not to gain the mastery either on account of youth or age or some other such cause, female produced in the normal course of nature {aianep dvaTrrjpiav <})vaiicriv). See Introd. § 13.

"* This is an instance of a necessity required by the Final Cause ; see 731 b 25- 732 a 3.


767 b

ARISTOTLE avdyKrj yiveadat dTjXvroKiav iv rotg ^ojois". to Se repag ovk dvayKalov Trpo? rrjv eveKo. rov /cat rr^v Tov reXovg alrlav, aAAo. Kara avfM^e^rjKo? dvay 15 Kolov, evret tt^v y' ^PXW ^vnvBev Set Xajx^dveiv. €V7T€7TTOv jxev ydp ovarjs ri]s TreptrrcLaecog iv rols KaTafJLTjvioiS' ri^g aTrepfJLarLKrjs, Kad^ avrrjv TTOLijaet TTjv [xopcfyr)v rj rov dppevos Kivr^ais. {to ydp yovT]v Xeyeiv 7} KivqaLV ttjv av^ovaav eKauTOv tcov fxopCojv 20 ovdkv Si,acf)epei, ovSe ttjv av^ovaav •^ ttjv avvLOTdaav i^ dpx'fjs' ydp avTos Adyos" ttj? KLvqaea)? .) ujotc Kparovcra} jxev dppev re Trotrjaet koL ov drjXv, /cat eoi/cds" to) yeifviovTi dAA' ov Tjj fxrjTpL' jxt] KpaTi^aaaa^ Se, /ca^' oTToiav dv [xr] KpaTt^arj Svvafjuv, ttjv eAXeiifjLv 7TOL€L KaT^ avTiqv . Xeyoj S' ^KdaTiqv hvvapLiv Tovhe TOV TpoTTOv TO yevvojv ioTLv ov fjiovov dppev 25 aAAa /cat toIov dppev, olov }i.opLaKos rj HcoKpdTT}?, /cat ov jjiovov Ko/3iCT/cos" eartv dAAa /cat dvdpcoTTog. /cat TOVTOv hr] tov TpoTTov Ta jLtev iyyvTcpov Td Se 7Topp(i)T€pov UTTctpp^et Tip yevvcbvTL, Kado yevvrjTiKov, dAA ov /caret avpi^e^r^Kos, olov et ypapL/xaTtKo? 6 30 yewcor •^ yeiTOiv tlvo?. det S' laxvec Trpos ttjv yeveaiv fJidXXov to lSlov /cat to Kad' eKaoTOv. 6 ydp }^opiaKog /cat dvdpojTTos eVrt /cat ^oiov dAA' ^ Kparovaa Peck : KpaTovcrrjs vulg. * Kparrjaaaa Peck : Kparrjaav vulg.

" This is an instance oft a necessity enforced by the nature of the Matter ; see below, 768 a 2-b 33. For these two modes of necessity (here distinguished as eveKo. tov and /caret avfipe^riKos), cf. P.A. 642 a 33, and Introd. §§ 6 if.

" Cf. 766 a 18, 766 b 15, 771 b 22, 772 b 32.



I >frspring must of necessity be produced by animals." As for monstrosities, they are not necessary so far as the purposive or final cause is concerned, yet per accidens they are necessary, since we must take it that their origin at any rate is located here. Thus : If the seminal residue in the menstrual fluid is wellconcocted, the movement derived from tlie male will make the shape after its own pattern.^ (It comes to the same thing whether we say " the semen " or " the movement which makes each of the parts grow " ; or whether we say " makes them grow " or " constitutes and ' sets ' them from the beginning " - because the logos of the movement is the same either way.) So that if this movement gains the mastery it v,-il\ make a male and not a female, and a male which takes after its father, not after its mother ; if however it fails to gain the mastery, whatever be the " faculty " in respect of which it has not gained the mastery, in that " faculty " it makes the offspring deficient. " Faculty," as appUed to each instance, I use in the following sense. The generative parent is not merely male, but in addition a male with certain characteristics, e.g., Coriscus or Socrates ; and it is not merely Coriscus, but in addition a human being. And it is of course in this sense that, of the characteristics belonging to the generating parent, some are more closely, some more remotely his, qua procreator (not qua anything else he may be per accidens, e.g., supposing he were a good scholar or somebody's next-door neighbour) ; and where generation is concerned, it is always the peculiar and indi\idual characteristic that exerts the stronger influence. Thus : Coriscus is both a human being and an animal ; but the 403


767 b

eyyvrepov rov 18lov t6^ dvdpcoTTOs rj to 1,ojov. yevvd 8e Kal TO Kad' eKaarov /cat to yevos, dX\d [xaXXov TO Kad' eKaarov tovto yap rj ovaia- Kal^ to 35 yLvofievov ytVerat jxev Kal iroiov ti, dp,a 8e' Tohe TL, /cat Tovd' Tj ovaia. SiOTrep drro tcov Swajxewv VTTapxovsnv at KivT^aet? ev Tot? aTrepfiaai 7TdvTa)v TtDv TOIOVTCOV, Bwdp-CL §€ KTat Tcijl' TTpoyOVCOV, 768 a fjidXXov Se tov iyyvTcpov del tu)v Kad^ eKaarov TLvog- Xeyo) Se Kad^ eKaarov rov K^opiaKov Kal rov ILioKpaTrjv. evrei 8 e^iararai rrdv ovk els to rv^ov dAA' els ro dvriKeipLevov, Kal ro ev rfj yeveaet jxrj Kparovpievov dvayKaZov e^iaraadaL /cat yiveadai 6 TO dvTLKeiiievov /ca^' tjv hvvapnv ovk eKpdrrjae ro yevvdjv Kal klvovv. idv fiev ovv fj dppev, drjXv yiverai, edv he fj Ys^opiaKos rj l^ojKpdrrjs , ov rep rrarpl eaiKos dXXd rfj jxrjrpl ylverai' dvriKeirai yap ojoTTep rep oXojs* narpl pLrjrrjp, Kal rep Kad' eKaarov yevvdJVTL rj Kad eKaarov yevvcbaa. ojxoiojs Se /cat 10 /caret Ta? e^op-evas hvvdp,eLg- del yap els rov e\6fxevov jJLera^alveL puaXXov rcov npoyovwv, Kal eirl ^ TO P : o vulg., om. vS. ^ Koi P : koX yap vulg.

^ a/ua 8e Rackham : oAAa vulg. * oXcos P, totaliter S : oXw vulg.

" Cf. 731 b 34, and below 768 a 1 ; and see the definition of ovaia given in Cat. 2 a 11, and the examples cited, d tIs dvdpcuTTos, 6 TIS Ittttos. TheFc are of course other usages and meanings of ovaia. Cf. Introd. § 16, App. A § 18.

  • Viz., individual, human being, animal, etc.

' Loses and alters its character ; degenerates. The force of e^iaraadaL can be seen from the phrase e'^icmjai koI ^deipei rrjv 4>vaiv {Eth. Nic. 1119 a 23) ; cf. G. ^- C. 323 b 28, Phys. 361 a 20 (r^y (fivaecos, rf/s ovalas, i^ioTaadaL), and 725 a 28 above. "* Cf. above, 766 a 15.



formec characteristic stands closer to what is peculiar to him than the latter does. Now both the individual and the genus to which it belongs are at work in the act of generation ; but of the two the indi\"idual takes the leading part, because this is the really existent thing " ; the offspring also which is formed, though of course it is formed so as to possess the generic characteristics, at the same time comes to be a particular indi\idual - and this, again, is the really existent thing. Therefore, it is from the " faculties " of all such things as these * that the movements which are present in the semens are derived, potentially even from <the faculties) of earlier ancestors, but more specially of that which on each occasion stands closer to some individual ; and by individual I mean Coriscus, or Socrates. Now everything, when it departs from type.*' passes not into any casual thing but into its OAvn opposite ; thus, applying this to the process of generation, the (substance) which does not get mastered must of necessity depart from type and become the opposite ** in respect of that " faculty " wherein the generative and motive agent has failed to gain the mastery. Hence, if this is the " faculty " in Wrtue of which the agent is male, then the offspring formed is female ; if it is that in virtue of which the agent is Coriscus or Socrates, then the offspring formed does not take after its father but after its mother, since, just as " mother " is the opposite of " father " as a general term, so also the individual mother is the opposite of the indixidual father. The same applies to the " faculties " that stand next in order, since the offspring always tends to shift over to that one of its ancestors which stands next, both on the father's side 405

768 a

ARISTOTLE varepcjv /cat cttI^ [xrjrepcov. evetai 8' at /Ltev evepyeia rcbv Kivqaecov, at he Swdf-iei, ivepyeia [juev at Tov yevvoJVTO? /cat roJv KadoXov, olov dvdpo)7TOV Kal Cojov, hvvdpiei 8e at tov SiqXeos Kal rcbv vpoyovojv.

15 fierajSaAAet [Jiev ouv i^iardfjievov npo? rd avrt/cetfxeva, XvovTai 8e at /civr^crets" at hr^i^uovpyovaai et? ra? eyyys", otov' r] tov yevvon'Tos dv XvQfj KLvrjaig, cXa-x^ioTji SLa(f>opa /xera^SatVet etV ttjv tov Trarpd?, Seurepov 8' et? ri^v tou TrdTnrov Kal tovtov St) tov TpoTTOv [hcai irrl tCjv dppevoiv /cat eVi tcov driXeLchvf 20 ^ TTj? yevvcocrqg els Trjv Trjs pLrjTpog, edv 8e /xi) et? TavTr]v, et? tt)v ttj? TT^drjs- opboiajs 8e /cat eTTt Toiv avoid ev.

MoAtCTTa p,ev ovv 7Te(f)VKev fj dppev Kal -fj TraTrjp ajxa KpaTelv Kal KpaTetadac puKpd yap rj hia<f)opd, WOT ovK epyov dyca avp,^rjvai djxcjyoTepa' 6 yap Soj/cparT^S" dviqp TOioaSe rt?.' 8t6 d>£ ivl to ttoXv 25 Ta fiev dppeva tco iraTpl eot/cev, to. 8e ^T^Aea ttj fiTjTpL, a/xa yap et? djJicfico e/CCTracrt? eyeveTO, dvTi 1 eVt P : om. vulg. ^ seel. A.-W.

^ o yap . . . Tis seel. A.-W. : dv^p om. S.

" Aristotle now introduees the distinetion between i^laraadai Kal p.€TafiaXX€Lv (" departing from type and ehanging over ") and Xv^aOat. (" relapsing ") : as will be seen, the result of the former process is that the embryo acquires a characteristic opposite to that of the original movement (this process has been clearly described already) ; the result of the latter process (not so far described) is that the embryo acquires a characteristic which belonged to one of its ancestors. (The explanation of these two processes is given below at 768 b 15 ff.)

  • â– The semen, the movement derived from the male parent. Cf. 766 a 17.

' See 768 a 2 above, 4.06


and the mother's. Some of the movements (those of the male parent and those of general kinds, e.g., of human being and animal) are present in (the semen) in actuality, others (those of the female and those of ancestors) are present potentially. * Now when (a) it ^ departs from type,*^ it changes over into its opposites; but when (6) the movements which are fashioning the embryo relapse, they relapse into those which stand quite near them ; for example, if the movement of the male parent relapses, it shifts over to that of his father - a very small difference- and in the second instance to that of his grandfather. And in this way too [not only on the male side but also on the female] the movement of the female parent shifts over to that of her mother, and if not to that, then to that of her grandmother ; and so on with the more remote ancestors.

(1) Usually the natural course of events is that when (the movement of the male parent) ** gains the mastery - and when it is mastered - it will do so both qua male and qua individual father,* since the difference between the two (faculties) is a small one, and so there is no difficulty in their both coinciding (for Socrates is a man who, while (a) he has the characteristics of a class,^ (6) is also an individual). Hence for the most part males take after their father - and females after their mother, since a departure from type takes place in both directions " •* See above, 766 b 15.

' Care must be taken to distinguish the use of " father " applied (a) to the male parent qua a particular individual, and (6) to the fatfier of the male parent.

^ i.e., Ls " male." For roioahe, roioahi, cf. Met. 1077 b 20 fF.

â– i.e., from " male " into " female," and from " father " into " mother." 407


768 a

Kctrai Se to) [xev dppevt, to drjXv rco §e Trarpl r) fi'qrrjp, rj 8' eKaraais els ravriKeiyieva. iav 8' 7] fxev aTTO rov dppevog Kparrjcrrj Kivqais, rj 8' oltto Tov HojKparovs p-t] Kpariqari, rj avrr) p,ev CKelvr] 8e 30 /ATy, Tore avp,^aivei yiveadai dppevd re p,rjTpl eoLKora /cat ^rjAea Trarpl. edv 8e XvOcoulv at Kivrjaecg, /cat t^ /xev dppev p-elvr), rj 8e tov IjcoKparovs XvSfj ets" T')7V TOV TTaTpog, eWai dppev ru) TrdTTTTCp eoLKos rj Tcbv dXXcov tlvI tcov dvcodev irpoyovoiv [Kara tovtov tov Aoyov]/ KpaTTjdevrog^ Se fj dppev, ^ 35 QijXv earat, /cat eot/cos" /xaAtcrra /xev T7y pirjTpl, edv 8e /cat aurr/ Au^^ t^ Klvrjais, fJirjTpl jxrjTpos rj ctAAr/ 768 b Ttvt Tibv dvcodev earat t^ ojxoioTrjs Kara tov avrov Xoyov. 6 8 avTOS Tporros /cat ctti tcov pioplcov /cat ydp TOJV jiopicov ret /xev toj iraTpl eotKe ttoXAa/ct?, ra 8e Trj p.rjTpt,, to. 8e tcov rrpoyovcov tlctIv evetcrt ya/j /cat tcov [loplcov at /xev evepyelci Ktvijaets 6 at 8e Suva/xet, Kadarrep eiprjTai 7roAAa/ct§-. KadoXov 8e Set Aa^etv vrroOecreis, /xt'av /xev ti^v elprjjievrjv, oTt evetcrt tcov Kivrjaecov al /xev 8i;va/xet at 8' ivepyela, dXXas 8e 8i;o, oTt KpaTOV/xevov /xev e^iWaTat et? to avrLKelfxevov , Auo/xevov Se et? tt^v ixojievrjv Klvrjaiv, /cat rjrrov /xev Aud/xevov et? tt7V ^ om. PS ; seclusi. ^ Kpar-qQivra Y.

' post a/3/361' addunt codd. â– ^ (â– ^ om. P) flijAv, twj' irpoyovcuv TLvl ioiKos PYZ ; amplius Kparrjdeicrqs Se Afai (/cai om. Z) rij? ToC TrpoydroD /ctv^aewj PSYZ.

« See 768 a 3.

