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Rugh R. Book - The Frog Its Reproduction and Development. (1951) The Blakiston Company.

Frog Development (1951): Introduction | Rana pipiens | Reproductive System | Fertilization | Cleavage | Blastulation | Gastrulation | Neurulation | Early Embryo Changes | Later Embryo or Larva | Ectodermal Derivatives | Endodermal Derivatives | Mesodermal Derivatives | Summary of Organ Appearance | Glossary | Bibliography | Figures
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Bibliography for Frog Embryology

Contributions to this book on Frog Embryology have been made from many of the following references. It is therefore quite a complete bibliography on normal frog development. Those interested in more detailed references to specific subjects should consult the author's "Experimental Embryology."

Books

Allen, B. M., 1930, "The Early Development of Organ Anlagen in Amphibia," California, Stanford University Press, Contributions to Marine Biology, 204-212.

Anglas, J., 1904, "Observations sur les metamorphoses internes des batraciens anoures," Grenoble, Assoc. Frang. p. 1. Avanc. d. Sciences, 33 Sess., p. 855.

Arey, L. B., 1946, "Developmental Anatomy," 5th ed., Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co.

Barth, L. G., 1949, "Embryology," New York, The Dryden Press, Inc.

Brachet, A., 1935, "Traite d'embryologie des Vertebres," Paris, Masson et Cie.

Brachet, Jean, 1947, "Embryologie Chimique," Paris, Masson et Cie.

Butschli, O., 1915, "Bemerkung zur mechanischen Erklarung der GastrulaInvagination," Sitz. ber. Heidelberg Akad. Wiss., vol. 6, Part II, pp. 1-13.

Celestino da Costa, A., 1938, "Elements d'Embryologie," Paris, Masson et Cie.

Dalcq, A., 1938, "Form and Causality in Early Development," London, Cambridge University Press.

, 1935, "L'Organisation de I'oeuf chez les chordes. Etude d'embryologie causale," Paris, Gauthier-Villars.

DeBeer, G. R., 1926, "The Comparative Anatomy, Histology, and Development of the Pituitary Body," London, Oliver & Boyd.

Dickerson, M. C, 1906, "The Frog Book," New York, Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Ecker, A., 1889, "Anatomy of the Frog," Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Furbinger, M., 1877, "Zur Entwicklungs der Amphibienniere," Heidelberg.

Gaupp, E., 1904, "Anatomic des Frosches," Braunschweig, Vieweg & Sohn.

Goette, A., 1875, "Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Unke {Bombinatorigneus) ," Leipzig, Leopold Voss.

Goodrich, E. S., 1930, "Studies on the Structure and Development of Vertebrates," New York, The Macmillan Co.

Held, H., 1909, "Entwicklung des Nervengewebe bei den Wirbeltiere," Leipzig.

Hertwig, O., 1909, "Handbuch der vergleichenden und experimentellen Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere," 6 vols., Jena, Fischer.

Hinsberg, B., 1901, "Die Entwicklung der Nasenhohle und experimentellen Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere," Jena.

His, Wilhelm, 1874, "Unsere Korperform und des physiologische Problem ihrer Entstehung," Leipzig, Vogel.

Holmes, S. J., 1927, "Biology of the Frog," 4th ed., rev.. New York, The Macmillan Co.

Huettner, A. F., 1949, "Fundamentals of Comparative Embryology of the Vertebrates," New York, The Macmillan Co.

Jordan, H. E., and J. E. Kindred, 1948, "A Textbook of Embryology," New York, D, Appleton-Century Co.

Kellicott, W. E., 1913, "Outlines of Chordate Development," New York, Henry Holt & Company, Inc.

, 1913, "A Textbook of General Embryology," New York, Henry Holt & Company, Inc.

Kingsley, J. S., 1907, "The Frog, An Anurous Amphibian," New York, Henry Holt & Company, Inc.

Marshall, A. M., 1893, "Vertebrate Embryology," London, Putnam & Co., Ltd.

, 1885, "The Frog: An Introduction to Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology," New York, The Macmillan Co.
Marshall, F. H. A., 1922, "Physiology of Reproduction," 2d ed., rev., New York, Longmans, Green & Company.

