Paper - Charles Sedgwick Minot. An Address (1916)
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Charles Sedgwick Minot
An address by Frederic T. Lewis,
Vice-President of the American Association of Anatomists, delivered at the New Haven meeting of the Association,
December 28, 1915.
The thirty-first session of the American Association of Anatomists, notwithstanding its large attendance, the excellence of the papers presented, and the notable hospitality of Washington University, was characterized by a pervasive sense of depression, due in part to the blighting effect of the European war and in part to the recent death of our leader — by common consent the foremost American anatomist. It is fittingly recorded in the minutes of that meeting, that as President and Member of the Executive Committee, his brilliant and constructive mind has guided the affairs of the Society with marked success, directing forward the long advance of national science. So broad were his biological interests that the physiologists also regarded him as of their number, and at the opening meeting of the American Physiological Society in St. Louis, Prof. Frederic S. Lee delivered a memorial address. At the same time, in Philadelphia, the American Association for the Advancement of Science expressed its sense of irreparable loss. These resolutions, and the impressive record of Dr. Minot's achievements as presented by Professor Cattell, the sensitive personal tributes of Professor Donaldson, the keen analysis of his work by Professor Porter, and the exposition of the mental and moral qualities which made him what he was, by President Eliot, are all before us; and yet this Association gladly sets apart a time for grateful reminiscence and informal consideration of one who was peculiarly our own.
Among the books which Dr. Minot read throughout, marking many passages, was Galton's Hereditary Genius. As recently as 1909, he wrote what is essentially a review of it, for publication in the Youth's Companion, "ability of all orders tends to be inherited," he states at the outset, adding, We commit, perhaps, no injustice towards Mr. Galton if we surmise that the theory first arose in his mind on the contemplation of his own family, many members of which are distinguished/' Similar considerations may very reasonably have led to Dr. Minot's acquiescence, and doubtless he contemplated, with no little curiosity, .the references to his own family history in the current magazines and works on eugenics.
Professor Minot's most distinguished ancestor was Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758), a graduate of Yale in the class of 1720. The historian, Fiske, declares that the more one considers Edwards the more colossal and astonishing he seems. He regards him as one of the wonders of the world, probably the greatest intelligence that the Western Hemisphere has yet seen.
Although Professor Minot is in the fifth generation from Jonathan Edwards, their features, a^ seen in familiar portraits, have certain resemblances. Holmes describes Edwards as possessing "a high forehead, a calm steady eye, and a small rather prim mouth with something about it of the unmated and no longer youthful female." No reference is made to the rather long well-modelled nose, which is much like that of his descendant. Even though a beard conceals the mouth in Dr. Minot's portrait, there is altogether a comparable primness. But whether or not this facial resemblance is objective, these two relatives are alike in possessing the inquiring analytical mind of the naturalist. Professor Minot's early papers on insects may be compared with Edwards's astonishing paper on spiders, believed to have been written when he was not more than twelve years old.
On clear autumn days Edwards saw the air filled with shining webs and observed that — Very Often there appears at the end of these Webs a Spider floating and sailing with them." In order to explain this flight he secured spiders of various sizes and provoked them to let out their webs. In all Probability," he writes, "the web while it is in the Spider is a certain liquor with which that Great bottle tail of theirs is fiUd which immediately upon its being exposed to the air turns to a Dry Substance and very much rarifies." He saw the way in which the air currents caught the webs as they were let out and finally snapped them, so that from sticks held in his hand, the spiders "mounted away into the air with a Vast train of Glistening web before them:'
These beautifully accurate observations and experiments, recorded with sketches, amply justify Professor Packard's opinion that in another age and under other training Edwards might have been a naturalist of a high order.
Among all the available records left by Dr. Minot's ancestors, this manuscript of Edwards's alone shows the same type of mind, coupled with extraordinary ability and identity of interests. But is this more than a remarkable coincidence, of which the maze of genealogy presents so many examples? It must be admitted that Huxley's early dictmn that the production of men of genius becomes hereditary, not by physical propagation, but by the help of language, letters, and the printing press," pounds strangely antiquated. The descendants of Jonathan Edwards have been so conspicuously talented and intellectual that their family history has been carefully studied by genealogists. If their conclusions are to be accepted, the source of Professor Minot's ability should be sought not only in Jonathan Edwards but in Edwards's antecedents. Some assert that it came from Jonathan's mother Esther, but others revert to his grandparents — ^Richard Edwards, a merchant of Hartford, Conn., and Elizabeth Tuttle, his wife, who is credited with the nervous, sensitive and excitable temperament of genius." Thus Dr. Davenport declares — "Had Elizabeth Tuttle not been, this nation would not occupy the position in culture and learning that it now does." (Heredity in Relation to Eugenics, p. 228.)
It is surprising that in order to show that the production of gifted men depends upon careful marital selection, this union which no eugenist could recommend is the most frequently cited American example. Without considering further the story of Elizabeth Tuttle, we may venture an opinion that her importance has been overestimated, and in regard to Dr. Minot we may ascribe to her that proportion of his inherited qualities which, according to Galton's law, she was entitled to transmit.
In addition to the Edwards family, Dr. Minot is descended from many others which are old and highly honored in New England. From the time when Col. Stephen Minot was selectman of the town of Boston and member of a committee to draw up its charter of incorporation, the Minots have been prominent as merchants and lawyers of Boston, always active for civic betterment. Dr. Minot's grandmother Minot was the daughter of Daniel Davis, Solicitor-General of Massachusetts, and granddaughter of Judge Davis of Barnstable, member of the Provincial Congress. On his mother's side, his grandfather, Charles Sedgwick, was a lawyer of Lenox, Mass., the son of Theodore Sedgwick, a friend of Washington, Senator from Massachusetts, and Speaker of the national House of Representatives. Dr. Minot's grandmother Sedgwick was the daughter of Hon. Josiah Dwight of Northhampton, State Treasurer of Massachusetts.
It may be of interest to note that although there were no anatomists among Dr. Minot's antecedents, Prof. Thomas Dwight was his fourth cousin; Dr. Leonard Williams and Dr. Minot were both descendants of Timothy Edwards; and George Lewis was a common ancestor of Dr. Minot, Dr. Winslow Lewis (an early demonstrator of anatomy). Dr. Warren Lewis, and the writer. Professor Kingsbury also is remotely a kinsman of Dr. Minot. But among Dr. Minot's progenitors there were neither anatomists nor physicians. Their predominant legal training and legislative services are very striking. Dr. Minot's deviation from the traditional occupation may be partly explained by the fondness for nature manifested by both of his parents.