  • i.e., the movement derived from that particular individual male. ' Cf. 772 b 36.



simultaneously, and the opposite of " male " is "female" and the opposite of "father" is "mother," departure from type always being into f»pposites." But (2) if the movement that comes from " the male " gains the mastery and the movement that comes from Socrates does not, or the other way round, then the result is that male offspring taking after their mother are formed and female ones taking after their father. Supposing (S) the movements relapse : if (i) the male " faculty " stands fast but the movement from Socrates ^ relapses into that of his father, then the offspring will be male and take after its grandfather or some other more remote ancestor [according to this principle] ; if (ii) the male-faculty gets mastered, the offspring will be female, and usually will take after the mother ; but supposing this movement also relapses, it will take after the mother's mother or some other more remote ancestor on the same principle. Precisely the same scheme holds good with the various parts of the body ; very often, of course, some parts take after the father and some after the mother, and others after some of the ancestbrs, since the movements belonging to the parts '^ as well are present in (the seminal substance), some of them in actuality, some potentially, as has often been stated. We Absence of must lay down as general principles that which we r*â„¢*^stated just now, for one (viz., that some of the biance. movements are present in <the seminal substance) potentially, others in actuality), and also two others : (a) that which gets mastered departs from type and passes into its opposite ; (6) that, however, which relapses passes into the movement next to it in order : if it relapses a httle, into the movement 409

768 b

ARISTOTLE 10 eyyus", /xaAAov Se els ttjv TToppcorepov. reAos" 8 ovTcos auyxeovTai, (Lare fxr^devl ioiKevai tcov olKeio)v Koi avyyevojv, dAAa AetVecj^at to kolvov fjiovov Kal eivai, avdpcxiTTOv. tovtov 8 atriov on rrdaiv aKoXovdeZ tovto tols Kad^ eKaarov KadoXov yap 6 dvdpcoTTos, 6 8e ^(VKpar-qs TTarrjp, Kal rj 15 firjT'qp tJtis ttot* tjv, tcx)v Kad' eKaarov. , AtTtov 8e Tov fjiev XveaOai tols Kivrjaeig on, to 7T0L0VV Kal TTaaX^L VTTO TOV TTaaXOVTOS {oloV TO Tefx vov dp,^Xvv€TaL VTTO TOV Tefjivop-evov Kal to deppbalvov ifjvx^Tat vtto tov depp,atvop,€vov , Kal oXcos TO KIVOVV e^CO TOV TTpWTOV dvTiKLveLTat Tiva 20 KivriaLV, olov to wdovv dvTwdelTai. ttcos Kal avrtdXl^eTai TO OXl^ov evioTe he Kal oXcog eTra^e p^dXXov Tj eTToiriaev, Kal eifjvxQrj puev to depp.alvov, edeppdvOr] be to ijjv)(OV, OTe piev ovdev voirjaav, OTe Se TjTTOv r) Tradov elprjTai Se irepl avTOtv ev TOis TTepl TOV TTOietv Kal Trdax^i'V BtcopiGpievoLS, ev 25 TToiois VTrdpx^i tcov ovtojv to rrotelv Kai 77aa;^eiv). e^tWarai 8e to rrdaxov Kal ov KpaTetTat, rj St' eXXecifjiv Sum/xeoj? tov TreTTOVTOs Kal kivovvtos, t) Sta TrXrjdos Kal ipvxpoTtjTa rod ireTTopevov Kal Si.opL^op.evov T7] piev yap KpaTOVV Tfj 8e ov Kpa " The species is " consequent " to every individual ; cf. Topics 128 b 4 ws yevovs ovtos tov del aKoXovdovvros.

" See G. cf C. 324 a 31 flF.

" Not extant. But see G. ^ C. 3^4 a 33 ff .

" Cf. 766 b 15. 410


which is close by, if more, into that which is further removed. In the end, they become so confused that the product does not take after any of its family or kindred, and all that remains is what is common to the race^ - i.e., it is just a human being. The reason for which is that all particular individuals are accompanied " by this characteristic : since " human being " is general, whereas Socrates who is the father, and the mother whoever she may be, are to be classed as particular individuals.

(1) The reason why the movements relapse is that The the agent in its turn gets acted upon by that upon ^{'^^^^gai which it acts (e.g., a thing which cuts gets blunted and by the thing which is cut, and a thing which heats '^"" gets cooled by the thing which is heated, and, generally, any motive agent, except the " prime mover," gets moved somehow itself in return, e.g., that which pushes gets pushed somehow in return, and that which squeezes gets squeezed in return ; sometimes the extent to which it gets acted upon is greater than that to which it is acting - a thing which heats may get cooled, or one which cools may get heated, sometimes (a) without having acted at all, sometimes (6) ha\'ing acted less than it has been acted upon. These matters have been discussed in the treatise on Acting and being acted upoii,'^ where it is stated in what sorts of things acting and being acted upon occur). (2) The reason, however, why that which is acted upon departs from type and does not get mastered is either (a) deficient potency in the concocting and motive agent, or (h) the bulk and coldness of that which is being concocted and articulated ; since (the motive agent), gaining the mastery at one Uneven place but not at another, causes the embryo that is mlnt^ 411


768 b

Tovv TToieZ 7ToXv^op(j)ov TO avviGrdybCvov , olov irrl 30 Tcov ddXrjTwv avfJif^alveL 8ta rrjv 7ToXv(f>aytav' 8ta ttXtjOos ydp rpocf)-!]? ov Sui^a/xeVi]? rrjs (fivaecog Kpa reZv, cSctt' dvdXoyov au^etv Koi StavejLtetv^ ojmoicd?^ rrjv rpo^rfv^ aAAota yiverai rd p-^prf, Kal cr;^e8ov ivLod^ ovrcjs a)GT€ firjdev eoiKevai ro) Trporepov.

TrapavXTjaLOV Se rovrcp /cat to voarjixa rd KaXov 35 fxevov aarvpLav [koI ydp iv tovto) hid pevjJiarog t] ■nvevfxaros aTreTrrov TrXrjdog els* p-opia rod Trpoa OJ7TOV TTapepLTTcaovTos Tov t,a)ov,^ Kal aarvpov (fjaiverai to npoacoTTov.Y 769 a Aia riva [xev ovv alriav 6-qXea Kal dppeva yiverai, Kal rd p,€v eoiKora TOt? yovevai, drjXed re 6-^Xeai Kal dppeva appeal, rd S' avdnaXLv, BrjXed re rco irarpl Kal dppeva rfj jxrjrpi, Kal oXoJS rd p-ev roXs 6 vpoyovoLS eoLKora' rd 8' ovdevi, Kal ravra /cat Ka9 oXov ro aajfia Kal rcbv fxopLiov cKaarov, Sicvpiarai TTepl TTavrcov.

Etprj/cttCTt 8e Ttve? rwv (f)V(noX6y(vv /cat erepa? TTepl rovrcov, 8ta tiV alriav opota Kal dvopoia yiyver ai roZs yovevauv. 8uo hr) rporrovs Xeyovai rrjs air Las . evtoi pev ydp ^actv, d(/)' oirorepov ^ Siaveixeiv S, Aldus, Platt : Siaixeveiv Vlllg.

  • o/xoi'ws E : ofioiav vuig.

^ Tpo(f)-qv E, Aldus : fiop(f>^v vulg. * els to. Aldus.

  • TOV tvov] dXXov t,(i>ov 0^*m, A.-W. in textu : l,(Lov tov coni. A.-W. ; tov fort. Z^, aXov corr. fort, ipse Z^, aWov rec. Z*. cf. Pol. 1.302 b 39.

  • corrupta et fort, secludenda ; pro koX yap . . . TTpoaio-rrov quoniam accidit ex [con]descensu ad membrum maris cum rento generato ex ciho indigesto S.

' ioiKOTa P : loi/ce vulg.

  • erepa Platt, quod causae . . . sunt aliae 2 : eTepov ti P : €Tepot vulg.



taking shape to turn out diversiform. This is just what happens to athletes through eating an excessive amount ; in their case, owing to the great bulk of nourishment there is, Nature cannot gain the mastery over it so as to bring about well-proportioned growth and distribute the nourishment evenh" throughout ; the result is that the parts turn out ill-assorted, and sometimes even bear hardly any resemblance at all to what they were like before. Similar to this is the disease which is known as satyriasis : [in this too, a large bulk of unconcocted flux or pneuma finds its way into parts of the face of the animal, and in consequence the face actually appears like that of a satyr.] ° We have now expounded the cause of all the following : whv male and female offspring are formed ; why some take after their parents, female after female and male after male, and others the other way round, females taking after their father and males after their mother ; and generally why some take after their ancestors and some after none of them, in respect both of the body as a whole and of each of its parts.

Certain of the physiologers, however, have treated Earlier of these matters on different lines, explaining other- of^"em. wise the cause why offspring are formed similar and biance dissimilar to their parents. The cause is presented by them in two ways. (1) Some say that the offspring which is formed takes more closely after that " This sentence is probably a marginal note which has crept into the text ; in any case it is corrupt, and " unconcocted pneuma " is meaningless. Scot has no mention of animal or face ; see critical note. The disease seems to be elephantiasis.- With b 30-37 however cf. Pol. 1302 b 35 ff.


769 a

ARISTOTLE 10 av eXdrj cTTrep/xa TrXeov, tovtco yiyveadai fxaXXov ioiKog, oixoiios Travri re ttoLv Kal fiepec fxepos, (Ls oLTTtovTOS d0' eKaarov rcov jJLopicov anepfjiaTos' av S' laov eXdrj a(f> eKarepov, tovto 8 ovSerepco yiyveaOaL o/xoiov. el Se tout earl ipevSog Kal fir) (XTro TTavros aTrep^eraL, SrjXov cog ov8e rrj? Ojuoio 15 Tr]Tos Kal avopLOiorrjTOS atriov av etrj ro Xe)(dev. €Tt Se TTcbs afjLa drjXv p.ev Trarpl eoLKos dppev 8e fiTjTpl eoLKos, ovK evTTopcos BvvavTaL SiopL^eiv ol fiev yap ojairep 'Eju-ttcSo/cAt^? XeyovTes '^ AtjjxoKpLTOS rrepl rov 6'qXeos Kal dppevos rrjv airiav dXXov rpoTTOv dhvvaTa Xeyovaiv ol 8e rw ttXcIov 20 rj eXarrov dvievai oltto tov dppevos rj drjXeos, Kal Sid TOVTO ytyveadai to jxkv drjXv to 8' dppev, ovk dv e)(oiev aTToSel^ai TLva Tpoirov to re drjXv tw TTaTpl eoLKos eoTai Kal to dppev tjj pLTjTpi' a/xa yap eXdelv irXeov drr dpu^OTepojv dhvvaTov. eTi 8e 8ta TtV alrlav eoiKos yiveTai toIs irpoyovoig cos 25 €ttI to TToXi)^ Kal toIs aTTodev ; ov yap a.77' eKeivcov y aTTeXr^vQev ovdev tov OTTepfiaTOS. dXXd jJiaXXov ol TOV XeLTTOpLeVOV TpOTTOV XdyOVTCS TTCpl TTJS OfJiOLO TTjTos Kal raAAa ^eXriov /cat tovto Xeyovaiv. elal yap TLves ol (^aoL ttjv yovrjv fiiav ovaav olov TTavoTTepiXLav elvai Ttva TToXXcbv warrep ovv^ et Tis ^ MS eVt TO noXv fort, secludendum. ^ ow] av S.

" See 764 a- 765 a. e.g., Alcmeon ; see Diels 24 A 14.



parent from which the larger portion of the semen comes, and that the whole of the offspring takes after the whole of the parent, and part after part (this assumes that semen is drawn from each of the parts) ; if the same amount comes from each of the two, then, they say, the offspring formed resembles neither. But if this is untrue (as it is), i.e., if the semen is not drawn from the whole of the body, then, clearly, the reason they give for the similarity and dissimilarity of the offspring cannot be true either. Further, they cannot explain with any ease how it is that at the same time a female offspring takes after the father and a male offspring after the mother ; for those who state the cause of male and female as Empedocles or Democritus state it," make statements which on another score are impossible ; while those who maintain that it all depends upon whether more or less semen comes from either the male or the female, and that this is why one offspring is formed as a male, and another as a female, these people, I am sure, are not in a position to show how the female is going to take after the father and the male after the mother, since it is impossible for more semen to come from both parents at one and the same time. And further, for what cause is it that the offspring for the most part takes after its ancestors, even distant ones ? Surely no portion at ail of the semen has come from them, anyway. (2) One more type of explanation of the resemblance remains to be mentioned, and those who adopt it make a better show all round, including this particular question. There are some who hold that the semen, though a unity, is as it were a " seedaggregate " consisting of a large number of ingredients ; it is as though someone were to mix and 4,15


769 a

30 Kepaaeie ttoXXov? ;^i;/xou? els ev vypov, KaireLT* evrevdev Xafx^dvoL, [/cat]^ Swatr' av Xayb^dveiv jxr] laov del d<^' e/cacTTOu, aAA' ote jxev tov tolovSc TrXeov ore Se tov roiovSe, ore Se tov fxev AajSeiv TOV 8e jjLrjdev AajSetv - tovto avjjL^alveLv' /cat tTTt Trjs yovi^g TToXvfiLyovs ovarjs' d(f)' ov yap av Tcbv 35 y^vvcovTOJV TrXeloTOV iyyevrjTaL, tovtoj yiveadai ttjv pLop^rjV ioLKos. ovTos Se o Aoyo? ov aa<f)T]S [xev 769 b '<^<^^ TrXaafxaTLas eoTL TToXXaxf], jSoyAerat 8e /cat ^cXtiov Xeyeiv [jirj evepyeia VTrdp^etv, dXXa /caret Svvap,iv, T^v XeycL TravoTreppuiav eKeivcos [lev yap dSvvaTOV, ovTCJ? 8e hvvaTOV Ov pd^LOV 8e ovhk Tporrov eva Trjs aiTta? airo Si8dvTa? Ttt? atTia? etVetr Trept Trat'Tajr', tou re 5 yiveadai drjXv /cat dppev, /cat Sta rt to /tier ^tjAu TO) TTaTpl TToAAa/Cl? 6p,OLOV TO 8' dppeV T7J piT)Tpi, /cat TTCiAtv rrjs" tt/jos" tou? Trpoyovovs opiOLOT'qTOS , €TL 8e 8ta TtV atriW ore jLtev dvdpojTTO? p.ev tovtcov 8' oy^evi TTpoaofJiOLog, OTe 8e Trpotov ovtcos TeXog ovSe avQpoiTTOs dXXd t,a)6v tl (jlovov ^atj/erat to jQ ytyvdjLtevot', a 817 /cat XeyeTai repara.

Kat ydp e-)(opievov twv elprjjjievwv ioTlv eirrelv â– nepl TOiv ToiovTcov rd? atrtas". reAo? yd/> TcDi' jLtev /ctvT^creojv Xvop^evwv, ttj? S' wA?^? ou KpaTovixevrj^, fxevei TO KadoXov fidXcoTa- tovto 8' eart rd ^a)Ov.

1 secl. A.-W. 2 avfi^aivei PSYZ.

» Because it can be restated in Aristotelian terminology, as he goes on to show.



blend together a large number of juices into one fluid, and then take off some of this mixture ; in doing so he could take off not always an equal amount of each • juice, but sometimes more of this one, sometinaes more of that, and sometimes he might take some of one and nothing at all of another : So, they say, it is with the semen, which is a mixture of a large number of ingredients ; and in appearance the offspring takes after that parent from whom the largest amount is derived. This theory is obscure, and at many points a sheer fabrication. At the same time, it aims at a more satisfactory " statement, viz., that this " seedaggregate " is something that exists not in actuality. but only potentially, since it cannot exist in actuality, whereas it can exist potentially.

Still it is not easy, by stating a single mode of cause, to explain the causes of everything, - (1) why male and female are formed, (2) why female offspring often resembles the father and male offspring the mother, and again (3) the resemblance borne to ancestors, and further (4) what is the cause why sometimes the offspring is a human being yet bears no resemblance to any ancestor, sometimes it has reached such a point that in the end it no longer has the appearance of a human being at all, but that of an animal only - it belongs to the class of monstrosities, as they are called.