McEwen, R. F., 1949, "Vertebrate Embryology," New York, Henry Holt & Company, Inc.

Minot, C. S., 1910, "A Laboratory Text-book of Embryology," Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company.

Morgan, T. H., 1897, "Development of the Frog's Egg: Introduction to Experimental Embryology," New York, The Macmillan Co.

Needham, J., 1942, "Biochemistry and Morphogenesis," 6th ed., London, Cambridge University Press.

Noble, G. K., 1931, "The Biology of the Amphibia," New York, The McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

Pasteels, Jean, 1939, "Sur I'origine du materiel caudal des Urodeles," Bruxelles, Palais des Academies.

Pope, C. H., 1944, "Amphibians and Reptiles of the Chicago Area," Chicago, Chicago Natural History Museum.

Reese, A. M., 1947, "The Lamina Terminalis and the Preoptic Recess in Amphibia," Washington, D. C, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, vol. 106.

Richards, Aute, 1931, "Outline of Comparative Embryology," New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Rugh, Roberts, 1949, "A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate Embryology," Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing Company.

, 1948, ""Experimental Embryology; A Manual of Techniques and Procedures," Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing Company.

Shumway, W., 1935, "Introduction to Vertebrate Embryology," 3d ed., rev.. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Thompson, D'Arcy W., 1942, "On Growth and Form," London, Cambridge University Press.

Waddington, C. H., 1940, "Organizers and Genes," New York, The Macmillan Co.

Waterman, A. J., 1948, "A Laboratory Manual of Comparative Vertebrate Embryology," New York, Henry Holt & Company, Inc.

Weiss, Paul, 1939, "Principles of Development; A Text in Experimental Embryology," New York, Henry Holt & Company, Inc.

Wieman, H. L., 1949, "An Introduction to Vertebrate Embryology," New York, The McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

Wright, A. A., and A. H. Wright, 1949, "Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada," 3d ed., Ithaca, N. Y., Comstock Publishing Co., 1949.

Articles

Adelmann, H. B., 1936, The problem of cyclopia, Quart. Rev. Biol., Part I, 11:161; Part II, 11:284.

Alderman, A. L., 1935, The determination of the eye in the anuran, Hyla regilla, J. Exper. Zool., 70:205.

Allen, B. M., 1919, The development of the thyreoid glands of Bufo and their normal relation to metamorphosis, /. Morphol., 32:489.

, 1907, An important period in the 'history of the sex-cells of Rana pipiens, Anat. Anz., 31:339.

Assheton, R., 1905, On growth centres in vertebrate embryos, Anat. Anz., 27:125; 156.

Atlas, Meyer, 1938, The rate of oxygen consumption of frogs during embryonic development and growth, Physiol. ZooL, 11:278. , 1935, The effect of temperature on the development of Rana pipiens, Physiol. ZooL, 8:290.

Atwell, W. J., 1919, The development of the hypophysis of the Anura, Anat. Rec, 15:73.

Bataillon, E., 1910, L'embryogenese, complete provoquees chez les Amphibiens par piqure de Toeuf vierge, larves parthenogenesiques de Rana jusca, Comp. rend. Acad, de sc, 150:996.

, 1891, Recherches anatomiques et experimentales sur la metamorphose des amphibiens anoures, Ann. d. I. Univers. de Lyon, 2:1.

Beneden, V., and V. Bambeke, 1927, Extrait des Archives de Biologic, J. Anat., p. 486

Bialaszewicz, K., 1909, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Wachstumsvorgange bei Amphibienembryonen, Bull. Acad. Sci. Cracovie (review in Arch. j. Entwcklngsmechn. d. Organ., 28:160).

Born, G., 1884, Ueber den Einfluss der Schwere auf des Froschei, Bresl. drztl. Ztschr., 15:185.

Bouin, M., 1901, Histogenese de la glande genitale femelle chez Rana temporaria. Arch, de biol., Paris, 17:201.

Boyd, E. M., 1938, Lipoid substances of the ovary during ova production in Rana pipiens, J. Physiol., 91:394.

Brachet, A., 1911, Etudes sur les localisations germinales et leur potentialite reelle dans I'oeuf parthenogenetique de Rana jusca, Arch, de biol, Paris, 26:337.