Professor Minot's father, William Minot, was born in Boston. The tide-waters of the Charles afforded him excellent fishing and the occasional excitement of seeing a seal, as he has carefully recorded. In his biographical notes he writes — I had a natural fondness for shooting, and as soon as I was old enough, I procured a small gun; adding — I am fortunate in that the taste for it has continued unabated in my old age. At Nantucket he once shot sixty-seven black-breasted plovers in a day, and at Swan Island, of ducks, one hundred and eight. Then in 1880, he published an admirable paper on game protection, advocating national as well as state legislation, which should be based on scientific knowledge and observation. He desired to see a gradual extinction of the instinctive habit of pursuit and destruction." With evident satisfaction, he states that all his children acquired an early fondness for nature and out-of-door life. '* My children's love of nature," Mr. Minot continues, was developed by their mother's tastes. No day passed without her getting interest and pleasure from its out-of-door changes of expression and character. In our holidays she was our constant companion."
So it happened that Mr. and Mrs. Minot selected for themselves and their children a beautiful and extensive estate in West Roxbury. The place, a high plateau covered with a pine forest, was very secluded and quite in the country. For four miles, toward Dedham, the woods were almost continuous, and hardly a house was to be seen; birds of all kinds were abundant and in some simmiers, as Mr. Minot has recorded, forty or fifty nests could be counted in our grounds." At Woodbourne, as this estate, was named, Dr. Minot was born on the twenty-third of December, 1852.
It is interesting to note the varying degrees in which Mr. Minot's sons responded to their opportunities for studying and enjoying nature. All of them liked the country and William, the eldest, was a keen sportsman and his father's companion on many expeditions. Henry, who was younger than Charles, did not care to shoot or collect birds, but he studied them with great ability, and at seventeen, had completed his well-known book entitled Land-Birds and Game-Birds of New England. He was an accurate observer, and gave promise of a notable career in science, had such been chosen. But he became interested in the construction of railroads and was soon the youngest railroad president in the United States. To Charles alone did the beauty and the problems of organic life appeal with irresistible compulsion — not as a mere source of recreation, nor as an occupation which brooked a rival, but as the one great theme worthy of life-long study and devotion. This was more than his father had anticipated, and apparently with some apprehension, the family obi^erved what IVIV-^- i \)in\- id-on describes as the sorious wa}'* in which ho tf>' ^ !u^ Snji'^uyj and his adoption of a precarious profe*^sioii.
It may be said that Dr. Minot began his scientific career in July, 1868, by joining the Boston Society of Natural History, then under the presidency of Jeffries Wyman, and including Scudder, Putnam, Hyatt, Packard, Verrill, Wilder and Morse among its officers. Although but fifteen years old, he became at once an active member, and the report of the September meeting of the Section on Entomology includes the following brief but correct communication :
Mr. C. S. Minot stated that there were three broods of Chrysophcmus americanusy one appearing early in May, the second in July and the third the last of August. The insects of the first brood cUffer from those of the other two in wanting the row of red spots on the imder side of the secondaries.
In the following year he described the previously unrecorded male of Hesperia metea Scudd., a small butterfly which he had collected in Dorchester; and in another brief paper he considered the great difference in the number of species in various genera of insects, regretting that there were so many which contained only one, two, or three species. At this time his father wrote:
I must add that Charles is thoughtful and industrious about the place and has worked some days like a beaver, doing a deal of sodding and re-graveling, and generally getting the place in good order. In fact he has had an unexpected eye to everything and is an argus after bugs, of course; but what did surprise me were two modest well-expressed and mature articles on scientific subjects published in one of the scientific journals. I saw them by accident; hedidnH tell of them. I could scarcely believe he wrote them, they were so good.
In 1868, the year in which Dr. Minot joined the Society of Natural History, he was admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It was required for admission that candidates should be sixteen years of age and should pass satisfactorily in arithmetic, algebra, plane geometry, English grammar and geography. Dr. Minot was admitted before he was sixteen. He could not have entered the Scientific School of Harvard Uni CHARLES SEDGWICK MINOT 139
versity until he was eighteen; and although there was no age requirement for Harvard College, it is improbable that he could have passed the entrance examinations without longer preparation. These examinations included not only all the subjects required by the Institute (with the substitution of '^ reading English aloud" for English granamar), but also ancient history, both Latin and Greek granmiar and composition, parts of the Iliad and the Anabasis, Caesar's Conmientaries, selected orations of Cicero, and the whole of Virgil. Therefore, although natural history was such a flourishing department at Harvard, with Asa Gray and Louis Agassiz at its head, its approach was so guarded by requirements in classics, both before and after admission, that Dr. Minot chose the Institute; and since a natural history curriculum had not been established there, he selected chemistry as his major subject. Perhaps his most influential teacher at the Institute of Technology was Edward Pickering, the astronomer, who was then professor of physics. In his department Dr. Minot prepared a simple apparatus for micro-photography and made a number of pictures of the parts of insects. An account of this work is included in the Reports of the President and Departments of the Institute for 1871-72. Dr. Minot completed his course with a good record and received the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1872, being the youngest member of his class. He was always a loyal alumnus, and never approved of the Harvard A.B. as a preparation for scientific studies '* unless that degree represents adequate courses in chemistry, physics, biology, French and German. In fact these courses, without the A.B. degree, seemed to him sufficient.
While an undergraduate. Dr. Minot continued to publish notes on entomology, including the description of several new species of geometrid moths, which were, perhaps, his favorite group. At the same time Dr. Minot was reading very carefully the great works on evolution. Huxley's Man^s Place in Nature was given him by an aunt at Christmas, in 1869. On the blank pages at the end, he wrote a terse summary, beginning Herein is shown — " and concluding " In fine, man, tho' at the head of the family, is an ape;" but he adds — "The structural formation of the organs of speech is not herein treated of and exandned/^ and he notes that the human brain-size consistent with sanity is greater than that of the gorilla and asks how did man bridge this hiatus?" Doubtless Dr. Minot had read Darwin's Origin of Species and many other scientific works before this. Beginning in 1870 he kept a record, showing that with much of the best general literature, he read while at the Institute many numbers of Nature, Huxley's Lay Sermons and Elementary Physiology, Darwin's Descent of Man, Lubbock's Origin of Civilization, Tyson's Cell Doctrine and Alexander Agassiz's Marine Animals and the Embryology of the Star Fish. The effect of this early reading is evident throughout Dr. Minot's career. It were wiser," he said, "to take out the mainspring from a watch than to eliminate evolution from biology." Of Darwin, he writes (1885) "We are already able to appreciate the directness and force of his intellect, his noble candor, and above all, his insatiable love of knowledge and research;'*' and Huxley, he declares, "has carried scientific writing to unsurpassed excellence. His Lay Sermons are masterpieces.