And indeed this is what comes next to be treated Monstrosi. after what we have already dealt with - the causes of ^^' monstrosities, for in the end, when the movements (that came from the male) relapse and the material (that came from the female) does not get mastered, what remains is that which is most " general," and this is the (merely) " animal." People say that the P 417

769 b

ARISTOTLE TO he yiyvoyievov Kpiov K€(f)aXriv (f>aai,v rj ^oos ^X^^^> 15 Kal iv Tols aAAoi? Ojuoioj? erepov ^coov, fjioaxov TTaiSog K€(f)aX'rjv rj Trpo^arov ^oog. ravra 8e TrdvTa avpL^aLvei jjiev Sia Taj Trpoeiprjixevas alrlas, eari 8' ovdkv (Lv Xeyovaiv, dAA' eot/cdra pLovov onep yiyverai /cat pLT] 7T€7Tripojp,€vojv. Sio ttoXXolkls^ ol aKOJTTTOvres ei/ca^ouat riov p^rj KaXoJv ivlovs rovg 20 pi'€V alyl cf)v<ya>vTL TTVp, tovs 8' olt KvptTTOvri. ^vcrioyvcopiojv Se rt? dvrjye Trdaas^ ets" Suo •^ rpicov t,a)OJV^ oijjeis, Kal avveTreide iroXXaKis Xdycov. ore 8' iarlv aSwarov yiyveadai repas tolovtov, erepov ev erepo) ^coov, SrjXovaiv ol p^porot rrjs Kvrjaecos TToXv 8iacf)€povT€s dvdpoiiTOV KOI TTpo^drov Kal 25 Kvvog Kal ^oog' dhvvarov 8' e/caarov yeveadai p,r] Kara rovs oLKetovs ;^pdvous.

To. p.ev ovv TOVTOV rov rpoTTOv XeyeraL tcov repdrajv, rd Se ro) TToXvpLeprj rrjv p,op<fyr)v ^xecv, TToXvTToSa Kal 7ToXvK€cf)aXa yivopieva.

Udpeyyv^ 8' ol Xoyoi rrjs alrlas Kal vaparrX-qcnoi, rpoTTov TLvd eloLV ol re rrepl rcbv repdrojv Kal ol 30 TTepl rcov dvaTT-qpoiv t,(x)Cx)v Kal yap ro repas dvairripla ris eariv. IV ArjpLOKptros piev oiiv e(f)7)ae yiyveadai rd repara 8ia TO hvo yovds TTifrreiv,^ rrjV puev Tiporepov oppLrjaaaav* rrjv 8' varepov, f/cat® ravrrjv e^eXBovaav^ ^ ■navras P.

^ ri Tpccbv ^axDV P : ^wcov t] Tpicuv vulg. ' {av(jL}TTiTrT€iv Diels. * et non egredientem add. Gul.

^ vj)' ^j Kal P (o quo et hanc egredientem Gul., teste Bussemaker). * ineXdovaav DieLs.



offspring which is formed has the head of a ram or an ox ; and similarly with other creatures, that one has the head of another, e.g., a calf has a child's head or a sheep an ox's head. The occurrence of all these things is due to the causes I have named ; at the same time, in no case are they what they are alleged to be, but resemblances only, and this of course comes about even when there is no deformation involved. Thus, humorists often compare those whose strong point is not good looks in some cases with a firespouting-goat, in others with a butting ram ; and there was a physiognomist who in his lectures used to show how all people's faces could be reduced to those of two or three animals, and very often he carried con\iction with his audience. It is however impossible for a monstrosity of this type to be formed (i.e., one animal within another), as is shown by the gestation-periods of man, sheep, dog, and ox, which are widely different, and none of these animals can possibly be formed except in its own proper period.

This, then, is one sort of " monstrosity " we hear spoken of. There are others which qualify for the name in virtue of having additional parts to their body, being formed ^\ith extra feet or extra heads.

The account of the cause of monstrosities is very close and in a way similar to that of the cause of deformed animals, since a monstrosity is really a sort of deformity.

Now Democritus " explained the formation of IV monstrosities thus. Two semens fall into the uterus, ?„^""", ^ dancy oi one of them having started forth earlier and the other parts. later, fand the second when it has gone out goes " See Dials, Vorsokr.^ 68 A 146.



769 b

iXdeZv^ els rrjv ycrrepavf ^ (Lare av[X(f)V€G9aL Kal IttoXXdrreiv ra fxopia. [rai? S' opviaiv erret auju^aiVei 35 raxelav yiveadai ttjv 6)(€tav aei, rd t' cod Kal TTjv xpoo-v avTcov enaXKarreLV (f)r]aLV.Y el 8e avix770 a ^aivei i^ ivog arrippiaTos irXeico yiveadai /cat /x.ia? avvovaias, orrep ^aiverai, ^eXriov firj kvkXco TrepiteVat TTapevrag ttjv avvropiov rots yap tolovtols fxdXiar' dvayKaZov tovto avjjL^alveiv orav jxr) hiaKpidcjaiv dXX djxa Ta anepixaTa eXQcoaiv. et 5 /Mer ovv alridaaadai Set rrjv (xtto rov dppevos yovqv, rovTov dv Tov rpoirov etiq XeKreov dXoJs Se p-aXXov rrjv alriav olrjreov iv rfj vXrj /cat rois avvtaraaivois KV-qpLacriv elvai. hid /cat yivovrat, rd rotavra Tcov repdrojv iv piev rolg p-ovoroKoig arrdvia -ndpTTav, €v he rbt? ttoXvtokol's fxaXXov, /cat pdXiaT^ 10 iv opvLGL, rcbv S' dpvida)v ev raZs dXeKTopiaiv avrai ydp iroXvroKovaiv , ov p.6vov to) TToAAa/cts' TLKretv cooTTep to tcov TrepiarepcJov yevos, dXXd /cat rw TToXXd dpLa €X€iv KvqpLara /cat Trdaav cjpav ox^veaOaL. Storrep /cat TToXXd StSu/xa tiktovglv ^ evdvs pro iXdelv E.

^ loc. corrupt, monet Platt, quia duo spermata cadunt in matricem, et prius cadit unum spertna et perniansit et Twn exivit {et non egredientein habet Gul. vers.), deinde continuatur cum secundo spermate remanente etiam in matrice, et sic, etc. S.

  • seclusi. locum sensu carere monet Platt, pro dei Aldus habet dt^etAe. credo haec de avibus dicta ex adnot. quae ad 770 a 9 seqq., al. locc, spectaverit irrepsisse; conferas 717 b29.

" This sentence, as Platt points out, is corrupt. The general sense is clear. I have given Scot's translation in the apparatus criticus.



into the uterus,t " with the result that the parts grow on to one another and get thrown into disorder. [In the case of birds, since copulation is a quick business with them always, the eggs and their colour as well, he says, get thrown into disorder.]^ But if it is a fact that several offspring are formed from one semen and from one act of copulation, as is evidently the case, we should do better not to neglect the shortest route and go a long way round, since in cases of this sort it is absolutely necessary that this should happen when the semens have not been separated but proceed together.*^ Now if we are really obliged to refer the cause to the semen that comes from the male, then, I suppose these are the hnes on which we should make our explanation ; but from every point of view we ought preferably to hold that the seat of the cause is the material ** and in the fetations as they take shape. And that too explains why monstrosities of this sort, while they occur very seldom in animals that produce one offspring only, occur oftener in those that are prolific, and most of all in birds, and specially in the common fowl.* This species is prolific, not only in laying eggs frequently, as the pigeon tribe does, but also in carrving manv fetations at once and in copulating at everj- season of the year. Hence also fowls lay many twin-eggs,

  • Tfiis sentence (which may be a note on 770 a 15 ff.) seems to be from the same author as the interpolation at 717 b 29 : the speed of birds' copulation obviously was a favourite point with him, but it has nothing to do either with this passage or with that in Bk. I. In the present passage, birds are introduced later by Aristotle (a 10).

' And this is a contingency for which Democritus's explanation does not allow. â– * Supplied by the female.

  • For monstrosities, see references, p. xi.


770 a

ARISTOTLE 15 av[ji(f)V€TaL yap 8ta to TrXrjaiov dXXnjXujv elvat ra Kvrjixara, Kaddrrep eviore rroXKd rcbv TTepiKapTTtcov. rovTOJV Se oawv [xev dv at XeKidot Siopi^currat Kara rov vfMeva, 8vo ytvovrai veorrol Ke^^iopiapievot., TTcpLTTov ovSev €xovT€S' occov 8e ovve^els KO-l p-Tj hieipy^i purjdev, e/c tovtcdv ol V€ottoI yivovTai 20 TeparcoSeis, awpa p,€V /cat K€(f>a\r]V p,iav exovre?, aKeXrj 8e rerrapa /cat Trrepvyas, 8ta to Ta /Ltev dvcodev €K Tov XevKov yiveadai /cat npoTepov, Tapn,€Vop.€vr]s e/c Trjs XeKidov ttj? Tpo(f>rjs avTolg, TO 8e /caret) p,6piov voTepL^eiv p-ev, ttjv 8e Tpo(l)rjv elvai jLtt'av /cat dSioptarov.

"HSt^ 8e /cat o^ts" aJTTTat hiK€(f>aXos 8ta tt^i' 25 avTT]v aLTLav (LotokgZ yap /cat TToXvTOKel /cat tovto TO yivos. OTTavioiTepov 8e to TepaTa;8es' ctt' avTCJv 8ta TO a)(fjp,a rrjs voTepas' gtocxt^^ov yap KeiTai TO ttXtjOo? twv ojojv hid to pirJKog avTrj?. /cat TTepl Ta? peXtTTas /cat tovs (J(f)'fJKas ovSev ylveTat tolovtov iv KexojptcrpevoLg yap KVTTaptoLg 30 o TO /CO? ioTLV avTciJv. TTepl 8e Tds dXcKToptSas TOVvavTLOv avp^e^rjKev, fj /cat 8^Aoj^ cu? iv ttj vXrj Trjv aLTLav 8et vop,it,€iv tcov tolovtcdv Kal yap TCJJV dXXcOV iv TOLS TToXvTOKOLg p,dXXoV. 8t6 iv dvdpCOTTCl) TjTTOV WS ydp €77 L TO 77oXv pOVOTOKOV ioTL /cat reAetoyorov, CTret Kat tovtojv iv ol? tottols 35 TToAuyovot at yvvaiKeg eloL, tovto avp,^aLV€L /xaA " i.e., yolk only, not white as well ; and as there are two yolks these parts are formed double. For the distinction between "nutritive" {i.e., formative) and "growth-promoting " nourishment, see 744 b 32 ff. Cf. also 751 b 2 ff.

  • Not huddled up together.



since the fetations, on account of being situated close to each other, grow on to each other, just as many fruits sometimes do. Of these twin-eggs, those in which the yolks are kept apart by the membrane develop into two separate chicks, and there is nothing extraordinary about them ; those in which the yolks are continuous, with nothing to hold them apart, give rise to chicks that are monstrosities : they have one body and one head, but four legs and wings, the reason for which is that the upper parts of the body are formed out of the white and before the rest, the nourishment being dispensed to them from the store in the yolk, whereas the lower part (a) is formed afterwards, (6) its nourishment is uniform and homogeneous.*^ A snake, too, has been seen with two heads, and the cause is the same - this also is a class of animal which lays eggs and is prolific. Monstrosities occur less frequently, however, with snakes owing to the shape of their uterus, in which, on account of its length, the numerous eggs lie one after another in a row.** Nothing of this kind occurs with bees and wasps, because their offspring are laid in separate cells. With the common fowl, however, the opposite is the case - a fact which clearly goes to show that we are bound to hold that the cause of such things is in the material, since with other animals too they occur more frequently in those that are prolific. Hence they occur less frequently in human beings, for the offspring which these produce is as a rule one in number, and it is perfected by the time of birth, since even in this species the occurrence of monstrosities is more common in those regions where the women are ' Not in the semen.



770 a

Xov, olov 7T€pl AtyuTTTOv. iv 8e Tttts" at^t Kal rots' TTpo^arois yiverai fjidXXov TToXvroKcorepa yap iartv. en he fidXXov ev toI? TToXvaj^iheaLV rroXvroKa yap 770 D eaTL rd roiavra^ tcov l,cp<x)v Kal ov reXeioyova, Kaddirep rj kvcov rd yap noXXd Tt/crei TV(f)Xd tovTiov. 8i' ■r]v 8' alrtav tovto avpL^alvet /cat 8t' t^v atrial' TToXvTOKovaiv, varepov XeKreov. dXXd TipowhoTTOLrjrai rfj (f)vaeL [vrpo?]* ro reparoTOKelv roj^ 5 fjuTj yevvdv opioia 8ta rrjv dreXeLav ecrrt 8e /cat ro repag rcov avojxOLWV. hioTTep eTraXXdrret, tovto to avfiTTTCOfxa Tolg toiovtol? ttjv (f)vaLV. ev ydp tov . rot? /u,aAtCTra yiverat /cat ra jxeTaxoipa KaXovfxeva. ravra 8 eart Kara tl rrerrovdoTa TepaTcoSes' to ydp eKXeiTTeiv rj rrpocrelvai rt reparcDSes". ecrrt ydp 10 TO Tepag twv Trapd (f)VGLV [rt]/ irapd (f>V(nv 8' ov TTaaav dXXd rrjv co? errl to ttoXv- rrepl ydp ttju del /cat TTjv e^ avayKrjs ovdkv ytVerat Trapd cf)vaiv, dXX' ev TOiS COS" eirl to ttoXv jxev ovtco ytvofievoi?, evhe-)(opuevoLS 8e /cat aAAcos", eTrel Kal tovtwv ev oaoLg avfi^atvei Trapd ttjv Ta^iv p,ev Tavrrjv, del 15 fjievTOt, yurj rv^ovTCog, tjttov elvai 8o/cet Tepas 8ta TO Kal TO TTapd cf)vaLV elvaL Tponov TLvd /cara ^ sic PSYZ*: eon yap to. t. n. viUg. * secl. Btf.

' TO) A.-W. : T<o Y : to vulg. * rt om. P.

" Cf. H.A. 584 b 7, 31 : the passage in Hippocrates, tt. aepwv vBdrcov tottuv 12 (ii. 34 Littre) rd re KTrjvea tiktciv re TTVKvoTara Kal €KTpe(j)€i,v KaXXiara may refer to Egypt and Libya. " Ch. 6 below. ' 771 a 18 ff.

â– * Viz., which produce imperfect offspring.

