Book - The Development of the Albino Rat 10

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Huber GC. The Development of the Albino Rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). (1915) J. Morphology 26(2).

Normal: Introduction | Materials and Methods | Ovulation, Maturation and Fertilization | Pronuclear Stage | Segmentation Stages | 2-ceIl stage | 4-ceIl stage | 12 to 16-ceIl stages | Summary of segmentation stages | Completion of segmentation and blastodermic vesicle formation | Blastodermic vesicle | Late stages blastodermic vesicle | Egg-cylinder formation | Late stages in egg-cylinder | Conclusions | Literature cited | Figures
Abnormal: Introduction | Half Embryos in Mammalia | Degeneration of ova at the end of segmentation | Incomplete or retarded segmentation | Abnormal segmentation cavity formation | Degeneration of ova as a result of pathologic mucosa | Imperfect development of ectodermal vesicle | Two egg-cylinders in one decidual crypt | Conclusions | Literature cited
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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Conclusions

Early stages of mammalian development may readily be obtained from the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). When care is exercised, mating may be observed and the age of the embryo, reckoned from the time of mating (insemination), determined with a fair degree of accuracy. Ovulations occur about the time of parturition and again 29 to 30 days post partum. This latter period is more favorable for obtaining insemination and semination, thus fertilized ova. The process of fertilization probably takes place during the latter half of the first day after insemination.


The pronuclear stage, a stage which extends through a period of perhaps 12 to 15 hours, in the middle phase, is observed at the end of the first day after insemination; the fertilized ova having wandered about one-fourth of the length of the oviduct by that time. Of the two pronuclei, the female pronucleus is slightly the larger. The two pronuclei lie near the center of the ovum, are distinctly membraned, and do not fuse prior to the formation of the first segmentation spindle.


The formation of the first segmentation spindle and the first segmentation occur during the early part of the second day after insemination. The resulting 2-cell stage extends for a period of about 24 hours and is found in about the middle of the oviduct. The first two blast omeres are equivalent cells. One of these segments before the other, resulting in a 3-cell stage, present for each ovum for only a relatively short period.


The 4-cell stage is observed at the end of the third day after insemination. The ova have by this time traversed about ninetenths of the length of the oviduct.


The 8-cell stage is observed the latter half of the fourth day after insemination and at the end of the fourth day the ova pass from the oviduct to the uterus in the 12-cell to 16-cell stage. The oolemma is lost usually in the 4-cell stage, the segmenting ova conforming in shape to the general form of that portion of the oviduct in which they are found.


Three successive segmentation stages, spaced at intervals of about 18 hours, resulting in 2-, 4-, and 8-cell stages occur during transit through the oviduct. During the foiu-th segmentation the ova pass from the oviducts to the uterine horns, at the end of the fourth day.


The mass increase of the ova during the first three segmentations is approximately from 0.15 c.mm. in the pronuclear stage to 0.18 c.mm. in the 8-cell stage. The slow rate of segmentation and the relatively small mass increase may be attributed to the relative scarcity of the embryotroph during transit through the oviducts.


During the early hours of the fifth day after insemination, all of the segmenting ova are found lying free in the lumen of the uterus, spaced about as in the later stages of development, the fifth series of segmentations having been completed by this time, the resulting morula masses having ovoid form, measuring approximately 80 /x by 50 /i and consisting of from 24 to 32 cells. The mechanism operative in spacing the ova in the uterine horns has not been determined.


The early stages of blastodermic vesicle formation are observed during the middle and latter half of the fifth day. The segmentation cavity begins as a single, irregularly crescentic space, eccentric in position, and arising between the cells of the morula.


By the end of the fifth day after insemination, all fertilized, normal ova are found in the blastodermic vesicle stage. One pole of each vesicle, its floor, consists of a relatively thick mass of cells, in which there is no differentiation in layers and no evidence of ectodermal and entodermal cells. The other pole of each vesicle, its roof, consists of a single layer of flattened cells, bordering the segmentation cavity.


During the sixth day, the blastodermic vesicles which still lie free in the lumen of the uterus, increase in size, partly as a result of extension of the roof cells, partly owing to rearrangement and flattening of the cells of the floor. This portion of the vesicle now presents the form of a concavo-convex disc, forming about one-sixth of the vesicle wall and consisting, as a rule, of three layers of cells, the inner of which is now differentiated to form the yolk entoderm.