In the fall of 1872, having obtained the degree of B.S., Dr. Minot could enter the graduate school of Harvard College. There he became one of three candidates for the degree of S.D. in natural history, the others being his friend Faxon, the zoologist, and Shaler, the geologist. Unfortunately the records do not show what studies were taken. There was some work with Louis Agassiz, who had just returned from the Hassler expedition with an abundance of material, and at that time Dr. Minot read his Essay on Classification. In the following summer both Faxon and Minot were with Agassiz at Penikese. Apparently some botany was studied, for Gray's Lessons were read in February, but descriptive phanerogamic botany did not meet with Dr. Minot's approval. It happened, however, that Prof. Henry P. Bowditch had returned from Europe in 1871 and had established his physiological laboratory at the Harvard Medical School. Although Dr. Bowditch was considerably older than Dr. Minot, the families had always known each other, and perhaps it was personal acquaintance which led Dr. Minot to become Bowditch's first research pupil. Admission to his laboratorywas a revelation, and teacher nnd pupil became the warmest friends. Ever afterwards, Dr. Minot enjoyed Bowditch's sympathy, interest, and appreciation, to which he responded with life-long respect and admiration. The experiments which they performed dealt with the influence of anaesthetics on the vasomotor centres," and the results were published in a joint paper in 1874. The experiments were probably largely by Minot, but as Dr. Porter states, the publication itself bears unmistakably the marks of Bowditch's style and hand.
Dr. Bowditch had recently returned from the laboratory of the renowned Carl Ludwig, and it can readily be inferred why Dr. Minot gave up, for the time being, his candidacy for the S.D. degree and set out for Leipzig in 1873. He had fulfilled one of the required three years of study.
At Leipzig in October, he began a long course of German reading, and entered at once upon his physiological studies under Ludwig. At Ludwig's suggestion, he investigated the formation of carbon dioxide in resting and active muscle, the results of which were published in 1876; and in later years he referred to Professor Ludwig as the greatest teacher of the art of scientific research whom he had ever known.- But he did not limit his studies to physiology. In December of 1873, he had apparently begun his investigations with the distinguished professor of zoology at Leipzig, Rudolf Leuckart. These studies were chieflj'^ on the structure and classification of the lower worms, and led to several publications. In December of this eventful year the death of Agassiz occurred in Cambridge, and Dr. Minot received a letter from his father containing the following interesting comments:
You were among his last pupils. It is too soon for any just estimate of Agassiz's life and service to science, but no doubt he did more than any one else in this centiuy to transplant to America enthusiasm* for scientific investigation. Your own choice of life is probably as much due to his indirect influence as to any other source, except your predisposing tastes.
Next Tuesday is your birthday — your majority. How thankful I am for your good character, high aims, and excellent promise, for your affectionate disposition, love of home, ajid generous ambition! You have a bright prospect before you. , Your labors will always have your heart in them, and your acquisitions will every day enlarge your horizon over the illimitable kingdom of Nature.
Throughout the spring of 1874 Dr. Minot remained at Leipzig, continuing his physiological and zoological studies, and reading von Baer's Entwickelungsgeschichte, which served as the foundation for his embryological work. Later, while in Germany, he read von Baer's autobiography and addresses, and regarded him henceforth as "the greatest embryologist." In the summer, however, work was laid aside for a pedestrian trip in Switzerland, with Mr. Faxon. Professor Mosso, a fellow student under Ludwig, was another of Dr. Minot's companions on such expeditions, and a close friend. This friendship doubtless led to the deep interest which Dr. Minot took in Italian literature, both general and scientific.
After another term at Leipzig, during which Dr. Minot read His's Unsere Korperform, he went to Paris in the spring of 1875, and studied some months with Ranvier. Here he learned important methods in histological technique which he applied to the study of the water-beetle Hydrophilus, and this work was published in the following year. He then returned to his headquarters at Leipzig, but spent the winter of 1875-76 at Wurzburg in Professor Semper's laboratory. Here he studied Leydig's ^'invaluable Lehrbuch der Histologic and made serial sections of worms, thus perfecting his training in histological technique. Finally he returned to Leipzig for the summer of 1876, and then, after three years of European study, back to Boston in the fall.
No time was to be lost. Dr. Minot proceeded to publish the results of his investigations in a variety of papers. An abstract of Dr. Lessor's lecture on auto-transfusion was sent to the Medical and Surgical Journal. The Society of Natural History listened to a paper on the classification of worms. In the American Naturalist, Leyser's primitive sliding microtome was described under the title. The sledge microtome; and two papers were devoted to an enthusiastic account of the study of zoology in Germany, with sweeping criticisms of American institutions. To obtain the degree of S.D., however, another year of resident study was required, and it was specified that Dr. Minot should take a course in anatomy at the medical college and do further work in Dr. Bowditch's laboratory. It is probable that he took the course in gross anatomy, with human dissection, under Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, but the record is not definite, and it is evident that Dr. Minot did very little work in gross himian anatomy. With Dr. Bowditch he performed experiments on tetanus, which were published in full. This research is characterized by Professor Porter as " ingenious, laborious, meticulous, a conscientious collection of crumbs left by those earlier at the feast. With this array of publications, in place of the usual thesis, Dr. Minot took his final examination in 1878, and received the degree of Doctor of Science from Harvard University. Unfortunately the record of that interesting occasion was never written out by the secretary.
Fig. 1 "Anatomy of the Gunner, male." Drawn by C. S. Minot for Packard's "Zoology." (Henry Holt and Company, 1879.)
For two years after receiving his degree, Dr. Minot remained without any position and apparently was still uncertain as to what he should do. This interval, however, was spent in active scientific work. Professor Packard in 1879 published his Zoology, and to this Dr. Minot contributed a series of engravings of the anatomy of vertebrates, one of which is here reproduced as an example of his early drawings. They were accompanied with short accounts of the viscera shown m the dissections. Dr. Minot likewise collaborated with Professor Packard in writing the reports on the Rocky Mountain Locust, issued by the Entomological Commission at Washington. Dr. Minot's part was to describe the histology of the locust and cricket, and this is said to be his most important entomological work, still being used as a laboratory guide and book of reference.
In these years Dr. Minot began to formulate the great problem which was at the center of all his later work — an insoluble problem, but one which, as he declared, should be regarded as the object of all botanical and zoological studies. This is no less than the ultimate and essential nature of life. It was approached, in 1879, by stating the conditions to be filled by a theory of life. Consciousness, growth, senescence and rejuvenation, and heredity must all be explained in conformity with the cellular structure. Since this involves physiological and psychological studies, as well as those purely morphological. Dr. Minot made frequent excursions into other fields. But morphology was now his chosen science. He read scientific memoirs incessantly and announced that he was preparing a large work on comparative histology.
Up to the time of Dr. Minot's appointment as a lecturer at the Harvard Medical School (in 1880) his microscopic studies had been almost entirely of invertebrates. But he had proposed several new terms and radical hypotheses of general application. He had rejected Haeckel's gastraea theory, and had named the two-layered stage of the embryo, the diaderm (1877). In 1879, he stated that the primitive cells of the mesoderm are amoeboid in character, and for them he proposed the name of mesamoeboids. The sexual cells he called genohlastSj and his original hypothesis concerning them was illustrated by a diagram here reproduced as figure 2. All cells of the body were regarded as "hermaphrodite or neuter — sexless," since they contain both male and female elements (fig. 2, A). In producing a female cell, or thelyblast, Dr. Minot believed that the male elements, or arsenoblasts, were removed in several parts, which formed the polar globules (fig. 2, B). Adopting Kolliker^s conclusion of 1847 that spermatozoa arose in vesicles or cells, he considered that the male portion of such a cell became separated as several arsenoblasts or spermatozoa, leaving behind the nucleated remainder of the cyst as a female cell or thelyblast (fig. 2, C). By the imion of an arsenoblast and thelyblast, a neuter cell, the fertilized ovum, would be produced. According to Wilson, this ingenious view was independently advocated by Van Beneden in 1883," but for reasons now obvious it has been abandoned.