« See 749 a 2. f Cf. 772 a 35, etc. » See Introd. § 9.



prolific - in Egypt, for instance." Monstrosities occur more frequently in goats and sheep, because they are more prolific ; and still more frequently in the fissipede animals, because animals of this sort are prolific and the offspring is not perfected when born (e.g., the dog) - most of these creatures' young, of course, are born blind. The cause why this occurs and the cause why they are prolific '^ must be stated later. But the way to the production of monstrosities has been already prepared for Nature by the fact that they generate offspring which, owing to its imperfect state, is unlike its parents : - for monstrosities come under the class of offspring which is unUke its parents. And that is why this particular accident extends its range to affect animals of that nature,** and, to bear this out, it is among these animals especially that metachoira ^ as they are called occur. These meiachoira are creatures which have in some respect undergone some " monstrous " affection, since the lack of any part or the presence of an extra part is such an affection. A monstrosity, of course, belongs to the class of" things contrary to Nature," although it is contrarv- not to Nature ki her entirety but only to Nature in the generality of cases.^ So far as concerns the Nature which is abrays ' and is hy necessity, nothing occurs contrary to that ; no ; unnatural occurrences are found only among those things which occur as thev do in the generality of cases, but which may occur otherwise. Why, even in those instances of the phenomena we are considering, what occurs is contrary to this particular order, certainly, but it never happens in a merely random fashion ; and therefore it seems less of a monstrosity because even that which is contrary to Nature is, in a 425

770 b

ARISTOTLE i^vacv, orav firj KpaTrjarj rrjv Kara rrjv vXrjv rj Kara to elhog (f)vacg. SioTrep ovre ra roiavra repara Xeyovaiv, ovr iv rot? aAAo6S' eV oaoig elcode TL yLveadai, KadaTrep iv toi? TrepLKapTrlois . can 20 yo-p TL? ajXTreXos rjv KoXovui rtve? KaTTveov, rjv^ av eveyKT] [JieXavag ^drpuas"/ ov Kpivovai re'/oa? 8ia to TrXeiaTOiKis elcodevai TavTTjv tovto noielv. ultlov 8 oTi fxeTa^v XevKTJs icTTL TTjv (f)vaLv Kal [xeXaivrjg, (DOT ov TToppcodev Tj /xeTajSaCTts" ov8^ (vaTrepavel TTapa (f)vaLv ov yap eiV dXXrjv (f)vat,v.

25 'Eiv Se TOLS TToXvTOKOLS TavTO? avpL^aivet Stct* to" Trfv TToXvTOKiav epLTTohit,€LV^ Tas TeAeicoaeis' dAAi^AcDV Koi Tas Kivriaeig ra? yei/vrjTi/cas".

Ylepl Se T7JS" TToXvTOKias /cat tov TrXeovaafiov tov Tcjjv pLepwv, Kal Trjg oXiyoTOKia? Kal fxovoTOKias 30 Kal Trjs evSeta? Tcbv jxepajv, aTrop-qaei-ev av Tis". ytVerat yap ivioTe to. jxev ttXciov? exovTa 8aKTVAofS", TO. 8' eVa jjiovov, Kal irepl to. dXXa fji^prj tov avTov TpoTTOv Kal yap rrXeovdl^et Kal KoXo^d ytVerat, ra Se /cat Svo e^ovTa alSola, to jxev dppevos TO 8e 6-qXeos, Kal iv dvdpcoTTOi? Kal p,aXiaTa nepL 35 Tag alyag. yivovTai yap a? KaXovai Tpayatvas 8ta TO dr^Xeos Kal dppevog ^x^lv alholov rjSr] 8e /cat Kepag al^ e)(ovaa iyevcTO irpo? to) cr/ce'Aet.

^ 7} Sus. ^ ^orpvas PZ : Porpvs vulg.

' ravra A.-W. (ravra re Aldus) : Tavrd re vulg. : re om. Z : repara coni. A.-\V. * Sta Z : /cai 8ia vulg.

  • TO suprascr. Z^* : om. vulg. ^ efi.noSii,ei P.

" As it can be represented as a case of one " nature " failing to control another *' nature," it can be termed " in accordance with nature." See Introd. § 14.

  • " Cf. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. II. 3. 2, where it iS stated that the ^avreis do not consider the vagaries of this plant 426


waVj in accordance with Nature (i.e., whenever the " formal " nature has not gained control over the " material " nature)." Hence, people do not call things of this sort monstrosities any more than they do in the other cases where something occurs habitually - as happens with fruit. Thus, there is a certain sort of vine - " smokv " * is the name some people give it ; - and if it bears black grapes they do not reckon it as a monstrosity, because it often and habitually does this. The reason is that it is intermediate in its nature between white and black, and so the alteration is quite small and not really contrary to nature, because it is not an alteration to a different nature.

These things, then, occur in the case of the animals which produce numerous young, because the numerous offspring which are produced hamper each other's being brought to perfection and also the movements which effect generation.

A puzzle may be raised about this production of Relation of numerous offspring and the redundance of parts, and and"deUci-^ the production of few or one offspring and the ency of deficiency of parts : sometimes animals are born the number having too many toes, some having one only : and ?[^°f*f"°^ the same vvith the other parts : some have too many ; stances some are mutilated ; some actually have two organs "'*'^" of generation, one male and the other female. This happens with human beings, and with goats especially. Goats are born which are called tragainai on account of their possessing both male and female organs of generation. We have also had an instance of a goat being born that had a horn on its leg. Altera to be sufficiently unusual or unnatural to be of any teratological significance. ' Hermaphrodites.


ARISTOTLE 771 a yivovraL Se fiera^oXal /cat TTrjpcoaeig /cat -Trepl to.

€in-o£ [XopLa, TW r) jxt] ^x^iv evta rj KeKoXo^coixeva e;^etv /cat irXeico /cat /xe^ecrrcDra rou? tottovsKaphiav jxev ovv ovdev moTTOTe iyevero C<x)OV ovk €XOV, GTrXrjva 8' ovk c^ov, /cat Svo ^X^^'> '^^^ v€(f)pov 5 eva* -qTTap 8' ou/c e;^ov /xev ovdev, ovx oXov 8e ep^ov'. raura Se Travra ev rot? reXeicodelcn /cat ^cbaiv. evpicTKerai /cat X'^^W ^^'^ exovra, 7Te(f)VKora ex^f-v to. 8e TtXeiovs exovra pudg. rjSrj 8 eyevero /cat p.edeaTr]K6Ta /caret rc)770V, to ju,ev -qirap ev Tol? apiarepoZs, 6 8e aTrXrjv ev rot? 8eftot?.

10 /cat ravra jxev ev ye TereXeapievoL? (LirraL rols t,(x>oL'Sy axjTTep elprjrai' ev he rot? rt/crpju-evot?^ exovra TToXXrjV /cat TravroSaTrrjv rapax'^v. ra p,ev ovv pLiKpov rrapeK^aivovra rrjv (fyvaiv ^i^v e'icodev, ra 8e nXelov ov l,rjv, orav ev rols Kvptoi's rod l,r\v yeviqrai ro Tvapa (jivatv.

'H 8e OKeipcg earlv rj nepl rovrcov TTorepov riqv 15 avrrjv airiav 8et vopuL^eiv rrj? piovoroKtas /cat rrj? evSeta? rcov pie.poJv /cat rov TrXeovaapiov Kal rrj? rroXvr OK Lag tj pur] rrjv avrrjv.

' Wpwrov p,ev ovv 8ta rl ra piev eari rroXvroKa ra he pLovoroKa, rovr dv rig ho^eiev evXoycxjg davpLdi,ei.v. ra yap p^eyiara piovoroKa rcov i^tocov 20 earlv, olov eAe^a? KapLTjXog Ittttos Kal ra pnovvxo-' rovrcov he ra piev /xet'^co rcov dXXcov, rd he ttoXv ^ sic Bekker : yevvojfievois O^ marg.* : in filiis 2 : €tpr]fievoi,s PSYZ.

" i.e., have passed beyond the embryonic stage, have reached the end of their period of development. * For a discussion of this see P.J. Bk. IV, ch. 2, 428


tions and deformations occur in respect of the inward parts too ; animals either lack certain parts, or have them in a mutilated form, or have too many of them, or in the wrong places. No animal, it is true, has ever been born without a heart, but there have been animals without a spleen, and \%ith two spleens, and Avith one kidney ; none without any liver at all, but certainly with an incomplete one. These phenomena are found in animals that are perfect " and living. We find, also, animals with no gall-bladder which naturally should have one * ; others with more than one. Instances have occurred of organs in the wrong places : the liver on the left side and the spleen on the right. These things, as I said, have been observed among animals which have reached perfect growth ; among newly born animals instances have been seen exhibiting great and varied confusion. Those which depart only slightly from the natural usually live ; those which depart more than that do not - i.e., when their unnatural conformation lies in the parts that control the creature's life.

The point about these which we have to consider is the following. Ought we to hold that one and the same cause is responsible for the production of a single offspring and the deficiency in the parts, and also for the production of man)- offspring and the redundancy in the parts, or not ? To begin, then, first of all, with the fact that some (b) Number animals produce many offspring, others a single one °' ° =>pring. only. Surely surprise at this is very reasonable, as it is the largest of the animals which produce one only, e.g., the elephant, the camel, the horse and those with uncloven hoofs ; of these, some are larger than



hia<j)ipeL /caret to ^eyedog. kvojv 8e Kal Au/co? /cat TO. TToXvcrxi'^rj rravra a-)(eh6v TToXvTOKa/ Kal ra [JLLKpa TWV TOLOVTCOV y otoV TO TCOV [IVcbv yCVOS. TO.

Be SL)(r]Xa oAiyord/ca TrXrjv i5o?* avTT] Se rail' 25 TToXvTOKiov iaTLV. evXoyov yap to. fjuev fieydXa TrXeioi hvvaadai yevvdv /cat oirepp^a (fyipeiv TrXelov.

atriov 8' avTO ro davpbat^opievov rod firj davixd^eiv Sid yap TO fxeyedog ov ttoXutokovglv t] yap TpO(f)rj KaTavaXiaKerat roZs tolovtols et? rrjv av^rjaiv rov auifiaros' rot? S' iXdrroaLv (xtto tov fieyedovs rj 30 <f>vais d(f)€Xovaa^ rrpos to TTepLTTWfia irpoaTiOrjaL TO GTrepfiaTiKov rrjv VTrepox'fjv. ert Se to yewrjaav aTTepjJia nXelov jxev to tov p.eit,ovo? dvayKolov etvai, fiCKpov Se to tcov eXaTTovcvv. TToXXd [xev ovv^ jjiLKpd yevoLT^ dv Iv TavTco, [xeydXa Se TroAAa

^aAe7rdv. [rot? Se pieaois fMeyedecn to fiecrov

35 (XTreScu/cev r] Aval's. tov fxev ovv ra ixkv elvat fxeydXa tcov l^tocov ra 8 eAarTco Ta Se jLte'cra 7Tp6 771 b Tepov elp-qKafxev ttjv atrtav fxovoTOKa Se', ra 8' oXiyoTOKa, Ta Se TroAurd/ca tcJjv t,a)OJV eartV.]* co? p-kv €ttI to ttoXv Ta jxev pLwvv)(a povoTOKa, rd Se St;)^7jAa oAtyoTO/ca, ra Se 7ToXva)(i'S'f} rroXvTOKa.

TOVTOV 8' atTiov OTt oi? eTTt TO TToAo Ttt pLeyedr) ^ a. IT. F : IT. a. vulg, * a<fieXovaa PS : d^aipovaa vulg. ' oiJi' PSY : oiJv /cai vulg. * seclusi : cm. 2.



the other animals, some are really outstanding in respect of size. The dog, on the other hand, and the wolf, and practically all the fissipede animals produce many offspring ; even small animals of this class do so, such as the mouse family. The cloven-hoofed animals produce few offspring, except the pig, which is among those that produce many. As I said, this is surprising, because we might have expected the large animals to be able to generate more offspring and to produce more semen. But the very thing that surprises us is the reason why we should not be surprised. Their size is the very reason why they do not produce many offspring, because in animals of this sort the nourishment gets used up to supply the growth of the body, whereas in the case of the smaller animals. Nature takes away from their size and adds the surplus on to the seminal residue. Further, the generative semen of a larger animal must of necessity be greater in bulk," and that of the lesser ones small. Also, though many small ones may very well be formed in one place, it is difficult for many large ones to be. [To the intermediate sizes Nature has allotted the intermediate number. As for the fact that some animals are large, some smaller, and some intermediate, we have stated the cause of this earlier.] * For the most part it is the solidhoofed animals which produce a single offspring, the cloven-hoofed animals which produce few, and the fissipede animals which produce many. The reason for this is that for the most part the distinction of " But this pro rata merely ; so that a large animal has no net advantage over a small one in tfiis respect.

  • The preceding words seem to be irrelevant ; those which follow immediately in the Greek cannot be construed, and I have omitted them from the translation.


771 b

ARISTOTLE 5 SicoptaraL Kara rag Sta(/>opa.s' ravrag. ov ixrjv €;(ei y ovTCDg 6776 TTavTwv' aiTiov yap fxeyedos /cat IXLKporrj? rojv acofxaroiv Trjg oXtyoroKiag Kal ttoXvroKtas, aAA' ov to iiojvv^ov tj TToXva^ihes t) Stp^TjAoj/ eivat TO ydvog. tovtov 8e jxapTvpiov 6 yap eAe^a? fxeyiGTOV Tcbv l!,cpajv, eaTi Se TroAucrp^iSe?, yj re 10 KdpirjXog Six'^Xov rdv Xolttcov p-eyiarov ov. ov fiovov S' iv rolg Tre^olg dAAd /cat iv rot's Trrrjvots /cat €V roLS TrAcuTOt? ra fxev pueydXa oAtyoTOKa earl ra he jxiKpa TToXvroKa, Std rrjv avrrjv atriav. d/xoto)? Se /cat rwv cf)vrd)v ov ra jxeyLora (f)€pei TrXelarov KapTTov.

15 Aid Tt jLtev ouv' to;;' ll,cpa)v rd jxev TToXvroKa ra 8' oAtyoTo/ca rd Se fiovoroKa^ rrjv (f)vaLV eariv, etp-qrai- rrjs 8e vvv prjdeiar]? diropias pbdXXov dv Tis" cuAdyco?" davp,daei,€V inl rcov TToXvroKovvratv , eTTetBr] c^atVerat TroAAd/ct? diTO pad? d;^etas' /cutcr/co/xev'a rd roiavra rdjv l^a)a)v. ro Se aTreppua ro rov dppevog, eire avpi^dXXerai Trpog rrjv vXr^v 20 piopiov yivopevov rov Kvqpiarog /cat rw rov drjXeos (TTTeppiarL p,i,yvvp,evov, etre Kal purj rovrov rov rpoTTOv, dXX woTTep cjiapuev avvdyov Kal SrjpiLovpyovv rrjv vXr]v rr^v ev rd) drjXei /cat ro TreptTTOJ/xa to arteppuariKov, KadaTrep 6 otto? rrjv vyporrjra rov ydXaKros, Std rtVa wor atriav ov^ 25 ev aTToreXei l^cpov pteyedos ^xov, ajanep evravda 6 OTTOS ^ (dXX ev rovrcp rw TreptrrtoptarL TrXeto) ^ Tci Se fiovoTOKa P : om. vulg. ^ evXoycos P : om. vulg.

  • wanep . . . onos fortasse secludenda.



sizes corresponds to these differences. At the same time, this does not hold good of all of them, because the reason for their producing few or many offspring is the size, great or small, of their bodies, not the fact that that particular kind of animal is cloven- or solid-hoofed or is fissipede. Here is a proof of this. The elephant is the biggest of the animals, but it is fissipede ; the camel, which is the next biggest, is cloven-hoofed. And it is not only among the animals that walk but also among those that fly and swim that the big ones produce few offspring and the small ones produce many ; and the cause is the same. Similarly, too, it is not the biggest plants that bear the most fruit.