, 1905, Gastrulation et formation de I'embryon chez les Chordes, Anat. Anz., 27:212; 239.

Braem, F. von, 1898, Epiphysis und Hypophysis von Rana, Ztschr. wiss. ZooL, 63:433.

Broman, I., 1907, Uber Bau und Entwicklung der Spermien von Rana fusca. Arch. mikr. Anat., 70:330.

Brown, M. E., 1946, The histology of the tadpole tail during metamorphosis, with special reference to the nervous system, Am. J. Anat., 78:79.

Burns, R. K., Jr., 1934, The effect of the removal of the pronephros and duct upon development, Anat. Rec, 58: suppl. 7.

Cameron, J. A., 1941, Primitive blood-cell generations in Amblystoma, J. MorphoL, 68:231.

Carnoy, J. B., and H. Lebrun, 1900, La vesicule germinative et les globules polaires chez les batraciens, Cellule, 17:199.

Cooper, Ruth Snyder, 1943, An experimental study of the development of the larval olfactory organ of Rami pipiens Schreber, /. Exper. ZooL, 93:415.

Corning, H. K. von, 1899, Uber einige Entwicklungsvorgange am Kopf der Anuren, Morphol. Jahrh., 27:173.

Dalcq, A. M., 1940, Contributions a i'etude du Potcntiel Morphogenetique chez les Anoures: 1. Experiences sur la zone marginale dorsale et le plancher du blastocoele, Arch, de bioL, Paris, 51:387.

, 1933, La determination de la vesicule auditive chez le discoglosse, Arch, d'anat. micr., 29:389.

D'Angelo, S. A., 1941, An analysis of the morphology of the pituitary and thyroid glands in amphibian metamorphosis. Am. J. Anat., 69:407.

, and H. A. Charipper, 1939, The morphology of the thyroid gland in the metamorphosing Rana pipiens, J. Morphol., 64:355.

Delpino, Itala, 1932, Ricerche sperimentali sullo sviluppo degli organi adesivi in Rana escidenta. Arch. zool. ital., 17:401.

Desclin, Leon, 1927, Etude de la localisation des ebauches ganglionnaires craniennes dans le germe de Rana fusca. Arch, de bioL, Paris, 37:485.

Durham, H. E., 1886, Note on the presence of the neurenteric canal in Rana, Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 26:509.

Du Shane, G. P., 1938, Neural fold derivatives in the Amphibia: Pigment cells, spinal ganglia and Rohon-Beard cells, J. Exper. Zool., 78.

Dustin, A. P., 1908, Recherches sur I'origine des gonocytes chez les Amphibiens, Arch, de bioL, Paris, 23:411.

Elliott, A. L M., 1907, Some facts in the later development of the frog, Rana temporaria: L The segments of the occipital region of the skull. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 51:647.

Erlanger, R. von, 1890, Ueber den Blastoporus der anuran Amphibien, sein Schicksal und seine Beziehungen zum bleidenden After, Zool. Jahrb., 4:239.

Etkin, W., 1936, The phenomena of anuran metamorphosis: IIL The development of the thyroid gland, J. Morphol., 59:69.

Farrington, O. C, 1892, The nephrostomes of Rana, Tr. Conn. Acad., 8:309.

Federow, V., 1910, Uber die Entwickelung der Lungenvene, Anat. Heft., 40:529.

Field, H. H., 1891, Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory. XXVIL The development of the pronephros and segmental duct in Amphibia, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 21:201.

Filatow, D. P., 1904, Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Exkretionssystems der Amphibien, Anat. Anz., 25:33.

Foxon, G. E. H., 1947, Circulation in the frog, Nature, 159:236.

Giannelli, L., 1903, Sulle prime fasi di sviluppo del pancreas negli Anfibii anuri (Rana esculenta) , Monit. zool. ital., 14:33.

Goppert, E., 1891, "Die Entwicklung und das spatere Verhalten des Pankreas der Amphibien, Morphol. Jahrb., 17:100.

Greil, A., 1905, Uber die Anlage der Lungen, sowie der ultimobranchialen (postbranchialen, supraperikardialen) Korper bei anuren Amphibien, Anat. Heft., 29:445.