The appointments at the Harvard Medical School which Dr. Minot received in 1880 were "procured for him with some difficulty." Because of his scientific attainments he had the support of President Eliot. Professor Bowditch was his friend; and an uncle, Dr. Francis Minot, was Hersey Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic. But there was opposition to the appointment on the Medical Faculty of one who was not a physician and who had no intention of becoming one, but who had for years been fitting himself to become a professional zoologist. Semper had taught Dr. Minot that medical men are all spoilt zoologists, and Dr. Minot said significantly of Huxley — '^He might have been a successful physician, but in that case what a rich vein of mental treasure would have been buried beyond recovery." So it resulted that Dr. Minot was given the absurd position of Instructor in Oral Surgery and Pathology in the dental school. At the same time he was appointed Lecturer on Embryology in the medical school, but without being admitted to the faculty. From the catalogue of the dental school it appears that Dr. Minot's first class consisted of four students, who were taught the use of the microscope and the preparation of sections, in connection with lectures on the finer structure and development of the teeth. At the medical school Dr. Minot gave a few lectures, but there was no separate examination in embryology. Instead, the subject was covered by the twentieth question on Professor Bowditch's paper, which reads — How is the pleuroperitoneal cavity formed in the embryo?
Fig. 2 ^Diagrams to show the relation of the sexual products to cell?. A, an ordinary cell; B, egg with polar globules; C, spermatocyst with spermatozoa." (American Naturalist, 1880, vol. 13, p. 106.)
Year by year Dr. Minot increased the number of his lectures, and in 1883 he was appointed Instructor in Histology and Embryology. In the following year, with Dr. Quincy, he was in charge of laboratory exercises in histology twice a week, and his work at the dental school was then discontinued. In his first lecture after his appointment as instructor, he announced that embryology would enable the student who has been seeking his way through the mazes of adult anatomy by sheer force of memory to have a mental picture which is at once clear, interesting and correct. '^ In later addresses (1899) he expressed his conviction that *'far more time is usually devoted to anatomy than is advantageous to the student ;^^ and in 1890 he declared that unless the student betakes himself to embryology, his anatomy will be no better than a stupid system of mnemonics. Doubtless enough has been said to show Dr. Minot's point of view toward medicine, and to explain why certain of his colleagues felt it their duty to prevent his control of the department of anatomy. Dr. Minot's first publication from the department of histology and embryology of the Harvard Medical School was on the seminal vesicles of guinea-pigs (in 1885), and the second was on the skin of insects. So Dr. Minot was reminded that the first duty of the medical school is to train practitioners of medicine. *' A platitude, he replied, but in conversation he added — Professors are very difficult to get along with; they not only have opinions, but have reasons for their opinions."
Gradually Dr. Minot's work changed, and conformed to a greater extent with that of a medical school. His studies on the classification of worms ended in 1885 with an account of the Vermes in the Standard Natural History, edited by his friend Professor Kingsley. In this same year Dr. Minot likewise completed his studies of the structure of insects, by writing an account of the anatomy of the cotton worm. Meanwhile most, but not all, his new species had 'gone into the synonymy' where he had helped to place others. In 1884, at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, he urged a return to the Linnaean system of nomenclature, of which he says, We have retained the form but rejected the principle. He believed that the present method of determining species was "thoroughly unscientific" and that "species will all have to be redetermined." His farewell to systematic zoology was expressed to Professor Kingsley in the following "original poem."
Classification is vexation.
Taxonomy is as bad; Priority doth puzzle me,
And trinomials drive me mad.
An unexpected departure from anatomical studies occurred at this time. It was foreshadowed in 1880 in his review of Mosso's investigations, by means of a plethysmograph, of the changes in the circulation during cerebral activity. In this review Dr. Minot writes:
Although psychology is usually regarded as a department of philosophy, it is certainly more completely a natural science, since it deals with natural events, which are learned by direct observation, and which we coordinate by our reason .... During the new phase, into which psychology has apparently entered, the principal problems will probably concern the relation of mind to the substratum of matter in which it displays itself.
In 1884, he declared that to study scientifically the obscure and abnormal so-called psychical phenomena was a moral duty for those gifted with a clearer intelligence and purer moral sense. So he became a member of the organizing conunittee of the American Society for Psychical Research, and for the following review of his work in this direction we are indebted to Professor Yerkes.
To the study of telepathy, muscle reading, the number habit, superstitions, and other phenomena, Dr. Minot gave close and critical attention, bringing to bear upon the problem? the thoroughness and impartiality of method which characterize all of his research.
During the ten years from 1884 to 1894, Professor Minot for the Society conducted a number of special investigations, the reports of which are of obvious scientific value. It is from them clear that he long remained open-minded and hopeful that important truth concerning fundamental action* might be revealed. Especially interesting are his reports on diagram tests and number habits. These show his admirable spirit of scientific research most effectively.
During the decade in question, his writings indicate that his attitude toward psychical research gradually changed, and in an article entitled The Psychical Comedy, published in 1895, in the North American Review, we find him reacting vigorously against the unscientific methods of psychical investigators. It is foolish to search for marvels. The wise search for truth. Yet there are many who have done and are stUl doing the former, and in so far as they are seeking to find marvelous faculties of the human mind they are performers in the psychical comedy and their acts and opinions form the basis of this article."
Having become convinced by his contact with the members of the Psychical Research Society that their interest was not centered in the discovery of truth. Dr. Minot withdrew from psychical research, and our only evidence of the continuation of his interest in the problems of mental life is his presidential address before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Pittsburgh, in 1902. At this time he spoke of the problem of consciousness in its biological aspects in a way which at once revealed his keen interest in everything mental, and his conviction that the study of consciousness is an important duty as well as opportunity of biologists. It matters not that few psychologists, and still fewer biologists, can agree with all of his statements, for they are the utterances of one who thought honestly and vigorously along other lines than those of his daily work.
By his contributions to psychical research and to the general Uterature on consciousness (his papers number about a dozen). Professor Minot deserves to be ranked as an important contributor to our knowledge of mental phenomena. To the psychologist, most impressive of all is his insistence upon accuracy and reUability in observation and statement, and the evidence of his single-minded devotion to the truth.
In taking leave of psychical research, Dr. Minot published a characteristic statement, which involved him in amusing consequences. He said:
The failure of psychical research should teach us a profound lesson — the lesson that literary training sets hmits to the faculties. The leaders of the Psychical Society are Uterary men. . . .