We have stated why the nature of some animals is to produce many offspring, that of others to produce few, that of others to produce one only. So far as the puzzle which has now been mentioned is concerned, one might rather be justifiably surprised in the case of those animals Avhich produce many offspring, in view of the fact that animals of this sort, as we see, often conceive as the result of one act of copulation. Now it may be that the semen of the male contributes to the material <in the female) by becoming part of the fetation and by mixing with the semen of the female ; or it may be that it does not act in this way, but, as we hold, acts by concentrating and fashioning" the material in the female, i.e., the seminal residue, just as fig-juice acts upon the fluid portion of the milk ; but whichever of these views is right, what on earth is the cause why the semen does not turn out one single animal of a fair size, just as the fig-juice acts in our example, (but that instead several ofF » Cf. 767 b 17, 772 b 32. " See 737 a 15.


ARISTOTLE yLverai;) [ov K€-)(oipLaTat rto avviaravai iroaov Ti/ dAA oawTTep av et? TrXelov eXdrj Kal TrXetcov, roaovTO) to Tnjyinjfxevov iart jnet^ot'.]* to [xev ovv e'A/ceiv (f>dvai, tovs tottovs Trjg voTepas to arreppLa, /cat 8ia TOVTO ttXcloj ytveadai, 8ta to tcov tottcov TrXrjdog Kal to.? KOTvXrjhovag^ ov)( ev ouVas"/ ovdev 30 eoTLV €v rauTo) yap yivovTai tottco ttjs ucrrepa? Bvo TToXXoLKis, iv 8e Tolg TToXvTOKois , OTav vXripcodfj Twv ipi^pvcov, €<j>e^rjs Keipieva <^aiveTai. tovto Se SrjXov €K TU)v dvaTopitov ioTiv. aAA' wanep /cat TeXeovp-evajv roiv ^cpwv koTW e/caaTou ri pieyedog /cat €771 TO /Ltet^ov /cat eTrt to eXaTTOv, wv ovt* dv 35 p.€lt,ov ydvoLTo out' eXaTTov, oAA' ej^ to; pieTa^v hiaoT-qpiaTi tov pLcyddovs XapL^dvovai, Trpos dXXrjXa 772 a TTjv VTr€po)(7]v /cat ttjv eXXeiipiv, /cat ytVeTat /xet^oiv o 8' eXdTTWv dvdpojTTos /cat tcDv aAAojv l,ipwv oTLOvv, ovTCo /Cat e^ ^? yiveTai vXrjs OTreppLaTLKrjg, ovK ecTTiv dopiOTog ovt iirl to ttXclov ovt €ttI to eXaTTOv, odOT i^ oTTocrqaovv yiveadat, tco TrX-^dei. 5 oCTa ovv TCOV t,o)COV 8ta ttjv elprjpbevqv aiTiav TrXelov vrpotcTat TTepiTTCopia rj els evos t,(x)ov dpx'QV, ovk ^ talia desideraverat Platt, ego supplevi (sed generantur in ilia materia et superfluitate multi filii 2).

^ TO) (sic) avveardvai PZ, om. Y. ' ri cm. SZ.

  • procul dubio secludenda (cf. 772 a 22) : om. 2. ^ Xeyovaiv addunt YS.

  • ovKevovoas Z. credo etiam Sid to . . . ovaas secludenda.

" The words supplied are necessary to complete the argument, as Platt points out ; and they are in fact preserved in Scot's version (see app. crit.). They were no doubt ousted from the Greek text by the additional remarks about fig 434


spring are formed out of that residue) ? " [It is not di\ided up owing to its causing a certain quantity of milk to set, but the more the amount of milk into which it is put and the more fig-juice there is, so much the greater is the amount that gets curdled.] It is sometimes said that the regions of the uterus draw the semen, and on that account several offspring are formed, because these regions are several in number and because the cotyledons ^ are not a unity. This theory, however, has nothing in it, because often two embryos are formed in the same region of the uterus, and in the case of animals which produce many offspring, when the uterus is full of embryos, they can be seen lying in a row. This is clear from dissections. No ; what happens is this. When animals are being perfected, there is a certain size for each, a limit of bigger and smaller ; none \vill be formed either bigger or smaller than these sizes, but the excess or deficiency of size which they acquire as compared \\ith one another lie within this interval between the two limits, and thus it is that one human being (or any other animal) is formed bigger and another smaller. In precisely the same way, the seminal material out of which (the embryo) is formed is not unlimited in either direction - the amount of it can be neither bigger nor smaller than certain limits ; the embryo cannot be formed out of any casual amount of it. Thus, in the case of those animals which (on account of the cause stated) discharge more residue than is requisite for the principle juice, which appear to have formed part of a marginal note (c/. below 772 a 22 ff., with which passage they are obviously connected).

  • For the cotyledons, see above, Bk. II. 745 b end.


772 a

ARISTOTLE evhex^rai e/c ravrrjg ev yiveadai Trdcrr)?, dXXa roaavra oaa toI? ^eyideaiv wpiarai rots IkvovjxcvoLS- ovhe TO rod dppevo? anepixa r) 'q 8wa/xt? rj €v TO) CTTrep/xaTi ovOkv avarr^aei} vXeov -^ eXarrov 10 rov Tre(j)VK6ro's. opiolcjjg r el rrXeov OTrepfxa d(j>iriaL TO dppev T] Suva/xeis" TrXeiovs iv hiaipovp-ivcp ru> aTTepixaTL, ovOev TTOirjaei ixeLt,ov to TrXeioTOV, dXXd Koi TOVvavTLOV hia(f)depei KaTa^rjpaivov. ovSe yap TO TTvp depfxaivec to vhcop jjidXXov, oacpTTCp dv fj rrXeov, dXX cgtiv opos tls^ tt]£ depp.oTfjTO's, rj? vtt 15 ap)^ovcrr]s idv av^rj tis" to nvp, deppLov p.kv ovkctl yiverai pdXXov, efar/xi^ei 8e jxdXXov, /cat reAo? d^avt^erai Kal yiverai ^iqpov. ivel Se ^aiVerat avpLpLeTpiag heladai tlvos rrpog dXXrjXa to re irepirTcopia TO Tov drjXeos Kat, to irapd tov dppevo?, oaa TTpouTat crTrep/xa tcDv dppevcxjv, Ta rroXvTOKa 20 TcDv t,ci)cov evdvg d(f)Lr)at to p,ev dppev Svvdpbevov rrXeioi avviaTavai piepL^opevov, to 8e d-qXv ToaovTov cjOTe TrXeiovs yiveudai avGTaaei?. {to 8' errl tov ydXaKTOS TTapdheLypua Xex^ev ovx opLOiov eoTLV rj p,ev yap tov uTreppLaTO's deppLOTTjs ov pLovov avvLGT7]cn TToaov dXXd /cat ttolov^ tl, rj 8' ev rip otto) 25 /cat T?y Truerta to ttooov pbovov) tov p-ev ovv TToXXd ^ avarrfoei PY : avvlar-qai vulg. ^ Ti? P : oni. vulg. * TToiov aX\a koI noaov P.

« See Bk. I, ch. 21 and Introd. §§ 26 ff.

  • Cf. 729 a 18. « Cf. 723 a 30, 767 a 16. <* See 737 a 15, 771 b 24.

  • I suspect that this parenthesis may have come from a marginal annotation ; cf, 771 b 24 above.



of a single animal, it is not possible that the entirety of this should be used to form one embryo ; on the contrary, as many are formed as is determined by the sizes proper to those animals. Nor again will the semen of the male or the dynamis " residing in the semen put into shape anything that is greater or less than the natural size. Similarly, if the male emits more semen, or more dynameis in the semen (in cases where the semen gets divided up), the greatest possible amount will not make anything bigger (than the natural size), but on the contrary will dri^ the material up ** and destroy it. The parallel case of fire and water shows this. An increase in the amount of fire does not mean that the fire increases the heat of the water in the same ratio ; on the contrary, there is a limit to the heat, and when that has been reached, you may increase the amount of fire, but the water does not continue to get hotter ; instead it evaporates more, and finally disappears and dfies up. Now since, as it seems, there must be some proportional relationship <^ between the residue of the female and that which comes from the male (this applies where the males emit semen), in the case of those animals which produce many offspring the male at the outset emits semen which is able, when divided up into portions, tcgive shape to a number of fetations, while the female contributes enough material so that a number of fetations can take shape out of it. (The parallel instance of milk, which was cited,** is not comparable, since, in the case of that which the semen's heat causes to take shape, not only quantity is involved but also quality, whereas in the case of the heat in the fig-juice and the rennet, quantity alone is involved.) * This, then, is the reason why in those 437


772 a

yLvecruat ra KVYjixara Kai fxrj avvex^? ev e/c 7701^ TCOV eV TOZS 7ToXvt6kOL9 TOVT ^ a'iTlOV, OTL OVK i^ oTToaovovv yiverai Kvrjfia, dAA' idv re oXcyov fj , OVK earai, idv re ttoXv Xiav cSptarat yap rj Swajuts" /cat Tov TrdaxovTOS xal rrjs depiiorrjTOS rrjs noiov 30 ary?. oixolojs Se /cat iv rot? [jlovotokoi? /cat fieydXoLs rwv ^cpcjov ov ttoAAo, ytyrerai e/c ttoXXou TreptTTcofxaros' /cat yap eV e/cetVot? e/c ttooov tlvos TToaov TL TO € pyal,6 jJLevov eariv. ov Trpoterai jxev ovv TrXeicx) roiavr-qv vXrjv Sta rrjv 7Tpo€iprj[xevriv alriav rjv he Trpoterai,, Toaavrr) Kara (fivaiv earlv 35 e^ rj^ ev yiverat Kvrjjjia p.6vov. idv 8e' TTore rrXelov eXdrj, 8tTO/cet rore. 8t6 /cat 80/cet repaTwSr) rd TOtaur' etvat jxaXXov, on ytVerat irapd rd ai? CTrt 772 b TO TToXv /cat to elcodo?. 6 8e dvdpcoTTog i7TajX(f)OTe pit,eL irdai rolg yeveaiv /cat ydp [xovoroKeZ /cat TToAuTo/cet TTOTe" /cat oAtyoTo/cet, fxaXiara 8e fiovoTOKov rrjV (f)vaiv iari, 8ta jLtev Tr/r vyporrjra rod aiLpLaros /cat depixonqra ttoXvtokov, [rov ydp airep5 liar OS rj t^voLS vypd /cat depjJi-q,]^ 8ta 8e to [JLeyeOos oXiyoroKov /cat puOvoroKov . 8ta 8e touto /cat tous" T7JS" /cuT^CTeo)? ;)(/3dv'otis" pLOVcp rdjv ^oicov dvaj/^aAous' etvat avfx^e^rjKev. rolg [xev ydp ctAAot? et? iorlv 6 -j^povos, roL? 8' dvdpcoTTOL? TrXeiovs' kol ydp eTTrdfxrjva /cat bcKafxrjva yevvdJvraL /cat /caTct tou? 10 piera^v ;i(pdvou?* /cat ydp Ta OKrdfjLrjva l^fj pev, rjrrov 8e. to 8' atTtov e/c rcbv vvv Xe^^ivrajv ^ tovt' P : tovt' avTo Viilg.

^ 7roT6 hie P, post oXiyoTOKei vulg.

^ Tou . . . depfj-T^ seel. Platt.

/. 776 a 22.



animals which produce many offspring the fetations are many in number and a single continuous one does not result instead of many - viz., a fetation is not formed out of any casual quantity : if there is too little or too much, none will be formed, because there is a definite limit set both to the dynamis of the material which is acted upon and to that of the heat which acts upon it. Similarly also in the case of those animals which are large and produce one offspring only, a large amount of residue does not give rise to a large number of offspring, for the same holds good : here too, the amount of the material and of that which works upon it are definite. So then they do not emit a larger amount of such material, owing to the cause already mentioned; and the material which they do emit is, in the natural course, just sufficient in amount to provide for a single fetation only. If ever more of it is supphed, then twins are produced. And hence, also, such creatures seem rather to be monstrosities, because their formation is contrary to the general rule and to what is usual. Man, however, has a footing in all the classes, producing one offspring, or on occasion, many, or few, though most naturally and normally one is the number : the production of many offspring is due to fluidity of the body and to heat, [since the nature of semen is fluid and hot ;] of few or of one, to the size of the body. And to this it is due also that in man alone among the animals is the period of gestation of variable length " : other animals have a single period, but with man there are several : children are born at seven months and ten months and at intermediate times, and indeed eight months' babies live, though less often than the others. The reason may be 439

772 b

ARISTOTLE avviSoL Tis dv, eip-qrai Be irepl avrwv ev rots' Trpo^X-qixaaiv.

Kat rrepl pukv tovtcov hicopiadoi rov rpoTTOv TOVTOV.

TaJv" Se 7TX€ovat,6vTcov fiopicov Trapa (f)vaLV to avTO atrtov Kal rrjs StSuynoTO/ctas". '^'817 yap iv 15 TOLS KvqfxaaL avfx^alvei to atriov, iav TrXeioiv vXt] avarrfj^ r) Kara ttjv tov fjLopiov (fivaiv Tore yap avjJL^alvei p,€v pLopiov ixett,ov tcov dXXcov ^x^i'V, olov SaKTvXov rj x^^P^ V '^^^^ V "'■'^'^^ dXXojv a/cpoiTTjpLCOv rj jxeXivv, rj axi'O'devTOS tov KvqfxaTog TrAetco yiveadai, Kaddirep iv toIs TTorajJiOLS at Stvat* /cat 20 yap iv tovtol? to (f)ep6[X€Vov vypov kol Kivqaiv e^ov dv (^TLVif dvTLKpovarj, 8vo i^ evog yivovTai avuTaaets , exovaat ttjv avTrjv Kivqaiv tov avTov 8e TpoTTOv /cat inl twv KvrjixaTOJV avii^aivei. rrpoa(f)V€TaL Se /LtaAtCTTtt p,€V TrXrjaiov dXXijXcov, ivioTe he /cat TTOppo) Sta ttjv yiyvofxevrjv iv tco KvqixaTi KLVTjaLv, fidXiCTTa Se 8td to ttjv Trjg vXrjg v7T€pox'f]v 25 odev d(f>rjpedr] iKel aTToStSoi^at, to 8' et8os" ix^^^ 66 ev iTrXeovaaev.

"Oaa 8e avp^^aivei rotaura ayoTe hvo ex^i-v alSola, [to fxev dppevos to 8e d-iqXeosif del jJiev tcjv TrAeova^dvTcov ytVerat to p.ev Kvpiov to 8' dKvpov ^ TrXelcov vXt] ovar^ coni. Platt, cui consentit S sustentatur multa materia : TrXeico vXr)v avarijar) viilg.

  • dv Tivi Peck : av vulg. * seclusit Platt.

" This cannot be traced.

" Cf. Bk. I, chh. 21, 22; 767 b 18, etc.

•^ e.g., the excessive material is drawn from X ; it settles at Y, and therefore begins to take the form of Y during the process of development ; but as there are enough Y already, 440


perceived from what has just been said ; a discussion of these matters is also to be found in the Problems." This, then, may be taken as the way in which we deal with this subject.

With regard to the redundance of parts which (c) Reason occurs contrary to Nature, the cause of this is the *^****same as that of the production of twins, since the cause occurs right back in the fetations, whenever more material gets " set " than the nature of the part requires : the result then is that the embrvo has some part larger than the others, e.g., a finger or a hand or a foot, or some other extremity or Hmb ; or, if the fetation has been split up, several come to be formed - ^just as eddies are formed in rivers ; here too, if the fluid which is being carried along and is in movement meets with any resistance, two selfcontained eddies are formed out of the original one, both of which have the same movement.^ What happei^s in the case of the fetations is on the same lines. The normal part and the redundant one are usually attached quite close to one another, although sometimes they are farther away because of the movement which arises in the fetation, and above all because (a) the excess of material recurs again at the place from which it was originally drawn off, and (6) the form which it has is derived from the part where it developed as a redundancy.*^ Some creatures develop in such a way that they have two generative organs [one male, the other female]. Always, when this redundancy happens, one of the two is operative and the other inoperative, it goes back to where it came from, viz., X ; thus a Y is formed at X.



