Book - The Pineal Organ (1940) 8

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Gladstone RJ. and Wakeley C. The Pineal Organ. (1940) Bailliere, Tindall & Cox, London. PDF

   The Pineal Organ (1940): 1 Introduction | 2 Historical Sketch | 3 Types of Vertebrate and Invertebrate Eyes | Eyes of Invertebrates: 4 Coelenterates | 5 Flat worms | 6 Round worms | 7 Rotifers | 8 Molluscoida | 9 Echinoderms | 10 Annulata | 11 Arthropods | 12 Molluscs | 13 Eyes of Types which are intermediate between Vertebrates and Invertebrates | 14 Hemichorda | 15 Urochorda | 16 Cephalochorda | The Pineal System of Vertebrates: 17 Cyclostomes | 18 Fishes | 19 Amphibians | 20 Reptiles | 21 Birds | 22 Mammals | 23 Geological Evidence of Median Eyes in Vertebrates and Invertebrates | 24 Relation of the Median to the Lateral Eyes | The Human Pineal Organ : 25 Development and Histogenesis | 26 Structure of the Adult Organ | 27 Position and Anatomical Relations of the Adult Pineal Organ | 28 Function of the Pineal Body | 29 Pathology of Pineal Tumours | 30 Symptomatology and Diagnosis of Pineal Tumours | 31 Treatment, including the Surgical Approach to the Pineal Organ, and its Removal: Operative Technique | 32 Clinical Cases | 33 General Conclusions | Glossary | Bibliography
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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

The Pineal Organ - Eyes of Invertebrates

Chapter 8 The Eyes of Molluscoida

The Molluscoida are marine animals comprising three classes, the Polyzoa, Brachiopoda, and Phoronida. The Polyzoa form colonies known as " sea-mats " or " coral-lines." The Brachiopoda are characterized by the possession of bivalve shells which differ from those of the molluscs in being dorsal and ventral with regard to the animal instead of right and left as is the case in molluscs. A typical example of the class is the common " lamp shell." The Phoronida are worm-like animals enclosed in leathery tubes. They live in associations composed of numerous individuals each of which possesses a number of tentacles springing from a horseshoe-shaped pedicle, the lateral horns of which are often spirally coiled. The body is strongly flexed in a dorsal direction, so that the mouth and anus are brought near together at the anterior end of the body.



Fig. 58. — Trochopore Larva of Phascolosoma vulgare, showing the Typical Position of the Paired Eye-spots in the Podaxonia (Sipunculoidea). (From McBride, after Gerould.)

ap. : apical tuft of cilia. oc. : eye-spots.

head blastema. stom. : stomodajum.

metatroch. tb. : trunk blastema,

prototroch.


The dorsal surface or back of the animal is thus markedly reduced in length. The adult animals of all these three classes are fixed and no sensory organs are present, but the ova give rise to free-swimming larva; of the trochophore type which in some species have a typical apical plate, bearing a vertical tuft of cilia and lying over a cerebral ganglion. In close relation with this, e.g. in the Phoronida, Phascolosoma (Podaxonia) (Fig. 58), there are two pigmented eye-spots which lie right and left of the median plane ventral to the plate. Bilateral eye-spots are also present in the free-swimming larva of Cistella. When the larvae become fixed the eyespots disappear. A point of great interest with regard to the presence of paired eyes of simple type, in the larvae of the Brachiopods is that the more primitive forms of this class, judging from the characters of the shell, have existed almost unchanged from the palaeozoic period represented by the lower Cambrian rocks of America, e.g. the hinged bivalve brachiopod Paterina, which is regarded as the ancestor of the living brachiopods (Fig. 59).




Fig. 59. A — Pater ina. Simple ancestral fossil form of Brachiopod — enlarged ; lower Cambrian rocks, America. B — Rhynchonella. Dorsal aspect of shell, showing foramen, /., in beak which

transmitted the stalk. Fossil shell. Lower Cretaceous. C — Young larva of Cistella, showing two eye-spots, three segments, and two

bundles of sets. D — Interior of dorsal valve of Cistella, which closely resembles the fossil types of

Brachiopoda shown in A and B. The simpler species have presumably persisted with little change in their form or mode of development since the lower Cambrian period (see Fig. 324, p. 479).



   The Pineal Organ (1940): 1 Introduction | 2 Historical Sketch | 3 Types of Vertebrate and Invertebrate Eyes | Eyes of Invertebrates: 4 Coelenterates | 5 Flat worms | 6 Round worms | 7 Rotifers | 8 Molluscoida | 9 Echinoderms | 10 Annulata | 11 Arthropods | 12 Molluscs | 13 Eyes of Types which are intermediate between Vertebrates and Invertebrates | 14 Hemichorda | 15 Urochorda | 16 Cephalochorda | The Pineal System of Vertebrates: 17 Cyclostomes | 18 Fishes | 19 Amphibians | 20 Reptiles | 21 Birds | 22 Mammals | 23 Geological Evidence of Median Eyes in Vertebrates and Invertebrates | 24 Relation of the Median to the Lateral Eyes | The Human Pineal Organ : 25 Development and Histogenesis | 26 Structure of the Adult Organ | 27 Position and Anatomical Relations of the Adult Pineal Organ | 28 Function of the Pineal Body | 29 Pathology of Pineal Tumours | 30 Symptomatology and Diagnosis of Pineal Tumours | 31 Treatment, including the Surgical Approach to the Pineal Organ, and its Removal: Operative Technique | 32 Clinical Cases | 33 General Conclusions | Glossary | Bibliography
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, October 21) Embryology Book - The Pineal Organ (1940) 8. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_The_Pineal_Organ_(1940)_8

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