To which Mr. Andrew Lang spicily replied in an article in the London News (Mar. 30, 1895) entitled "On a certain condescension in scientific men/' showing that literary training is not alone in limiting the faculties.'*
On many occasions Dr. Minot severely criticized his colleagues. When in 1883 he described Hubrecht's hypothesis of primogeniture as "pin-e speculation of that reckless quality which of late years has crept into zoology/' and in 1886 referred to Flemming's new terms (including mitosis) as "new-fangled" and a burden to science, he was approaching the bad-mannered faultfinding" which he perhaps repentantly denoimced in an anonymous article — ^Youthfulness in Science (1889). His characteristic intensity of conViction was frequently vigorously expressed, and not always in such a way as to facilitate his progress.
In the year 1883, when Dr. Minot was appointed Instructor and took charge of the Department of Histology, the Harvard Medical School moved to its new building on Boylston Street — "a noble edifice," as Dr. Holmes declared, in which *'you will find apartments devoted to microscopic instruction and study." These apartments included a welMighted students' laboratory on the top floor which, according to President Eliot, was of Dr. Minot' s own planning. It was equipped with eighteen Hartnack microscopes, and the department, we are told, was supported by an annual appropriation of fifty dollars, supplemented by a gift of six hundred dollars made personally to Dr. Minot and increased by his own generosity. Additional microscopes were purchased with money borrowed from the University and in time repaid through rental fees. This was done at Dr. Minot's suggestion, and the University was impressed not only with his vigorous teaching and many publications, but with his business qualities, so that in 1887 it was possible to promote him to an Assistant Professorship in Histology and Embryology."
His inventive qualities were also now apparent, for in 1886, he had designed the rotary microtome, familiar tp all histologists. Baltzer, the instrument maker for Professor Ludwij^'s laboratory, made the first one, but in 1888 they were being manufactured in Boston. The original form of this very valuable device is shown in figure 3. Its toothed wheel was small and therefore sections could not be cut thinner than 30 microns. Although the 'precision microtome/ likewise designed by Dr. Minot (figured in Science, 1897, vol. v, p. 862), has largely replaced the rotary microtome in his own laboratory, especially for cutting serial sections of embryos, the rotary microtome is generally more widely used and is still of great service.
In the five years of his assistant professorship. Dr. Minot accomplished his most important scientific work, ending in 1892 with the publication of his remalrkable treatise on Human Embryology, and his promotion to a full professorship. The Human
Fig. 3 Minot's Automatic Microtome," as figured in the American Naturalist, 1888, vol. 22, p. 945.
Embryology, a volume of 815 pages, is described in the preface as the result of ten years' labor. It was an attempt "to present a comprehensive summary of embryology, as it bears upon the problems of human development, and it embodied the material previously published by Dr. Minot in a large number of papers. Two characteristics are most conspicuous. First, it is a masterly smnmary of an unwieldy literature, of which its author was in full conmiand; and second, it is a presentation of a continuous succession of problems on which the author passes judgment in a manner compelling attention and wholly his own.
These features may be illustrated in the following paragraph which shows also the characteristic but distracting boldface references to the literature.
The ORIGIN of the decidual cells (of the uterus) was long uncertain. Three views contended for acceptance: 1st, th^y are modified leucocytes (Hennig, Langhans just cited above, Sinfety 76.1); 2d, they arise from the connective-tissue cells of the mucosa (Hegar and Maier, Leopold); 3d, they are produced by the epitheUum. In favor of the first view, there has never been, to my knowledge, any evidence of importance. The second view has been definitely established by Minot, 98, 429.
Dr. Minot's own paper, to which he here refers, was entitled Uterus and Embryo and was of great practical importance. It included a thorough consideration of the human placenta and membranes, based upon an extensive series of original preparations, and led the way toward utilizing sections of these structures in courses in histology for medical students.
In discussing the nature of sex, Dr. Minot still held to his theory of genoblasts already described. The chapter on blood embraces his work previously published in both the Anatommischer Anzeiger and the American Naturalist for 1895, which he summarized as follows:
In the development of red corpuscles, we can distinguish three principal stages: 1, young cells with very Uttle protoplasm; 2, old cells with much protoplasm and granular nucleus; 3, modified cells, with shrunken nucleus, which colors darkly and uniformly. I do not know whether the first form occurs in any Uving adult vertebrate, although the assumption seems justified that it is the primitive form. On the other hand, the second stage is obviously characteristic of the Ichthyopsida in general, while the third form is typical for the Sauropsida. Therefore the development of the blood-cells in amniota offers a new confirmation of Louis Agassiz' law (HaeckeFs biogenetisches Grundgesetz).
This fundamental interpretation of the blood corpuscles appears to be well established. But it was followed by the adoption of Schafer's opinion that the non-nucleated red corpuscles of mammals are intra-cellular protoplasmic products, which Dr. Minot names plastids, (Often we have seen Dr. Minot consult his Embryology to find, as he remarked, "opinions which I once held".) In describing the liver, the accompanying figure was used (fig. 4) showing clearly the relations of the tubules to the large blood-channels which were later described as sinusoids, constituting another of Dr. Minot's far-reaching generalizations. The figure is from a drawing by Dr. Minot, and shows the simple nature of the illustrations used throughout the book.
The Human Embryology was immediately recognized as the most important work in its field which America had produced and the most noteworthy work in English since the publication
Fig. 4 Portion of a ^section of the liver of an Acanthias embryo of 29 mm. hpf hepatic cylinders; 6i, blood-channels (later termed sinusoids). From Minot's Human Embryology, 1892, p. 761.
of Balfour's Comparative Embryology. In 1894, it was published in German translation, and Professor His, to whom Dr. Minot was indebted for generous permission to use his unique embryological collection in Leipzig, wrote the preface. In it he says that the book is substantial throughout, with the facts everywhere in the foreground. He adds, "Minot's work is at present the fullest human embryology which we possess . . . . and even after its contents in many parts shall ha\'e become superseded, it will retain its value as a bibliographical treasure-house. Dr. Minot's subsequent embryological publications are overshadowed by this masterpiece. They include many well known papers, together with the Laboratory Textbook of Embryology. In this text-book pig embryos were so described as to become the commonest objects of study in courses on mammahan embryology. This was of great service, as was also the establishment of his embryological collection. This collection of two thousand selected vertebrate embryos, cut in serial sections, has served for many investigations, and is a rich mine of opportunity for further work. The careful methods which were used in preparing and preserving these extensive series have served as a model in many laboratories.