Hall, R. W., 1904, Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory, No. 150, The development of the mesonephros and the MuUerian ducts in Amphibia, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 45, No. 2.

Harrison, R. G., 1904, Experimentelle Untersuchungen liber die Entwicklung der Sinnesorgane der Seitenlinie bei den Amphibien, Arch. mikr. Anat., 63:35.

Hegre, E. S., 1946, The developmental relationship between the nervous and epithelial components of the hypophysis, /. Exper. Zool., 101:65.

Helff, O. M., 1930, Studies in amphibian metamorphosis: VIII. The role of the urostyle in the atrophy of the tail, Anat. Rec, Al'All .

Hempstead, M., 1901, Development of the lungs in the frogs Rana catesbiana, R. sylvatica, and R. virescens, Science, 12.

Holtfreter, J., 1943, 1944, A study of the mechanics of gastrulation, J. Exper. Zool., Part I, 94:261; Part II, 95:171.

, 1944, Experimental studies on the development of the Pronephros, Rev. canadienne de biol., 3:220.

Hoskins, E. R., and M. M. Hoskins, 1920, The inter-relation of the thyreoid and hypophysis in the growth and development of frog larvae, Endocrinology , 4: 1 .

Howland, R. B., 1926, Regeneration of the segmental duct and experimental acceleration of growth of the mesonephros in Ambly stoma punctatum, J. Exper. Zool, 44:327.

Hoyer, H., 1905, Ueber das Lymphgefassystem der Froschlarven, Verhandl. d. anat. Gesellsch., 19:50.

Janes, R. G., 1938, Studies on the amphibian digestive system: III. The origin and development of pancreatic islands in certain species of Anura, J. Morphol, 62:375.

Jenkinson, J. W., 1909, On the relation between the symmetry of the egg, the symmetry of segmentation, and the symmetry of the embryo in the frog, Biometrika, 7:148.

Kindahl, M., 1938, Zur Entwicklung der Exkretionsorgane von Dipnoern und Amphibien, Acta, zool org., 19:H-1.

King, H. D., 1905, Experimental studies on the eye of the frog embryo. Arch. f. Entwcklngsmechn. d. Organ., 19:85.

Knouff, R. A., 1935, The developmental pattern of ectodermal placodes in Rami pipiens, J. Comp. Neurol., 62:17.

, 1927, The origin of the cranial ganglia of Rana, J. Comp. Neurol., 44:259.

Knower, H. McE., 1908, The origin and development of the anterior lymph hearts and the subcutaneous sacs in the frog, Anat. Rec, 2:59.

Kopsch, Fr., 1895, Beitrage zur Gastrulation beim Axolotl- und Froschei, Verhandl. d. anat. Gesellsch., 9:181.

Lams, H., 1907, Contribution a I'etude de la genese du vitellus dans Tovule des Amphibiens {Rana temporaria) , Arch, d'anat. niicr., 9:607.

Lebrun, H., 1902, La vesicule germinative et les globules polaires chez les Anoures, Cellule, 19:315.

Lewis, W. H., 1904, Experimental studies on the development of the eye in amphibia: L On the origin of the lens, Am. J. Anat., 3:505.

Lindeman, V. F., 1929, Integumentary pigmentation in the frog, Rana pipiens, during metamorphosis, with especial reference to tail-skin histolysis, Physiol. Zool., 2:225.

Marcelin, R. H., 1903, Histogenese de I'Epithelium intestinal chez la Grenouille (Rana esculenta) , Rev. Suisse zool., 11:269.

Marx, A., 1925, Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Frage der Determination der Medullarplatte, Arch. mikr. Anat., 55.

Maurer, F. von, 1890, Die erste Anlage der Milz und das erste Auftreten von lymphatischen Zellen bei Amphibien, Morphol. Jahrb., 16:203.

, 1888, Die Kiemen und ihre Gefasse bei anuren und urodelen Amphibien, und die Umbildungen der beiden ersten Arterienbogen bei Teleostiern, Morphol. Jahrb., 14:175.
, 1887, Schilddriise, Thymus und Kiemenreste der Amphibien, Morphol. Jahrb., 13:296.

Maximow, A., 1910, Ueber embryonale Entwickelung der Blutzellen bei Selachiem und Amphibien, Verhandl. d. anat. Gesellsch., 24:64.