772 b

TO) Kara rrjv Tpo(f)rjv del dfjiavpovaOai are Trapd 30 <f>vaLV 6v, 7TpoaTr€(f)VK€ S' warrep to, ^u/nara* /cat ydp ravra XafJi^dvei Tpocf)'qv, KaiTrep ovra varepo yevT] Kal Trapd (jivaiv. yiVerat 8e Kpar-qaavrog fxev Tov SrjfxiovpyovvTOS opioia hvo Kal Kparrjdevrog oXcos' dv Se TTJ [lev Kparr]arj rfj 8e KpaTr]67J, to jxev OrjXv TO 8e dppev ovdev ydp htacfiepet tovto Xeyeiv ctti tcjv jxopLCOv rj em tov oXov, 8t' t]v 35 atrtav ytVerat to piev drjXv to 8' dppev. daa 8' eXXeinovTa ytVerat twv tolovtwv piopicov, olov dKpojTTjpiov Tivos r) TOJV dXXojv jxeXuiv, ttjv avTTjv 773 a 8er vo/xi^etv aiTiav rjvTTep /cat eav oAov^ to yivofxe vov dpL^Xcodrj, djji^Xwaets Se yivovTai TToXXal tcov KV7]p,dTOiV .

[Aia(f)€povai 8' at [xev TTapa(j)vaeLs ttjs TToXvTOKias TOV elpYjjjbevov Tpoirov, to. 8e repara Toyrajv roi TToAAa efrat avTcbv^ o-VfJLcfjvaiv.Y (ylvovTai 8e Kai /xerajSoAat, eviois j-iev ctt' eXaTTOvcov Kal dTLjJLOTepcjDV p,opLcov,y cVtot?* 8e /cat toutov ror 5 TpOTTOV, edv eirl /zet^ovojv yevojvTai Kal KvpicoTepoiV pLOpicjv, olov ei^ta e;^et 8uo (JTrATjt'as' /cat '^ rjvTrep Kal iav oXov P, A.-W., Platt : onoiov ydp, imv oXcus vulg, ^ TU> ra TToXXa avrcov elvai P.

' Sia^e'pouat , . . avix<f>vai.v seel., nam argumento haud consona. cetera ex S versione supplevi : et forte erit alteratio {=p,€TapoXT^, cf. 771 a 1) in membris parvis vilibus et ^w magnis principalibus S.

  • iviois Peck : evia vulg.

" Cf. 767 b 17. The semen of the male, the " movement " of the male, " Cf. 768 b 3.

'^ The words marked for excision are probably an annotation wliich has ousted the text (here tentatively restored from Scot's Latin version) ; and it may be remarked that the 442


since the latter, being contrary to Nature, always gets stunted so far as nourishment is concerned ; however, it is attached, just as growths (or tumours) are : these, like it, secure nourishment, although the date of their origin is later than that of the creature itself and they are contrary to Nature. The result of the fashioning agent " having gained the mastery, or having been completely mastered, is that two similar generative organs are formed ; if it to some extent gains the mastery and to some extent gets mastered, one is formed female and the other male, - for it comes to the same thing whether we apply this explanation of why one is formed female and another male to the case of the parts or to the animal as a whole. And wherever a deficiency occurs in such parts as e.g. an extremity or some other Umb, we must take it that the cause is the same as it is if the whole of the forming creature suffers abortion - and abortions of fetations frequently occur.

' [Redundant growths differ from the production of numerous offspring at a birth in the way which has been stated ; monstrosities differ from redundant growths in that most monstrosities are instances of embryos growing together.] (Alterations, too, occur ; in some cases they affect the smaller and less important parts.) whereas others are affected in a different way, i.e., if the alteration occurs in the larger parts, which have more to do with the control of the organism - e.g., some have two spleens, or several meaning borne by repara Ls at variance from that which it bears elsewhere in the discussion. The words may be an annotation intended for 773 a 13. The lines following (down to iiediaTafievrjs) seem to be a similar kind of summary, though more correct, and they too may be out of place or redundant.


773 a

ARISTOTLE TrXeiovs ve(f)povg. en 8e ^eraardaeis tcov yiopicov TTaparpeTToixevcxiv^ tcov Ktvqaecov elai /cat t^? vXrjs [i€6i(7Ta[X€vr]?. €v 8' elvai ro t,ipov to re/jarcoSes" rj TrAetco crujU-Tre^UKora Set voyLit,eiv Kara ttjv ap)(r}v, 10 OLOV et TOiovTov ioTLV 7] KapSia p,6piov, TO fJiev {jLiav e^ov Kaphiav ev ^toov, to. 8e TrXeovd^ovTa IJiopLa 7Tapa(f)va€i,s, rd Se 7rAeta> e)(ovTa hvo p.ev elvat., GrvfJiTT€(f)VK€vat 8e 8ta ti^v tcov KvqixaTOJV auvaipLV.

SujLt^atvet 8e TroAAaKts" /cat rait' oi) Sokoui^tcov avaTTT^pajv eirai i^cpcov ttoAAoi? 17817 rereAetajjueVot? 15 Toils' jLtev avpi7Te(f)VK€vai tcov TTopcov Tovg 8e 7ra/3€KT€Tpd(f)6ai. Kal yap drjXeai tlolv rjSr] to aTOfxa TCOV vaTepcbv avpLTre^VKO's SieTeXeaev , 17877 8' copag ova7]s TCOV KaTajJirjvicov /cat ttovcov emyLyvopLevcov^ Tols p.€V avTOfxaTov eppdyrj, rat? 8' vtto laTpcov SirfpeO-q- ra? 8e 8ia(f)daprjvaL crvveTreaev 7) ^lata?' 20 yevofxevT]? ttjs pi^^ecog rj yeveadai p-r) Svvap.evqg. Kal TCOV TTalScov iviOi? ov /cara to avTO avveireae TO rrepa? tov alhoiov Kai 6 TTopos fj 8ie/3;^6Tat to 7TepiTTCop,a TO e/c Trjs KvaTccog, dAA' inroKdTCodev 8to /cat Kadrjpi€VOL ovpovai, tcov 8e opx^cov dve(T7Taap,evcov dvco hoKovai rot? aTTodev ajxa BtjXco? 25 €)(€LV alSotov /cat dppevos- 17877 8e /cat o T'^s' ^rjpds Tpo(f)T]s'^ TTopos av[Jb7T€(f)VKcbs ^ttL Tivcov t,cpcov yiyovc, ^ TTapeKTpeTTO^ivcov p.

^ iTnyiyvofiivoiv P : yLyvofxevcDV vulg.

' jSiat'as P : /St'?, vulg.

  • fort. <,TT€piTTa)iJ,aTos> supplendum : exitum superfluitatis sicce S. 44,4,


kidneys. Also, there are instances of the parts changing their position, due to diversion of the " movements " and change of position of the material. Whether an animal which is a monstrosity is to be reckoned as one or as several grown together depends upon its " principle " ; thus, assuming that the heart is a part answering to this description," a creature which possesses one heart will be one animal, and any supernumerary parts will be merely redundant growths ; those, however, which have more than one heart we shall reckon as being two, which have grown together owing to the conjoining of the fetations.

It often happens, even with many animals that do (d) other not appear to be deformed and have actually reached formations. complete development, that some of their passages have grown together, and that others have been diverted. We know of instances of women in whom the OS uteri was grown together and continued so until the time arrived for the menstrual discharge to begin and pain came on ; in some, the passage burst open of its own accord, in others, it was separated by physicians ; and in some cases, where the opening either was forcibly made or could not be made at all, the patients succumbed. There have been instances of boys in whom the termination of the penis has not coincided with the passage through which the residue from the bladder passes out, so that the passage came too low ; and on this account they sit in order to pass water, and when the testes are drawn up they seem from a distance to have both male and female generative organs. There have also been instances in certain animals, sheep and others too, where the passage (for the â– ' ' " Viz., the " principle." 445


773 a

Krai TTpo^drcov Kal aAAcoi', evret Kal ^ovr] Bi.€)(copeL, Kal a.varp.rjdevro? rod dp^ov raxv TrdXtv avve(f)V€ro, Kal ovk eireKparovv hiaipovvreg .

30 Wepl pLev ovv oXiyoroKias Kal TToXvroKLas Kal 7T€pL (jivaeui?^ TCx)v 7TX€Ovai,6vTcov rj iXXeiTTOvraJV^ pLoptojv, €TL Se TTepl T(x}v TepaTOjScov, elp'qTai.

V Toiv Se t,(Loiv rd piev oXcog ovk eTTiKviaKcraL rd 8' eTTiKvtaKerai, Kal roJv eTnKv'CoKopieviov rd pcev 35 hvvarat rd Kvrjpiara €Krp€(f)etv, rd 8e TTore pikv TTore 8' ov. rov 8e pirj iviKVLaKeaOaL a'lriov on 773 b pLovoroKa iariv. rd re ydp pnovvxo- ovk em KVLOKerat Kal rd rovrojv pueit^ova' Sta ydp rd p-eyedog rd Trepirrcopba dvaXia-Kerai et? rd Kvrjpia. TTctcri ydp v7Tdp)(€i, jueye^os" rovrois awpiaro?, rujv 5 8e pLeydXa)v Kal rd ep-^pva pLeydXa Kard Xoyov iariv 8to Kal rd rd>v €Xe(j>dvrciiv epu^pvov rjXiKov p.o(j)(os eariv. rd 8e iroXvroKa iTTLKvtoKerat hid ro Kal rcov nXeLoviov^ rov evos elvaL daripco ddrepov eTTiKvqpia. rovrcov 8 ocra puev pieyeOog ep^ei, KadaTTep dvdpcDTTog, idv /xer rj irepa 6)(eia rrjs irepag 10 yev7)rai irdpeyyvs , e/crpe^et rd eiTLKViqdev TJhrj ydp CDTTrai rd rotovrov avpL^e^rjKog. airiov 8e rd elp-qpLevov Kal ydp iv rfj pLia avvovaia TrXetov rd ^ irepl <j>vaecos scrips! : dispositionem 2: Trapa <f>vaiv Btf. : Trepl Trapa(f>vo€U)s P : â– 7Tapa(f>vaeuis vulg.

^ 7] iXXenrovTcuv om. S.

^ Kal Ttov TrXeiovcov P, A.-W. : rd â– nXeiova vulg. ; sed propter parvitatem corporis fill i Z pro Sict . . . emKvrjfia, " Superfetation is a very abnormal occurrence. It happens when a later ovum is fertilized as a result of coitus during 446


residue) of the solid nourishment was grown together ; in fact, in Perinthus a cow was born which used to pass finely-sifted nourishment through the bladder. They cut its anus open, but it quickly grew together again, and they did not succeed in keeping it apart.

We have now discussed the production of few offspring and many, the nature of supernumerary or deficient parts, and also monstrosities.

In some animals superfetation " does not occur at V all, in others it does ; and among the latter some are f^^^' able to complete the nourishing of the fetations, others can sometimes do it and sometimes not. The reason why in some animals superfetation does not occur is that they produce one offspring only. Thus, it does not occur in solid-hoofed animals and in larger animals than these, because on account of their size the residue goes to the fetation and gets used up. All of these have large bodies, and large animals have large embryos, proportionate to their size ; that is why the embryo of an elephant is as big as a calf. Superfetation, however, does occur in animals which produce numerous offspring at a birth, because where there are more than a single offspring one is really a superfetation upon another. Of these animals, those that are large, such as man, complete the nourishing of the second fetation, if the second copulation has taken place not long after the first ; such an occurrence has in fact been observed. The reason is as already stated : Even in a single act of intercourse the semen pregnancy. The young resulting from the second coitus are usually born at the same time as those resulting from the first coitus, but are smaller. See F. H. A. Marshall, Physiology of Reproduction* (1922), 154.


773 b

ARISTOTLE aTTiov eon airepfxa, 6 ^lepiadev TTOieZ 7toXvtok€CV, (x)V vaT€pit,€i ddrcpov} orav S' tJSt] tov Kviqfjiaros r]v^7]jji€vov crvfji^i] yiveadai rrjv o;^eiW, eTriKutcrKerat 15 fiev TTore, oAtya/ct? ixevroL 8ta to tt^v varepav CTU/x/xuetv COS TO. 77oAAa p-^xpt. Tcov Kvovp.ev(x)v raXg yvvai^LV. av 8e avfi^fj nore {Kal yap tout' rjSr] yeyov€v), ov Svvarai reXeiovv, dXXa Kvxip-ar* eK7T€p,7T€L^ TTapairXiqaLa rots KaXovp^evoig eKrpiopiaaLV. ojOTTep yap evri rcbv jjiovoroKiov 8ta to [xeyedos elg 20 TO TrpoiJTTapxov to TreptTTCUjua TpcTreTat Trar, ovtco /cat TOVTOLS, TrXrjv e/cetvois" p^ev evdvs, tovtols S' OTav av^rjdfj to €p,^pvov t6t€ yap exovai rrapaTrXriaioi's Tolg pLovoTOKoig. opLOLiog Se Sta to tov dvdpcoTTOv <f)va€L ttoXvtokov elvat,, Kal TTC/ateivat Tt to) /xeye^et Trjg voTepag Kal tov â– nepiTTd)p,aTOS , p^r] 25 /xevTot ToaovTov wotc CTepov eKTpe(f)€LV, puova twv l^<x)COv ox'^io.v eTTihexovTai KvovvTa yvvr) Kal Ittttos, 7) p,€V 8ta Trjv elprjp^evqv atTiav, -f] 8' Tttttos' 8ia T€ Trjv TTJs <f)vaeo}g OTeppoTTjTa^ Kal to Trepielvai T6 Tr\s vcrrepas pieycdos, ttXcov p,€V iq to) evi, eXaTTov 8e rj a)UT€ dXXo ernKVLaKeadai TeXeiov, eaTi .'JO 8e (jivaei d(f)pohLaiaaTi,K6v 8ta to TauTO Trenovdevat ToTs (JTeppols' €Keiva t€ yap roiavT eoTl Slol to ^ wv . . . ddrepov haud sanum videtur, > ^ eKwefXTrei P : eVTrtWet vulg. * arepeoTTjTa PSY.

