Book - Vertebrate Zoology 1922
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Beer G. Vertebrate Zoology. (1922)
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An Introduction To The Comparative Anatomy Embryology And Evolution Of Chordate Animals
Sir Gavin Db Beer, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Director Of The British Museum (Natural History).
Sidgwick And Jackson Limited London September, 1922
THERE are two methods of teaching Zoology. One method is to deal with a limited number of selected types one by one, and the other is to compare corresponding parts of a number of different animals. Each method has its advantages and its drawbacks. The type method is essential for gaining acquaintance with actual animals, and is of fundamental importance from the fact that it permits of practical study of the complete animals themselves. It cannot be too much emphasised that Zoology is the study of animals, and not the study of books written about them. That being so, it is obviously more convenient to dissect and study one type thoroughly before passing on to the next, than to have a number of ilissections of corresponding portions of several animals all going on at the same time. The ﬁrst two parts of this book are devoted to a study of types carefully selected so as to be of the greatest utility in the interpretation of other forms. Part I deals with the adult structure, and Part II with the modes of development.
While the type method is necessary for a start, it is attended with certain dangers. Too much attention may be paid to the types themselves and too little to the other animals of which they are but only in a general way typical. There is also the danger that “ . . . a multitude of facts overcrowd the memory if they do not lead us to establish principles. . . .” I have sought to remedy this with the help of a comparative treatment of the various organ-systems, which forms the subject of Part III. In this part, the information obtained in Parts I and II is woven into a framework, and other animals of interest are interpolated, so as to present a general view of the organsystems from the evolutionary and functional points of view. By this means, it is possible to mention .the signiﬁcant points of certain animals which are unsuited to be taken as types in themselves. In many cases these interpolated animals are fossils, from the fragmentary knowledge of which it would be impossible to construct a sufficiently instructive type.
The use of this comparative treatment following upon the descriptions of types entails a certain amount of repetition, and this is intentional. Unfamiliar facts, which by themselves may be devoid of any particular interest, acquire an added attractiveness and signiﬁcance when they are introduced under more than one setting.
Lastly, in Part IV the types and comparisons are woven together into a whole, and treated as a history of the chief groups of vertebrate animals. It is hoped that the general nature of the treatment of the characteristic features of vertebrates, and the inclusion of a section dealing with the aﬂinities and evolution of the human race, may not be without interest for the human anatomist.
A few words may be added with regard to the types. They are selected and treated not only for their intrinsic importance, but also as introductions to the next types. The description of each type is therefore to some extent based on previous types. So the dogﬁsh is not only an example of a primitive ﬁsh, but it also provides the material on which the disposition of the arterial arches and cranial nerves may be studied, and the knowledge so obtained is used in the interpretation of all higher types. Similarly, Gadus serves as an introduction to the bones of the skull, and Triton introduces the limb of the land-vertebrate. This must explain what may appear to be a lack of balance in the treatment of certain types.
Apart from the more ordinary dissections and observations which I have been able to make personally, I am indebted for sources of information chiefly to the teaching of the Oxford school of Zoology, and in particular to Professor E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S., whose principles I have largely attempted, however unsuccessfully, to follow. I wish to record my gratitude to him for his general guidance in many matters, and for the facilities which I have enjoyed in the Department of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy of the Oxford University Museum.
On occasion, I have had the privilege of discussing certain matters with Professor G. Elliot Smith, F.R.S., Professor C. Judson Herrick, Professor J. P. Hill , F.R.S., Professor Sir Charles Sherrington, 0.M., F.R.S., Professor W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., Professor A. Thomson, and Professor D. M. S. Watson, F.R.S. To all of them I wish to make due. acknowledgment for the help which their information and advice have afforded me. To my friend and colleague Mr. B. W. regarding my ‘thanks to Professor Julian Huxley, F.R.S., without W :11’l8'tI‘9Si|0ﬂ._ IMGTCSL and persistent encouragement this book would have remained unwritten. It goes without saying that these gentlemen are not responsible for the errors which this book
PART I. Morphological types illustrating the different stages of organisation and the trend or vertebrate evolution
I The Vertebrate Type as contrasted with the Invertebrate
II Amphioxus, a primitive Chordate
III Petromyzon, a Chordate with a skull, heart, and kidney
IV Scyllium, a Chordate with jaws, stomach, and fins
V Gadus, a Chordate with bone
VI Ceratodus, a Chordate with a lung
VII Triturus, a Chordate with 5-toed limbs
VIII Lacerta, a Chordate living entirely on land
IX Columba, a Chordate with wings
X Lepus, a warm-blooded, viviparous Chordat
PART II. Embryological Types illustrating the different modes of development
PART III. Comparative Zoology of Chordates
Outline Classiﬁcation of the main groups of Chordate animals showing the value and extent of comprehensive terms
XV The Blastopore
XVI The Embryonic Membranes
XVII The Skin and its derivatives
XVIII The Teeth
XIX The Coelom and Mesoderm
XX The Skull
Table of Vertebrate Bones
XXI The Vertebral Column, Ribs, and Sternum
XXII Fins and Limbs
XXIII The Tail
XXIV The Vascular system
XXV The Respiratory system
XXVI The Alimentary system
XXVII The Excretory and Reproductive systems
XXVIII The Head and Neck
Table of Segmentation of the Head
XXIX The functional divisions of the Nervous system
XXX The Brain and comparative Behaviour
XXXI The Autonomic Nervous system
XXXII The Sense-organs
XXXIII The Ductless glands
XXXIV Regulatory mechanisms
XXXV Blood-relationships among the Chordates
PART IV. EVOLUTIONARY MORPHOLOGY
XXXVI The bearing of Physical and Climatic factors on Chordates
XXXVII The origin of Chordates, and their radiation as aquatic animals
XXXVIII The evolution of the Amphibia: the ﬁrst landChordates
XXXIX The evolution of the Reptiles
XL The evolution of the Birds
XLI The evolution of the Mammalia
XLII The evolution of the Primates and Man
Classiﬁcation of the animals and groups of animals mentioned in this book
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, June 25) Embryology Book - Vertebrate Zoology 1922. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Vertebrate_Zoology_1922
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