Merwin, R., 1945, Some group effects on the rate of cleavage and early development of frog eggs (Rana pipiens), Physiol. Zool., 18:16.

, and W. C. AUee, 1943, The effect of low concentrations of carbon dioxide on the cleavage rate in frog's eggs, Ecology, 24:61.

Miller, R. A., and S. R. Detwiler, 1936, Comparative studies upon the origin and development of the brachial plexus, Anat. Rec, 65:273.

Morgan, T. H., 1906, The origin of the organ-forming materials in the frog's embryo, Biol. Bull, 11:124.

Nicholas, J. S., 1945, Blastulation, its role in pregastrula organization in Amblystoma punctatum, J . Exper. Zool., 100:265.

Nishibe, M., 1928, On the cultivation of kidney tissue from the adult toad. Arch. f. exper. Zelljorsch., 7:87-97.

Nussbaum, M. von, 1895, Zur Mechanik du Eiablage bei Ratia jusca, Arch. mikr. Anat., 46:479.

O'Conner, R. J., 1940, The evolutionary significance of the embryology of the amphibian nephric system, /. Anat., 75: 95.

Pasteels, Jean, 1943, Fermeture du blastopore, anus et intestin caudal chez les Amphibiens Anoures, Acta Neerland. morphol., 5:11.

, 1943, Proliferations et croissance dans la gastrulation de la queue des Vertebres, Arch, de bioL, Paris, 54:2.
, 1942, New observations concerning the maps of presumptive areas of young amphibian gastrula (Ambly stoma and Discoglossus) J. Exper. ZooL, 89:255.

Pezard, A., and R. M. May, 1937, Les terminaisons nerveuses du muscle conturier de la Grenouille et la question de sa partie aneurale, Ann. de physiol., 13:460.

Pollister, A. W., and J. A. Moore, 1937, Tables for the normal development of Rana sylvatica, Anat. Rec, 68:489.

Porter, K. R., 1939, Androgenetic development of the egg of Rana pipiens, Biol. Bull., 77:233.

Reed, Margaret, 1905, The formation of the interior cells of the segmentation of the frog's egg, Biol. Bull., 8:189.

Roux, W. von, 1893, Ueber die ersten Teilungen des Froscheies und ihre Beziehungen zur der Organbildung des Embryo, Anat. Anz., 8:605.

Schechtman, A. M., 1939, Experiments on anus formation in a frog egg, Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med., 41:48.

Schechtman, A. M., 1942, "The Mechanism of Amphibian Gastrulation: I. Gastrulation-promoting Interactions Between Various Regions of an Anuran Egg (Hyla regilla) ," University of California Publications — Zoology, vol. 51, pp. 1-39.

Schmalhausen, J. J., 1908, Die Entwickelung des Skelettes der hinteren Extremitat der anuren Amphibien, Anat. Anz., 33:337.

Schultz, O. von, 1900, Ueber das erste Auftreten der bilateralen Symmetrie im Verlauf der Entwicklung, Arch. mikr. Anat., 55:171.

, 1887, Untersuchungen iiber die Reifung und Befruchtung des Amphibieneies, Ztschr. wiss. ZooL, 45:177.

Schwind, J. L., 1933, Tissue specificity at the time of metamorphosis of the frog larvae, /. Exper. ZooL, 66:1.

Schwink, von, 1891, Untersuchungen liber die Entwicklung des Endothels und der Blutkorperchen der Amphibien, Morphol. Jahrb., 17:288.

Shore, T. W., 1902, The development of the renal-portals and fate of the posterior cardinal veins in the frog, J. Anat. & Physiol., 36:20.

Shumway, W., 1940, 1942, Stages in the normal development of Rana pipiens: I. External form, Anat. Rec, 78:139; II. Identification of the stages from sectioned material, Anat. Rec, 83:309.

Silver, M. L., 1942, The motoneurons of the spinal cord of the frog, J. Comp. Neurol., 77:1.

Spek, J., 1919, Studien iiber den Mechanismus des Gastruhiinvagination, Biol. ZentralbL, 39:13.

Spemann, H., 1898, Ueber die erste Entwicklung der Tuba Eustachii und des Kopfskelets von Rana temporaria, Zool. Jahrb., 11: 389.