The progress which Dr. Minot made toward a theory of life, which he had so early set forth as the ultimate goal of all biological work, is recorded in a series of papers of great interest. Influenced by Professor Bowditch's studies of the growth of children, Dr. Minot undertook a more comprehensive study of the growth of guinea-pigs. He was greatly impressed with the senescence, or loss of power to grow, manifested in infancy. Pushing his inquiries further, he concluded that the rate of growth was greatest in the segmentation of the ovum, and that it declined at such a rate that at birth 98 per cent of this power had been lost; and the remaining 2 per cent was largely exhausted in infancy. But before senescence conquers, the germ cells are set free, effecting rejuvenation. Having determined that there was a tremendous power of growth in the germ cells, which was lacking in those of the adult tissues, he sought for some corresponding difference in their morphological characteristics, and he thought that it was to be found in the proportionate bulk of nucleus and cytoplasm. In the young cells there is but little cytoplasm and correspondingly little functional differentiation. In the specialized cells of the adult, cytoplasm is abimdant and differentiated, and death is the inevitable price which the organism must pay for the cytological differentiation on which all higher life depends. Cytomorphosis was the term which Dr. Minot used to designate these changes, and toward the close of his life he had planned further studies in this direction. Those which he had completed were published in his book on Age, Growth, and Death, which has received wide-spread recognition, and of which a Japanese translation has recently been issued.
Such are the contributions to science which established Dr. Minot's position as the foremost American anatomist of his time. But as Galton has found, some eminently scientific men have shown their original powers by Uttle more than a continuous flow of helpful suggestions and criticisms, which were individually of too little importance to be remembered in the history of Science, but which in their aggregate formed a notable aid towards its progress." In this respect also, it is important to record the distinguished services of Dr. Minot, for not only in private, through extensive correspondence, but as president of societies, through stirring addresses, and as an organizer of scientific activity, his influence was powerfully felt throughout the country. He exalted the work of the scientist as few scientists would venture to do, but this he regarded as a duty. He declares that until it is clearly recognized that the greatest crime of the French revolution was not the execution of the king but the execution of Lavoisier, there is no right measure of values, for Lavoisier was one of the three or four greatest men France has produced." It has been suspected that "in his heart. Dr. Minot concealed a regret that he could not become a philosopher," but this is far from true. "Philosophy," he says, "is ever a laggard and a follower after her swifter sister. Science." "Let us part company from the horde of foolish thoughts which have too long masqueraded under the false garb of philosophy." "Observation," he says "is the foundation of knowledge and no human knowledge is built on any other foundation." So Dr. Minot declares that "the applications of the invention of placing pieces of glass of particular shapes in the two ends of a brass tube have more profoundly influenced human thoughts and beliefs than any other single invention, excepting only printing. The telescope has revolutionized our conception of the universe, the microscope our conception of hfe."
The significance and diflSculties of correct microscopic observation he beheved to be very generally underestimated. Professor His has said that a keen mind is a common possession in comparison with keen vision; but Dr. Minot goes further. It is conceit, he declares, which leads one to ascribe his failure to observe to poor vision. The retina is good — it is the brain which * fails the poor observer. Accurate observation," he repeats is by far the most diflScult art which mankind ever essayed. In this spirit he met his colleagues in annual convention, always genial and happy, persuading them that they were the salt of the earth. So also he met his classes of students, showing them how differently science may be regarded. Schiller says of Science:
To one she is divine — a heavenly goddess; to another A good cow, providing him with butter.
Dr. Minot's message was always to those who looked upon medicine as more than a means of livelihood. For himself, science was enthroned on high, and faithful scientific research was Christian service.
•It is very gratifying that academic distinctions were so liberally conferred upon Dr. Minot. He received the honorary degrees of Doctor of Laws from Yale in 1899; Doctor of Science from Oxford in 1902, Doctor of Laws from Toronto in 1904, and from St. Andrews in 1911. In his exchange professorship with Germany in 1912-13, which was likewise an honor conferred upon him, he represented not only Harvard University, but the anatomists of America, and he took no less pleasure in presenting the work of his colleagues than in describing his own researches.
His death occurred on the 19th of November, 1914, and by vote of the Association of Anatomists at the following meeting, the foregoing memorial of Doctor Minot's personal and academitJ life, with due consideration of his education and scientific achievements, has been prepared. Of necessity it is a very imperfect record. But it is hoped that it may show how a great anatomist arose among us, and how as President Eliot has said, "by clear merit he made his way." Every encouragement should be given to any youth of similar possibilities, and this Association exists primarily for that purpose, — but where can we find him?
A Chronological List of Professor Minot's Publications
Description of the male of Hesperia meieay Scudder. Proc. Boston Soc.
Nat. Hist., vol. 12, pp. 319-320. Upon the limits of genera. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 12, p. 380. American Lepidoptera. I. Geometridae, Latr. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 13, pp. 83-85. ' Brief notes on the transformations of several species of Lepidoptera. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 2, pp. 27-29. American Lepidoptera. II. Phalaenidae, Latr. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat.
Hist., vol. 13, pp. 169-171. Cabbage butterflies. American Entomologist, vol. 2, pp. 74-76. 1870 Notes on the flight of N. E. butterflies. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,
vol. 14, pp. 55-56. 1872 Notes on Limochores bimacula, Scudd. Canadian Entomologist, vol. 4,
p. 150. 1874 Henry P. Bowditch and Charles Sedgwick Minot. The influence of anaesthetics on the vaso-motor centres. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 90, p. 493-498. 4 plates.
1876 Recherches histologiques sur les trach^es de THydrophilus piceus. Arch.
de Physiol, norm, et path., 2e S^rie, T. 3, pp. 1-10. PI. VI-VII. • Die Bildung der Kohlensaure innerhalb des ruhenden und des erregten
Muskels. Arbeiten der physiol. Anstalt zu Leipzig, Jahrg. XI, pp.
1-24. Transfusion and auto-transfusion. (Abstract of a lecture by Dr. Lesser.)
Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 94, pp. 741-743. On the classification of some of the lower worms. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 19, pp. 17-25.
1877 Studien an Turbellarien. Beitrage zur Kenntnis? der Plathelminthen.
Arbeiten a. d. zoolog. -zoo torn. Institut in Wlirzburg, Bd. 3, pp. 405471. PI. XVI-XX.
The sledge microtome. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 11, pp. 204-209.
The study of zoology in Germany. I. The laboratories. II. The methods used in histology and embryology. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 11, pp. 330-336; 392-406.
Recent investigations of embryologists. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 19, pp. 165-171.
1878 Experiments on tetanus. Journ. Anat. and Phys., vol. 12, pp. 297-339.
A lesson in comparative histology. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 12, pp. 339347. PI. II.
On Distomum crassicole; with brief notes on Huxley's proposed classification of worms. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 3, pp. 1-12. PI. I.
Report on the fine anatomy of the locust. First Annual Report of the V . S. Entomological Commission, for the year 1877. Washington, 1878. Pp. 273-*277. PL V.
1879 Growth as a function of cells. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 20, pp.
190-201. Preliminary notice of certain laws of histological differentiation. Proc.
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 20, pp. 202-209. On the conditions to be filled by a theory of life. (Abstract.) Proc.
Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. 28 (1880), pp. 411-415.
1880 A sketch of comparative embryology. I. History of the genoblasts and
the theory of sex. II. The fertilization of the ovum. III. Segmentation and the formation of the gastrula. IV. The embryology of sponges. V. The general principles of development. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 13, pp. 96-108; 242-249; 479-485; 871-880.
The lowest animals. (Review of Leidy's Fresh-water Rhizopods.) Intemat. Review, vol. 8, pp. 646-651.