" Viz., those which produce more than one offspring. " See 748 a 15 ff.



discharged is more than sufficient, and this when divided up into portions causes the production of numerous offspring, one of which is later than another. When, however, the fetation is already advanced in its growth before the copulation takes place, superfetation sometimes occurs, but infrequently, because in women tRe uterus generally closes up during the time of pregnancy. But if ever it does happen (as in fact it has been known to do), the mother cannot bring the second one to completion, but ejects fetations that are very similar to what are known as abortions. The situation is comparable with that in the one-offspring animals, in which, on account of their size, all the residue is directed to the already existing embryo. So too it happens in these animals, except that in the former it happens straight away, whereas in these it happens when the embryo is already advanced in growth, because then their condition is similar to that of the one-offspring animals. Similarly, because man is by nature an animal which produces numerous offspring, and because there is something over and to spare as regards the size both of the uterus and of the residue (though not enough to bring the nourishing of a second embrvo to completion), women and mares are the only animals which admit copulation while they are with young. In women it is due to the reason already stated ; in mares it is due to the barrenness of their nature,^ and because the size of their uterus has something over and to spare - there is more than enough room for one, but not sufficient for a second fetation to be brought to completion. Also, mares are by nature prone to sexual intercourse because they are in the same predicament as females which are barren - Q 44.9


773 b

firj ytveudai Kadapaiv {tovto 8' earlv wairep^oLg appeal ro dcf)po8i,aLdaaL) Kal Ittttoi at drjXeiai r^KLara TTpotevrai Kadapaiv . ev Trdai 8e rots' t<i^oTOKovai rd areppd rcbv dr^Xlcov d(f>poBiaiaaTiKd hid TO TTapaTrXr^aiajs €)(€i-v tols dppeaiv, orav 35 avveiXeyfievov piev fj to aTrepfxa, jxtj d-fl-oKpivofxevov 774 a §g. rot? yap OrjXcaiv rj rcbv KaTapir]via}V Kadapaig anepfJiaTO? e^oSo? eariv eari ydp rd Karap.'qvia a7T€p[xa aTTeTTTOv, (LaTrep eiprjTai Trporepov. 8to /cat rdJv yvvaiKcov oaai Trpds ttjv ofxiXiav a/cparet? TTjV ToiavTTjv, OTav TToXvTOKijacoai, Travovrai rrjg 5 TTTOTjaecos' iKK€Kpip.evrj ydp rj aTTepjxariKr] irepirTwais ovKeri Troiel rrjs ofiiXiag ravriqs emdvpLiav. iv 8e Tots" dpviaiv at OrjXeiai tcjv dppevwv rjrrov etaiv d(f)pohiaiaariKai 8ta to Trpos" tw uTro^cop-art rd? uarepa? ^X^^^> '^^ ^' dppeva rovvavriov dv€a7Taa[X€vovg ydp e;\;tt rovg opx^i? evrog, a>aT dv 10 rj ri} yevog rwv roiovrcov [dpvidcjv^f' cf)vaei airepfjbariKov, del heiadai rrj? op,tAia? ravrr]?. rot? p.ev ovv drjXeai to Karo) /carajSatVetv rdg varepag, rot? 8' appeal ro dvaarrdadai toi)? op)(£i? avpi^aivei TTpo oSov rrpos rrjv o^^iav.

At' rjv fxev ovv alriav rd fxev ovk erriKviaKerai 15 TTavreXw?, rd 8' eniKviaKerai fxev, rd 8e Kvqpiara eKrpe(j)ei ore p-ev ore 8' ov, /cat 8ta rtV alriav rd p.ev d(f)poSiaiaariKd rd 8' ovk d(f)po8iaiaariKd ru)V roiovrcov eariv, eiprjrai.

^ Ti Platt : TO vulg.

^ seclusi ; opvldwv tovtcov P. fortasse scribendHin ware Sia TO TOVTO TO yevos elvai <f>vaei. anepfjiaTiKov ktX. (et indigent multo coitu propter multitudinem spermatis naturaliter S.) 450


since this also is a condition due to there being no evacuation (which corresponds to the emission of semen in the male), and mares discharge extremely Uttle evacuation. Further, in all the \ivipara those females which are barren are prone to sexual intercourse, because they are in a similar condition to males when their semen is ready, collected together," but is not being emitted, the evacuation of the menstrual fluid in females being the emission of semen, since, as has been stated earlier, the menstrual fluid is semen that is unconcocted. Hence, too, those women who are incontinent in the matter of sexual intercourse, cease from their passionate excitement when they have borne several children, because once the seminal residue has been expelled from the body it no longer produces the desire for this intercourse. Among birds the females are less sexually excitable than the males because their uterus is close up by the diaphragm, whereas the males, on the contrary, have their testes drawn up internally,* so that if any class of such creatures tends naturally to abound in semen, they are always wanting to have sexual intercourse. Thus in females it is the descent of the uterus which encourages copulation, whereas in males it is the dra>Wng up of the testicles.

We have now stated the cause on account of which superfetation does not occur at all in some animals, why it does occur in others, and why these can sometimes bring the nourishing of the fetation to completion, sometimes not ; and what is the cause why of such animals some are prone to sexual intercourse and others not.

» Cf. in b 25, 718 a 6 flF. * See 717 b 10 ff.



774 a

Evta 8e Tcjv eTTiKv'CaKoiJbivcov /cat ttoXvv y^povov hLaXeiTTOva-qg rrjs oxcias Swarai to, Kvyji^Lara €KTp€(f)€iVy oacDV OTTepfxaTLKov T€ TO ydvos iurl Kal 20 jury TO CTcDyna jxeyedo? e;^ei /cat rcbv ttoXvtokojv iariv 8ta. pukv yap to TToXvroKeXv eypv^oipio-v e^^i TT]? varepag, 8ta 8e ro OTrep/xaTt/cov etvat ttoXv TTpoterai TTepirTajjjba ttjs Kaddpaecos' Stct 8e to [mtj TO acoixa jxeyedos ^xetv, dXXa TrAetovt Xoyco ttjv KaOapaiv VTrep^dXXeiv ttjs et? to Kvrjixa Tpo(f>rjg, 25 8waTat t€ avvtaTavat} t,a)a /cat voTepov Kal TavT e/CTpe^etv. eVt 8' at voTepat TOJv tolovtcov ov afjix/ze/xu/caort 8ta to Treptetvat irepiTTCopia ttjs Kadapaews. tovto 8e /cat ctti yyvat/ccDv TJSr) avpL^e^rjKev ylveTat yap tiol Kvovaat,? Kadapcng Kal 8 to, TcXovg. dXXd TauTat? pi€V Trapd <f>vaLV 30 (8t6 /SActTTTet TO Kvrjua), toi? 8e ToiouTot? tcov ^cpiov /caTO, (f)vaiv' ovtco yap to acjjJia avveaTr^Kev i^ dpxrjg, olov to twv SaavTToScov tovto yap eVtKVLGKeTai TO t,a)ov OVTC yap tcov /LteyaAwv eaTt TToAuTO/cov Tc (7roAyo';;^iS€S' ydp, to, 8e 77oAuo;^t87y TToXvTOKa) Kal CTTepfMaTLKov. Sr]XoL 8' rj SaavTTjs' 35 vvep^dXXei ydp tov TpixcofjiaTos to TrXrjdos' Kal ydp VTTO Tovs TTohag Kal ivTOS' tcov yvddcov tovt e-^^i Tpi-)(0-S p-ovov TCOV t,a)cov. r) 8e SaavTrjs orj774 b fielov ttXtjOovs TTepLTTWjJiaTos eaTt, 8io /cat twv ^ avvLardvat, A.-W. : avvLaraadai vulg.

  • I use (a), (6), and (c) to mark respectively the same characteristic all through this passage for clarity of reference.

" Lit., " is seminal " ; i.e., the males abound in semen and the females in menstrual fluid (which is unconcocted semen).

^ i.e., the embryos produced by way of superfetation.



Some of those animals in which superfetation occurs are able to bring to completion the nourishing of their fetatioas even when there is a long interval between the copulations ; these are animals which (a)* belong to some kind which is abundant in semen," (b) are not large in bodily size, and (c) are among those which produce numerous offspring ; the reason being that (c)* because they produce numerous offspring their uterus is roomy, (a) because they are abundant in semen they discharge a great deal of residue by way of evacuation, (6) because they are not large in bodily size, but the evacuation exceeds by a larger measure the nourishment which goes to the fetation, they are able to cause young animals to take shape at the later stage too * and to bring their nourishing to completion. Also, in such animals the uterus does not close up, because there is a surplus amount of residue by way of evacuation. This has occurred to our knowledge in the case of women : in some women evacuation continues throughout the time of pregnancy. In them, however, it is contrary to nature (that is Mhy it injures the fetation) ; but in the animals we are discussing it is natural, because that is the way in which their body took shape from the beginning. The hare is an example of this. This is an animal in which superfetation occurs, for (b)* it is not one of the large animals, (c) it produces numerous offspring (since it is fissipede, and fissipede animals produce numerous offspring), and (a) it is abundant in semen. This is shown by its hairiness. It has an excessive amount of hair ; indeed, it has hair under the feet and inside the jaws, and is the only animal which does so. This hairiness is a sign that it has a large amount of residue ; and for this 453

ARISTOTLE dvdpwTTCov ol Saaelg a(f)podiaiaaTLKol Kal ttoXvairepfjioi fidXXov elai rcbv Xeicov. 6 jxev ovv SaavTTOvg ra juev twv KVT]ixdTcov dreXyj rroXXaKLg ^X^> "^^ 8e TTpoter at TereXeLcofieva rojv reKvcov. VI 5 Tcov Se ijiporoKCOv to. fxev aTeXrj Trpoterai ^coa rd 8e rereXetiofxeva, to, fxev fxcovv^d rereXeicoyieva /cat TO. 8i)(rjXd, rdJv Se TToAucrp^tScov dreXrj rd^ TToXXa. TOVTOV 8' aiTLov OTL rd jjbev iJicovv)(a jxovoTOKa earl, rd 8e Stxy]Xd t) jJiovoTOKa rj hiroKa cLg enl to ttoXv, 10 pdSiov 8e rd oXiya €KTp€(f)€LV. rtov 8e 7ToXvaxt-8d)v oaa dreXrj riKrei, Trdvra TToXvroKa- 8to vea [xev ovra Bvvarat, rd Kvqixara Tp€cf)€iv,^ orav 8' av^rjdfj Kal Xd^rj fxeyedos ov Svvafjievov rod GcvjxaTos eKTp4(f>€iV, TTpoterai Kaddirep rd aKcjXrjKoroKa TOJv t^ojoiv. Kal ydp tovtcdv rd jxev dSLapdpcora a^^^ov 15 yevva, KadaTrep dXd)7T7]^ dpKros Xecov, TTapaTrXrjatcos 8' €via Kal rcbv dXXcov rv<j)Xd 8e Travra ax^Sov, otov ravrd re /cat eVi kvcdv Xvkos dcos. jxovov 8e TToXvroKov ov rj us" TeAetoro/cet, /cat eTTaAAarret tovto jjlovov TroAuro/cet [xev ydp ws rd TToXvaxi'^yj ,^ Slxt^Xov S ecrrt /cat ficovvxov €lgl 20 ydp 7TOV fiwvvx^s veg. iroXvTOKel jxev ovv 8td to ^ TO P : om. viilg.

^ rp€<f>eiv PvS : eKTpi<j)€i,v vulj?.

' CO? TroXva)(i-ifj '/j '• (OS noXvaxt^es PY.

" But see the proviso at 771 b 5 if.

" i.e., in an imperfect condition.

" See H.A. 499 b 12. The solid-hoofed is the more unusual variety. 4<54<



same reason, too, men that are hairy are more prone to sexual intercourse and have more semen than men that are smooth. As for the hare, often some of its fetations are imperfect ; others of its offspring, however, it brings to birth in a perfected state.

Among the \'ivipara, some bring their young to VI birth in a perfect, some in an imperfect, state. To f^^^^j^g the former class belong the solid-hoofed and the at birth, cloven-hoofed animals, to the latter most of the fissipede animals. The reason for this is that the solidhoofed animals produce one at a birth, the clovenhoofed animals produce either one or two, in general,** and it is an easy matter to bring the nourishing of a few to completion. Those fissipede animals which produce their offspring in an imperfect state, all produce numerous offspring, and on that account while the fetations are quite young they are able to nourish them, but once they have advanced in growth and have attained some size their bodies are unable to bring the nourishing of them to completion, and so discharge them just as the larva-producing animals do,*" for indeed their young, like the larvae, are practically unarticulated when born, e.g., those of the fox, the bear, the lion, and similarly with some of the others ; moreover, practically all of them are blind, e.g., the ones just mentioned, and in addition those of the dog, the wolf, and the jackal. The only animal which produces numerous offspring that are perfectly formed is the pig ; thus it is the only one which has a footing in both classes : (a) it produces numerous offspring, as the fissipede animals do, but (6) it is a species which is cloven-hoofed and solid-hoofed - for soUdhoofed pigs exist, as we know. It produces numerous offspring because the nourishment available for 455

774 b

ARISTOTLE TTjV et? TO ixeyedos Tpo^y]V els ttjv aTrepixaTtKrjv aTTOKpiveadai Trepirrcvaiv tovto yap cis jxwvvxov 6V^ ovK e-^ei fxeyedog. a/xa 8e Kal jxaXXov, cjaTrep dn(f)ia^r]Touv rfj cjyvaei Tjj rojv iJLOjvv)(iov, hi)^7]X6v iariv. Sta /xev ovv tovto Kal jJLOvoTOKel ttotc^ Kal 25 SiTOKcl Kal TToXvTOKel TO. TrXeldTa, eVrpe^et S' els reAos" Sta ttjv tou aco/xaros" ev^oaiav e;^ei yap cos TTteipa yrj (jiVToZs iKavrjv Kal baipiXij Tpo(j)rjV.

TiKTOvat S' aTeXrj Kal TV<j)Xa Kal Tchv opvidoiv Tives, oaoi TToXvTOKovaiv avTcbv purj aojpLaTcov e^ovTes /xeye^o?, olov Kopwvrj KiTTa OTpovdol â– )(<eXih6v€s y Kal TCx)v oXiyoTOKovvTCJV oua p.r) Sai/jiXi] 30 Tpo<f)r]v ovveKTLKTeL rot? TeKvoig, olov ^ctrra Kal Tpvyoiv Kal 7TepiaT€pd. Kai Sta tovto tcov X^^'" Sovcov iav Tt? €Ti veojv ovtcdv eKKevTrjcrr^ to. opLjxaTa, TTaXiv vyidt^ovTai- yivop-evajv yap dAA' ov yeyevqpuevcov (jyBeipovTai,^ Sioirep (f)VovTai Kal jSAaara 35 vovaiv e^ dp)(y]S. oXcog Se rrpoTepel [xev TT]>i tcXeioyovias Sta ttjv dhvvapbiav rov iKTpe(j)€U', aTeXrj ^ ov P : oni. vulg. ^ nore P : om. vulg.

' (f>9eipovTai Y : (fjdeipovai P : <f>deipeTai vulg.

" The distinction which Aristotle makes here corresponds to the distinction now made between nidicolous birds (those here described) and nidifugous birds. The former are born blind, the latter can see at birth.

  • Or, magpie. "^ See table of birds, p. 368. ^ i.e., not enough yolk.

  • The origin of this story is not clear. It cannot be true if " put out " means " removed," but lesser degrees of injury might be followed by repair and recovery of function. A somewhat similar phenomenon is the well-known " Wolffian regeneration " in amphibia, where after removal of the lens of the eye a new leas regenerates from the margin of the iris, i.e., from a place other than that of its normal origin,



increase of size is secreted to yield seminal residue - since, for a solid-hoofed animal, the pig is not large in size ; at the same time and more commonly, it is cloven-hoofed, as though it were at odds with the nature of the solid-hoofed animals. On account of this, then, it not only produces sometimes one offspring, and two, but also and for the most part it produces numerous offspring, and it brings their nourishing to completion because of its fine physical condition : it is like a rich soil which can provide plants with sufficient and indeed abundant nourishment.