Stenger, A., and H. A. Charipper, 1946, A study of adrenal cortical tissue in Rana pipiens with special reference to metamorphosis, J. MorphoL, 78:27.

Stewart, S. G., 1927, The morphology of the frog's kidney, Anat. Rec, 36:259.

Stohr, Ph. von, 1895, Uber die Entwicklung der Hypochorda und des dorsalen Pankreas bei Rana temporaria, Morphol. Jahrb., 23:123.

Suntzowa, W., 1931, Analyse der Gewebe beim Wachstum der Froschniere in vitro. Arch. f. exper. Zellforsch., 10:178.

Swingle, W. W., 1926, The germ cells of Anurans: II. An embryological study of sex differentiation in Rana catesbeana, J. Morphol. & Physiol., 41:441.

Taylor, A. C, 1944, Selectivity of nerve fibers from the dorsal and ventral roots in the development of the frog limb, /. Exper. Zool, 96:189.

, and J. J. Kollros, 1946, Stages in the normal development of Rana pipiens larvae, Anat. Rec, 94:7.

Taylor, S. J., and E. H. Craigie, 1938, The vascularity of the hypophysis of the frog (Rana pipiens), Anat. Rec, 71:277.

Tretjakoff, D., 1906, Die vordere Augenholfte des Frosches, Ztschr. wiss. Zool., 80:327.

Tsui, C. L., 1931, Seasonal changes in the kidney of the frog, Contr. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc China, 7:239.

Ussoff, S. A. von, 1910, Stomodaeum-Ektochorda (das vordere Ende der Chorda). Vergleichend-embryologische Studien des axialen Skelettes, Anat. Anz., 35:168.

Villy, F., 1890, The development of the ear and accessory organs in the common frog. Quart. J. Micr. Sci., 30:523.

Vintemberger, P., 1938, Sur les Resultats de la Transplantation d'Organinsateurs d'etendues differentes, chez Rana fusca, dans la Region Blastoporale ventrale, Comp. rend. Soc. de bioL, 127:433; Sur les Resultats de la Transplantation d'Organinsateurs d'etendues differentes, chez Rana fusca, dans la Region ventrale, de la voute blastuleene, Comp. rend. Soc. de biol., 127:436.

Vogt, W., 1929, GestaUungsanalyse am Amphibienkeim mit ortlicher Vital farbung: II. Teil gastrulation und Mesodermbildung bei Urodelen und Anuren, Arch. f. Entwcklngsmechn. d. Organ., 116:384.

Weber, A., 1908, Etude de la torsion de I'ebauche cardiaque chez Rana esculenta, Bibliog. Anatomiqiie , 18:136.

Wetzel, G., 1908, Der Wassergeholt des fertigen Froscheies und der Mechanismus der Bildung seiner Hiille im Eileiter, Arch. j. Entwcklngsmechn. d. Organ., 26:651.

Williams, S. C, 1930, Regeneration of peripheral nerves in Amphibia studied with the aid of a vital stain, /. Exper. Zool., 57:145.

Wilson, C. B., 1896, The wrinkling of frog's eggs during segmentation, Am. Naturalist, 30:761.

Wilson, H. v., 1902, Closure of the blastopore in the normally placed frog egg, Anat. Anz., 20:123.

Witschi, E., 1929, Studies on sex differentiation and sex determination in amphibians: I. Development and sexual differentiation of the gonads of Rana sylvatica, J. Exper. Zool., 52:235.

Zwilling, E., 1941, The determination of the otic vesicle in Rana pipiens, J. Exper. Zool., 86:333.

, 1940, An experimental analysis of the development of the anuran olfactory organ, /. Exper. Zool., 84:291.


Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)
Frog Development (1951): Introduction | Rana pipiens | Reproductive System | Fertilization | Cleavage | Blastulation | Gastrulation | Neurulation | Early Embryo Changes | Later Embryo or Larva | Ectodermal Derivatives | Endodermal Derivatives | Mesodermal Derivatives | Summary of Organ Appearance | Glossary | Bibliography | Figures

Reference

Rugh R. Book - The Frog Its Reproduction and Development. (1951) The Blakiston Company.


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