Changes of the circulation during cerebral activity. Pop. Sci. Monthly, vol. 17. pp. 303-311.
Human growth. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 103, pp. 79-82.
Review of Balfour's Comparative Embryology. Vol. 1. New York Med. Journal, vol. 32, pp. 630-635.
Histology oJF the locust (Caloptenus) and the cricket (Anabrus) . Second Report of the U.S. Entomological Commission, for the years 1878 and 1879. Pp. 183-222. PI. II-VIII.
Studies on the tongue of reptiles and birds. Anniversary Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 20 pp. PI. 1.
1881 Some recent investigations of the histology of the scala media cochleae.
Amer. Journal of Otology, vol. 3, pp. 89-95. PI. I. Comparative morphology of the ear. Part I. The Medusae. Amer.
Journal of Otology, vol. 3, pp. 177-186. Mounting chick embryos whole, Amer. Naturalist, vol. 15, pp. 841-842. Review of Balfour's Comparative Embryology. Vol. 2. Boston Xled.
and Surg. Journal, vol. 105, p. 450. Comparative morphology of the ear. Second article. Amer. Journal of
Otology, vol. 3, pp. 249-263. A grave defect in our medical education. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal,
vol. 105, pp. 565-567. Huxley's writings. Internat. Review, vol. 11, pp. 527-537. Editors' table. (A paragraph on inviting the* British Association to America.) Amer. Naturalist, vol. 15, pp. 37^380. Is man the highest animal? Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. 30 (1882), pp. 240-242.
1882 Review of Balfour's Comparative Embryology. Vol.2. New York Med.
Journal, vol. 35, pp. 152-156. Comparative morphology of the ear. Third article. Amer. Journal of
Otology, vol. 4, pp. 1-16. Comparative morphology of the ear. Fourth article. Amer. Journal of
Otology, vol. 4, pp. 89-101. Charles Robert Darwin. (Editorial.) Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 106, pp. 402-403.
Report on general physiology. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 106, pp. 440-444. Theorie der Genoblasten. Biol. Centralbl., vol. 2, pp. 366-367.
1883 Anatomical technology as applied to the domestic cat. By Burt G. Wilder and Simon H. Gage. (Review.) The Nation, Jan. 25, p. 89.
Criticism of Professor Hubrecht's hypothesis of development by primogeniture. Science, vol. 1, pp. 165-166.
Life-history of the liver-fluke. (Abstract of an article by A. P. Thomas.) Science, vol. 1, pp. 330-331.
The foetal envelopes. (Opening lecture in the course on embryology at the Harvard Medical School in 1883.) Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 108, pp. 409-411.
Report on general physiology. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 108, pp. 440-442.
Retrogressive history of the foetus. (Second lecture in the course on embryology at the Harvard Medical School.) Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 108, pp. 529-531.
Heitzmann's microscopical morphology. Science, vol. 1, pp. 603-605.
National traits of science. (Editorial.) Science, vol. 2, pp. 455-457.
1884 The laboratory in modern science. (Editorial.) Science, vol. 3, pp. 172 174. An international scientific association. Science, vol. 3, pp. 245-246. The organization of an international scientific association. Science, vol. 4, pp. 80-81. Proceedings of the section of histology and microscopy. (A. A. A. S.
Phila., 1884.) Science, vol. 4, pp. 342-343. "Comment" on microscopical technique. Science, vol. 4, pp. 350-351. Psychical research in America. Science, vol. 4, pp. 369-370. Death and individuality. Science, vol. 4, pp. 398-400. Comments*' on cooperation in science. Science, vol. 4, p. 411. Researches on growth and death. Proc. Soc. Arts, Mass. Institute of
Technology, 310th meeting, pp. 50-56. Researches on growth and death. (Abstract.) Biological Problems.
(Abstract.) Vesiculae seminales of the guinea-pig. (Abstract.) On the skin of insects. (Abstract.) Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. 33 (1885), pp. 517-521.
1885 Report on the anatomy of Aletia xylina. By Charles Sedgwick Minot and Edward Burgess. Fourth Report of the U.S. Entomological Commission, pp. 45-58. PI. VI-XI.
Zur Kenntniss der Samenblasen beim Meerschweinchen . Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 24, pp. 211-215. Taf. 12.
American society for psychical research. The Evening Post, New York. Jan. 10.
Branch V. Vermes. "Standard Nat. History," edited by J. S. Kingsley, vol. 1, pp. 185-235.
The effects of cold on living organisms. (Review of Coleman and McKendrick.) Science, vol. 5, pp. 522-523.
The formative force of organisms. Science, vol. 6, pp. 4-6.
Report on histology and embryology. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 113, pp. 30-34.
A new endowment for research. Nature, July 30, pp. 297-298. Also, Science, vol. 6, pp. 144-145.
Some histological methods. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 19, pp. 828-830 and 916-917.
Organization and death. (Abstract.) A new membrane of the human skin. (Abstract.) The structure of the human placenta. (Abstract.) Morphology of the supra-renal capsules. (Abstract.) Evolution of the lungs. (Abstract.) Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. 34, 311313.
The early stages of human development. Part 1 . Ova of the second week of pregnancy. New York Med. Journal, vol. 42, pp. 197-2(X).
Review of Behren's "The microscope in botany," translated by A. B. Hervey. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 113, p. 235.
Darwin's biography. (Review of Krause's Charles Darwin.) Science, vol. 6, pp. 276-277.
Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, edited by A. H. Buck. N. Y., Wood & Co., vol. 1: Articles on Age; Allantois; Ammion; Area embryonalis; Bioplasson; Blastoderm; Blastojiore.
The early stages of human development. Part II. Embryos of the third week. New York Med. Journal, vol. 42, pp. 396-401 ; 426-431.
1886 Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, vol. 2: Chorion; Coelom;
Decidua; Ear, Development of; Ectoderm; Embryology; Entoderm;
Evolution of man. The rotifera.
Structure of the human skin. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 20, pp. 675-678. Report on histology and embryology. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal,
vol. 114, pp. 460-463. The physical basis of heredity. Science, vol. 8, pp. 125-130. Notes on histological technique. Zeitschr. f. wiss. Mikroskopie u. f . mikr.
Technik, Bd. 3, pp. 173-178. The nimiber habit. Proc. Amer. Soc. Psych. Research, vol. 1, pp. 86-95. Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, vol. 3: Foetus, Development
of; Gastrula; Germ layers; Growth. Zur Kenntniss der Insektenhaut. Arch, f . mikr. Anatomie, Bd. 28, pp. 37 48. Taf. VII. W. A. Locy's Embryologie der Spinnen. Biol. Centralbl., Bd. 6, pp. 569 562. Muscle-reading by Mr. Bishop. Science, vol. 8, pp. 506-507. Researches on snake-poison. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 115,
pp. 554-555. Whence come race characters? Science, vol. 8, pp. 623-624.