The offspring of some of the birds also are hatched in an imperfect state, and blind " ; viz. , of those which lay numerous eggs although they themselves are small in physique - e.g., the crow, the jay,* sparrows, and swallows '^ ; and of those birds which lay few eggs and yet do not provide in the egg abundant nourishment'* for the chick - e.g., the ring-dove, the turtle-dove, and the pigeon. And on this account, if the eyes of a swallow are deliberately put out while the bird is still young, they recover, because the injury is inflicted during the process of their formation and not after its completion ; that is why they grow and spring up afresh.* In general, then, the reason why offspring are born early before their formation is perfected, is because of inability to bring their nourishing to completion ; and the reason why they are born in an imperfect state is because they viz., the young skin. This may happen many times in succession if the experiment is repeated. The connexion between regeneration and embryonic growth is well grasped by Aristotle, but there are of course some animals, such as the newts, where the power of regeneration is retained throughout adult life (c/. H.A. 508 b 4> if.).


ARISTOTLE oe yiverat oia to TTporepecv. orjAov oe todto kul 775 a em tcuv eTTTaixrjvcov 8ta yap to dTcXrj elvai ttoX Aa/ci? evLa avrayv yiverat ovhe tovs rropovg e^ovrd TTCO Si-qpdpcofxevov?, olov cvtcdv Kal fXVKT^pa)v, aAA' eTTav^avop.evoLS hiapOpovTai, /cat ^Lovai, iroXXd rcbv roLovrojv.

ViveraL 8e dvairripa fxaWov iv rols dvOpojTTOLs 5 rd dppeva tcov drjXecuv, iv Be rols dXXois ovdev fldXXoV. aiTLOV 8' OTl €V TOLS dvdpOJTTOLg TToXv hia<j)epeL to dppev tov 6-r]Xeos Trj depixoTTjTL tvs (j)vaecx}s, 8to KivrjTiKwrepd eoTi Kvovpueva Ta dppeva tG)v drjXecov Sid 8e to KivelaQai dpaveTai [xaXXov evcf)dapTov^ yap to veov hid Trjv dadevetav. Sta 10 T'qv auTrjv Se TavTrjv alriav Kal TeXeiovrai rd drjXea rolg dppeaiv ovx ofioiws' {at ydp varepai avrcov ovx d/JLOLios exovaiv iv 8e rols aAAots' t,cpois ofjiOLCOs reXeiovraL- ovSev ydp varepeV rd drjXea rcov dppevcov cocrTrep)^ iv rat? yvvai^iv iv jxev ydp rfj [xiqrpl iv rrXeiovi -x^pdvo) StaKpLverat TO drjXv TOV dppevos, i^eXdovai^ 8e rrdvra Trporepov iTTLreXelrai, olov rj^rj Kal aKpirj Kal yrjpag, rols drjXeaiv iq rols dppeaiv dadevearepa ydp ^ ev(f>0aprov PZ : evdpavcrrov vulg.

^ supplevi ; quoniam matrices earum sunt secundum modum divisum (leg. diversum ; v.I. sunt diversae sec. moduni eorum). in aJ'ds autem animalibvs non apparet diversitas in complemento creationis feminarum et masculorum quoniam non est in feminis diminutio a maribus S : in aliis autem animaJibus similiter : nichil enim tardat femeUa plus ma.iculo, sicut in mulieribus GuL Moerb. teste Bussemaker : similia ex Gul. vers, suppleverat Schneider, ed. H.A. vol. iv. 443.

' e^fXdovai. Peck : i^iXdovra PSYZ : e^eXOovrojv Bekker.



are born early. This is plain, indeed, in the case of seven months' children : in some of them, vihen they are born, because they are imperfect, even the passages {e.g., those of the ears and nostrils) are often not yet fully articulated ; as the child grows, however, they become articulated. Many such individuals survive.

In human beings, more males are born deformed than females ; in other animals, there i§ no preponderance either way. The reason is that in human beings the male is much hotter in its nature than the female. On that account male embryos tend to move about more than female ones,** and owing to their moving about they get broken more, since a young creature can easily be destroyed owing to its •weakness. And it is due to this self-same cause that the perfecting of female embryos is inferior to that of male ones, (since their uterus is inferior in condition.* In other animals, however, the perfecting of female embryos is not inferior to that of male ones : they are not any later in developing than the males, as they arey in women, for while still within the mother, the female takes longer to develop than the male does ^ ; though once birth has taken place everything reaches its perfection sooner in females than in males - e.g., puberty, maturity, old age - because females are weaker and colder in ° Cf. H.A. 584 a 26 flF.

  • i.e., it is colder, because the nature of women is colder than that of other female animals, as is stated immediately above, and below ; cf. also 776 a 10, where women are said to be alone in suffering from uterine affections, again owing to lack of heat, resulting in inability to concoct ; and 775 a 30 ff.

' See app. crit. " Cf. H.A. 583 b 22 ff.


775 a

ARISTOTLE 15 ear I Kal ifjvxporepa ra d-qXea rrfv (f)vaiv, Kal Set VTToXan^dveiv woTrep avaTrripiav elvai rrjv diqXvrrjra (^vaiKrjv. eaoj [xev ovv hiaKplverai S«x ttjv tpvXporrjTa jSpaSeto? {rj yap Sta/c/atai? Tresis' iorl, TxeVrei 8' r} BepfjiOTrjg, €Vtt€7ttov Se ro depfiorepov), CKTog Se Sia ttjv dadeveiav rayy avvaTrrei Trpos 20 TTiv aKfJirp^ Kal to yrjpas- navra yap rd iXdrTCD irpos TO reXos €p)(€Tai ddrrov, coaTrep Koi iv rols Kara rexi-"f]v epyois, /cat ev tols vtto ^vaecDS avvtCTTajLteVots". Sta ro elprjixivov 8' atrtov /cat ev fjiev ToZs dvdpcoTTOLS rd hthviioroKovpueva drjXv /cat dppev rjrrov acol^erai, iv 8e rot? aAAot? ovdev 25 ^rrov rot? jxev ydp irapd <f)vaiv ro IcroSpofieiv, OVK iv laoLs ;^/OovotS" ytvoixivrjg rrjg Sta/cptcreo)?, (xAA dvdyKT] ro dppev varepeXv rj ro drjXv Trporepelv, iv 8e Tot? aAAot? ov irapd (f)vaiv. avp^^aivei he /cat Sia(f>opd irepl to.? Kyrjaeis irri re rcov dvdpu)TTa>v /cat iirl rcov dXXcov t,(x)OiV rd p,ev ydp 30 evdrjvel fidXXov rot? aa>p,aai rdv nXelarov xP^^ov, rdjv 8e yvvatKwv at TroAAat hva<j)opovai Trepl rrjv Kvr]aLV. eart jxev ovv atrcov ri rovrov^ /cat 8ta rov ^iov ehpaZai ydp ovaat, irXeiovos yifiovai TTepirrojpiaros , errei, iv oi? edveai TTOvqriKos 6 rdv yvvaiKwv ^tos, ovd" -q /curjcrts" opioloog iTTtSrjXog 35 eari, riKrovai re pahioig /ca/cet /cat iravraxov at ^ Tovrov Platt : tovtcdv vulg.

» Cf. 767 b 9, and see Introd. § 13. 460


their nature ; and we should look upon the female state as being as it were a deformity, though one which occurs in the ordinary course of nature." WTiile it is >vithin the mother, then, it develops slowly on account of its coldness, since development is a sort of concoction, concoction is effected by heat, and if a thing is hotter its concoction is easy ; when, however, it is free from the mother, on account of its weakness it quickly approaches its maturity and old age, since inferior things all reach their end more quickly, and this applies to those which take their shape under the hand of Nature just as much as to the products of the arts and crafts. The reason which I have just stated accounts also for the fact that (a) in human beings twins survive less well if one is male and the other female, but (6) in other animals they survive just as well : in hiunan beings it is contrary to nature for the two sexes to keep pace with each other, male and female requiring unequal periods for their development to take place ; the male is bound to be late or the female early ; whereas in the other animals equal speed is not contrary to nature. There is also a difference between human beings and the other animals with regard to gestation. Other animals are most of the time in better physical condition, whereas the majority of women suffer discomfort in connexion with gestation. Now the cause of this is to some extent attributable to their manner of life, which is sedentary, and this means that they are full of residue ; they have more of it than the other animals. This is borne out by the case of those tribes where the women live a life of hard work. With such women gestation is not so obvious, and they find deUvery an easy business. And so do women everywhere who 461


775 a

etcodvtai TTOvelv avaXlaKet yap 6 ttovos to. TrepirTioixara, rat? 8 ehpatais evvnapxct rroXXa Toiavra oia TTjv aTTOviav koL to p,rj yiveadai Kadapaeis 775 b Kvovaatg, r] re cuSts iirkTrovos ianv 6 Se ttovos yvfivd^€L TO 7TV€Vfia cucTTC ^vvaaOai Karex^Lv, iv o) TO TLKTeiv ear I. paSitog •^ p^aAeTrcDs". can [xev ovv, a)a7T€p etprjrai, /cat TauTa crvfx^aXXopLeva irpo? rrjv Sia(f)opav rov rrddovs rots dXXoig ^<pois Kal Tat? 5 yvvai^i, piaXuara 8' OTt toi? /xev avrcov oXiyrj yiverai Kadapaig, rols 8' ovk erriSrjXos oXcos, raXg 8e yvvat^L irXelarrj rwv l^cocov, coare [xrj yLvopbevqg rrjs eKKpiaeoJS 8ia rrjv Kvrjaiv raig pLev rapax^jv TTapexef /cat yap pLrj KvovaaLS, orav at KaOdpcret? pLY] yiyvcovrai, voaot, avp^alvovaiv Kal ro Trpivrov 10 Be rapdrrovrai avXXa^ovaai} pidXXov at rrXeZarai, ra>v yvvaLKcov ro yap Kvr]p,a KcxjXvetv pLCv Bvvarai to.? Kaddpaeig, Sta pii.Kp6rr)ra Se ov8ev dvaXiaKei â– nXfjOo^ rod rrepirrcLparo? ro Trpcbrov, varepov he Kov(f)L^eL pieraXap^avov ev he roig dXXoig t,cpoLg hid 15 TO oAtyov etP'ai avp-perpov yiverat rrpos rrjv av^rjaw roiv ipL^pvcDV, Kal dvaXiaKopievwv rcov Trepirro)pdrcov rdJv epLTToht^ovrojv rrjv rpO(f>rjv evrjpepel rolg acopLaai pidXXov. Kal ev rots evvhpoig rov avrov rpoTTOv Kal ev rols opviaiv. rjhr^ he p,eydXcov yivopievwv rtov Kvqpidrajv, ocroLS pL7]Keri avp^aivei ^ avXXaPovaai P : avXXafipdvovaai vulg.

" Cf. H.A. 587 a 1 ff., and see Le somno et vig. 456 a 16 " strength is required for causing ' movement,' and strength 462


are used to hard work. The reason is that the effort of working uses up the residues, whereas sedentary women have a great deal of such matter in their bodies owing to the absence of effort, as well as to the cessation of the menstrual discharges during gestation, and they find the pains of delivery severe. Hard work, on the other hand, gives the breath {pneuma) exercise, so that they can hold it ° ; and it is this which determines whether delivery is easy or difficult. All these things, then, as we have said, are in their way factors producing the difference in gestation as between women and the other animals ; but the chief one is that whereas in some animals there is but little menstrual evacuation, and in others no \isible evacuation at all, in women it is greater in volume than in any other animal ; and the result of this is that when it is not being discharged o\^-ing to pregnancy it causes them trouble (and indeed even apart from pregnancy, when the menstrual discharge fails to take place diseases are the result) ; and most women are troubled in this way rather more at the beginning, just after they have conceived, because although the fetation is able to prevent the evacuation, yet as it is so small it does not at first use up any amount of the residue ; afterwards, when it does take up some of it, it relieves the trouble. In the other animals, however, as there is but little of it, its amount is just right for the growth of the embryos ; and as the residues which obstruct the nourishment get used up, the animals are in better physical condition. The same applies to water-animals and to birds. The reason why some animals are no longer in good is supplied bv the holding of the breath." Cf. also 3/../. 703 a 18, 9 ; P. A. 659 b 18, 667 a 29 ; and App. B §§ 22 ff.


ARISTOTLE 775 b , , ,, .

20 rj evrpocpLa tcui^ acofxarcov, alriov to rrjv av^rjaiv Tov KvrjuaTO? SeiadaL ttXclovo? t)* rrjs Trepirrco /xari/CT^s- Tpo(f)rj?. oAtyais" 8e rtat rtuv' yvvaiKajv piXriov ^X^^^ "^^ awfjiara avyi^aivei Kvovcrat? aural S etcriv oaaig jJiiKpa to. TrepLTTiopbara ev ro) crojixari, coare KaravaXiaKeadai jLierct rrjg ets" to efi^pvov Tpocf)ijs.

VII 25 riept Se t'^s' KaXovfJbevrjs pLvXrjs prjreov, rj ytVerat fiev oXiyaKis rais yvvai^i, yiverai 84 riai tovto to TTados Kvovaais- tlktovgl yap o 'KaXovai pvXiqv.

rjSr] yap avve^rj rcvl yvvaiKL avyyevopLevij tco dvSpl Kal ho^darj avXXa^elv, to /xev Trpcbrov 6 re oyKog 7]v^dv€TO rrjs yaarpos Kal TdAAa iyiyvero 30 waTo, Xoyov, irrel Se o XP^^^^ W "^^^ tokov, ovt" €TLKrev ovT€ 6 oyKos eXdrr ojv iyivero, dXX errj rpia 7] rerrapa ovroi Stere'Aet, eo)? hvaevrepias yevopevqg Kal KcvSvvevaaaa vtt' avrrj? ereKc adpKa â– ^v KoXovaL fivXrjv. en Se /cat avyKarayiqpdaKei Kal avvajTodvqaKeL tovto to Trddos- to. Se 6vpat,e 35 i^LovTa TOJv tolovtcdv yiveTai OKXrjpa ovtcjos axjTe p.6Xts htaKOTTTeadai Kal aiSrjpco. rrepL p.ev ovv ttj? TOV rrddovs aiTta? elprjTai ev toX? TTpo^X-^fxaacv 776 a rrdax^t yap TavTov to Kvrjpa ev ttj jjL-qTpa oirep ev TOLS eijjopevocs to.,eva,^ Kal ov Sia depfxoTTjTa, uiOTxep Tive<s <f)aut.v, dXXd pidXXov St' daOeveiav depjXOTrjTOS (eot/ce yap rj cf)vaLS dSv ^ â– ^ PZ : om. vulg. * fioX. codd.

" The uterine hydatiform mole, deciduoma, etc., are tumours of the uterine wall ; they occur spontaneously and can be produced experimentally by mechanical stimulus, given the right glandular conditions. 464



physical condition when the fetations are becoming sizable is that the growth of the fetation needs more nourishment than that afforded bv the residue. There are some few women Mho are in better physical condition during pregnancy. This occurs with those whose bodies contain but small amounts of residue, and as a result this is completely used up together with the nourishment that goes to the embrA'o.

We now have to treat of the mola uteri,'^ as it is VII called. This occurs in women occasionally only, but it *^° "^ does occur in some during pregnancy. Thev bring forth a " mola." It has been known to happen, in the case of a woman who has had intercourse and thinks she has conceived, that her figure has increased to begin with, and all the rest has proceeded as expected, but when the time for her delivery was at hand, she has neither brought anything to birth nor yet has the size of her girth decreased ; instead, she has continued in that condition for three or four vears, till she was seized with dysentery which brought her to a dangerous pass, and then she has produced a flesh}- mass, known as a " mola." Sometimes, also, this condition lasts on into old a