1887 Bemerkungen zu dem Schroder' schen Uteruswerke. Anat. Anzeiger, Bd.
2, pp. 19-22. American society for psychical research. Science, vol. 9, pp. 50-61. Youthfulness in science. Science, vol. 9, pp. 104-105.
Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, vol. 4: Impregnation; Longevity; Meconium; Mesoderm. Vol. 6: Notochord; Ovum; JJeurenteric canals; Placenta, Anatomy of.
Report on histology and embryology. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, vol. 116, pp. 520-523.
American microscopes — a complaint. Science, vol. 10, pp. 275-276.
First report of the committee on experimental psychology. (Prevalence of superstitions.) Proc. Amer. Soc. Psych. Research, vol. 1, pp. 218223.
1888 Tricks in mind reading. Youth's Companion, vol. 61, p. 122.
The mounting of serial sections. The Microscope, vol. 8, pp. 133-138.
Growth and age. Annual of the Medical Sciences, edited by C. E. Sajous, vol. 5, pp. 359-366.
Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, vol. 6: Proamnion; Segmentation of the body; Segmentation of the ovum; Senility; Sex; Spermatozoa.
1889 Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, vol. 7: Umbilical cord.
Vol. 8: Yolk-sac. Growth and age. Annual of the Medical Sciences, vol. 2, Section L, pp. 1-2. Second report on experimental psychology: Upon the diagram tests.
Proc. Amer. Soc. Psych. Research, vol. 1, pp. 302-317. Open letter concerning telepathy. Proc. Amer. Soc. PsycA. Research, vol.
1, pp. 547-548. Uterus and embryo. I. Rabbit. II. Man. Joum. Morphol., vol. 2, pp.
341-462. PI. XXVI-XXIX. Segmentation of the ovum with especial reference to the mammalia. Amer.
Naturalist, vol. 23, pp. 463-481 ; 753-769. Evolution of the medullary canal. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 23, pp. 1019 1021.
1890 The use of the microscope and the value of embryology. Canadian Prac titioner, vol. 15, pp. 43-46. National medical dictionary by John S. Billings, assisted by Dr. C. S.
Minot and others. 2 vols. Philadelpnia, Lea. 1890. Die Placenta des Kaninchens. Biol. Centralbl., Bd. 10, pp. 114-122. Die Entstehung der Arten durch r¨iche Sonderung. Von Moritz Wagner. (Review.) Science, vol. 16, pp. 305-306. Growth and age. Annual of the Medical Sciences, vol. 2, Section N, pp.
1-4. The concrescence theory of the vertebrate embryo. Amer. Naturalist,
vol. 24, pp. 501-516; 617-629; 702-719. The mesoderm and the coelom of vertebrates. • Amer. Naturalist, vol. 24,
877-898. Zur Morphologie der Blutkorperchen. Anat. Anzeiger,Bd. 5, pp. 601-604.
Translation of the same, Amer. Naturalist, vol. 24, pp. 1020-1023. About worms. Youth^s Companion, vol. 63, p. 681. On the fate of the hu^ian decidua reflexa. Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. 5, pp.
639-643. On certain phenomena of growing old. Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. 39, 21 pp.
1891 A theory of the structure of the placenta. Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. 6, pp.
125-131. Senescence and rejuvenation. First paper: On the weight of guinea pigs.
Joum. of Physiol., vol. 12, pp. 97-153. PI. II-IV. Growth and age. Annual of the Medical Sciences, vol. 2, Section N, pp. 1-7.
1892 Human embryology. New York. William Wood and Company. 8°.
XXVI + 815 pp., 463 figs. (Also the Macmillan Company, 1897).
1893 Structural plan of the human brain. Pop. Sci. Monthly, vol. 43, pp.
372-383. Bibliography of vertebrate embryology. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 4, pp. 487-614.
1894 Gegen das Gonotom. Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. 9, pp. 210-213.
Lehrbuch der Entwickelungsgeschichte des Menschen. Deutsche Ausgabe mit Zusatzen des Verfassers von Dr. Sdndor Kaestner. Leipzig. Veit und Comp. XXXVI+844 pp., 463 figs.
1895 The psychical comedy. North Amer. Review, vol. 160, pp. 217-230.
If microscopes were more powerful. Youth's Companion, vol. 69, p. 78. The fundamental difference between plants and animals. Science, N. S.,
vol. 1, pp. 311-312. The work of the naturalist in the world. Pop. Sci. Monthly, vol. 47, pp.
60-72. Ueber die Vererbung und VerjUngung. Biol. Centralbl., Bd. 15, pp. 571 587.
1896 On heredity and rejuvenation. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 30, pp. 1-9 ; 89 101. The microscopical study of living matter. North Amer. Review, vol.
162, pp. 612-^620. Microtome automatique nouveau. Comptes rendus Soc. Biologie de Paris,
lOme S^r., vol. 3, pp. 611-612. The theory of panplasm. (Abstract.) Report of the Brit. Assoc. Adv.
Sci., vol. 66, pp. 832-833. The olfactory lobes. (Abstract.) Report of the Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci. vol. 66, p. 836.
On the principles of microtome construction. Report of the Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. 66, pp. 979-980.
1897 Our unsymmetrical organization. The Harvard Graduates' Magazine, vol.
5, pp. 485-491. On two forms of automatic microtomes. Science, N. S., vol. 5, pp. 857 866. Bibliography — A study of resources. Biological lectures delivered at the
Marine Biological Laboratory of Wood's Hole in the summer session
of 1895. Boston. Pp. 149-168. Cephalic homologies. A contribution to the determination of the ancestry
of vertebrates. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 31, pp. 927-943. Die friihen Stadien und die Histogenese des Nervensy stems. Ergebnisso
der Anat. u. Entwickelungsgeschichte, Bd. 6, pp. 687-738.
18d8 Contribution k la determination des ancetres des vertebras. (Traduction de M. E. Brumpt, des Hautes £tduto.) Arch. Zool. exper., S^r. 3,
vol. 5, pp. 417-436. On the veins of the WolflSan body in the pig. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,
vol.28, pp. 265-274. PL I. A memento of Professor Edward D. Cope. Science, N. S. vol. 8, pp. 113 114.
1899 Knowledge and practice. Science, N. S., vol. 10, pp. 1-11.
1900 On a hitherto unrecognized form of blood circjulation without capillaries
in the organs of vertebrates. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 29, pp. 185-215.
On the solid stage of the large intestine in the chick with a note on the ganglion coli. Journ. Boston Soc. Med. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 153-164.
Ueber mesotheliale Zotten der Allantois bei Schweinsembryonen. Anat. Anzeiger, Bd. 18, pp. 127-136.
The unit system of laboratory construction. Philadelphia Med. Journ., vol. 6, pp. 390-391.
The study of mammalian embryology. Amer. Naturalist, vol. 34, pp. 913941.
1901 Notes on Anopheles. Journ. Boston Soc. Med. Sci., vol. 5, pp. 325-329.
PI. XXXI. Further study of the unit system of laboratory construction. Science, N.
S., vol. 13, pp. 409-415. The embryological basis of pathology. The Middleton Goldsmith lecture
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