During the seventh day after insemination the blastodermic vesicles become definitely oriented in a decidual crypt, the thicker portion, its floor, being directed toward the mesometrial border. The phenomenon of the inversion of the germ layers" or "entypy of the germ layers" is initiated, the result of cell rearrangement and cell enlargement in the germinal disc, manifested as an outgrowth to form the ectoplacental cone or Trager and an ingrowth into the vesicle, the anlage of the egg-plug or egg-cylinder. In the egg-plug there is recognized a circumscribed, compact mass of cells, staining more deeply than surrounding cells, which constitute the ectodermal node, the anlage of the primary embryonic ectoderm of the future embryo. This ectodermal node, so far as it extends into the cavity of the blastodermic vesicle, is surrounded by yolk entoderm.


During the eighth day after insemination, the egg-cylinder comes in definite relation with the maternal decidua and receives as embryotroph maternal hemoglobin, partly through phagocytic action of the cells of the ectoplacental cone, partly through absorption of maternal hemoglobin by the cells of the entoderm, initiating a period of very active growth as evidenced by active mitosis. The egg-cjdinder increases in length, and entypy is completed. A cavity develops in the ectodermal node, the antinipsonu'trial portion of the i)n)ainiii()tic cavity. A little later a second cavity develops in the extraembryonic ectoderm, the mesometrial portion of the proamniotic cavity, the two cavities fusing by the end of the eighth day to form a single proamniotic cavity, lined in its antimesometrial portion by primary embryonic ectoderm, and in its mesometrial portion by extraembryonic ectoderm, the two types of ectoderm forming a continuous layer with the line of junction readily distinguisliable. No evidence of bilateral synnnetry is at this stage observed in the egg-cylinder.


During the ninth day after insemination there is observed the anlage and the early developmental stage of the mesoderm and the anlage of the primitive streak and groove. The mesoderm has its anlage in the caudal portion of the prrimary embryonic ectoderm in the sagittal region and is of the nature of prostomial mesoderm, extending laterally in wing-like extensions between the ectoderm and entoderm.

Literature Cited

Assheton, R. 1895 A re-investigation into the early stages of the development of the rabbit. Quart. Jr. Mic. Sc, vol. 37, N. S.

1899 a The development of the pig during the first ten days. Quart. Jr. Mic. So., vol. 41, N. S.
1899 b The segmentation of the ovum of the sheep, with observations on the hypothesis of a hypoblastic origin for the trophoblast. Quart. Jr. Mic. Sc, vol. 41, N. S.

Bischoff, Th. L. W. 1845 Entwicklungsgeschichte des Hundeeis. Braunschweig.

1852 Entwickelungsgeschichte des Meerschweinchens. Giessen.

Burckhard, G. 1901 Die Implantation des Eies der Maus in die Uterusschleimhaut und die Umbildung deselben zur Decidua. Arch. f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 57.

Christiani, H. 1892 L'inversion des feuillets blastodermiques chez le rat albinos. Arch, de Phys. norm, et pathol., vol. 24 (S. 5, T. 4).

CoE, W. R. 1908 The maturation of the egg of the rat. Science, N. S., vol. 27.

Daniel, J. F. 1910 Observations on the period of gestation in white mice. Jour. Exper. Zool., vol. 9.

d'Erchia, F. 1901 Ueber die Einbettung des Eies und die Entwicklung und den Bau der AUantois-und Dottersackplacenta bei der weissen Maus. Zeitsch. f. Geburtshilfe und Gynaecologie, Bd. 44.

Donaldson, H. H. 1912 The history and zoological position of the albino rat. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc, Philadelphia, vol. 15, second series.

Duesberg, J. 1908 La spcrmatogene.se choz le rat. Arch. f. Zellforschung, Bd. 2.

Duval, M. 1891 Le placenta des rongeurs (Suite I). Troisieme partie. Jour, de I'anat. et de la phys.

Eraser, A. 1883 On the inversion of the blastodermic layers in the rat and mouse. Proceed, of the Royal Society, vol. 34.

Grosser, O. 1909 \'ergleichende Anatomic und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Eihaute und der Placenta mit besondercr Hcriicksichtigung des Menschen. Wien und Leipzig.

Heape, W. 1886 The development of the mole (Talpa europea), the ovarian ovum, and the segmentation of the ovum. Quart. Jr. Mic. Sc, vol. 26, N. S.

Von Hensen, v. 1876 ' Beobachtung tibcr die Befruchtung und Entwickelung des Kaninchens und Meerschweinchens. Zeitsch. f. Anat. und Entwick., Bd. 1.

Hertwig, O. 1906 Die Lehre von den Keimbliittern. In O. Hertwig's Handbuch der vergleichenden und experimentellen Entwickelungslehre der Wirbeltiere. Bd. 1, Fischer, Jena.

Hertwig, R. 1906 Der Furchungsprozess. In O. Hertwig's Handbuch der vergleichenden und experimentellen Entwickelungslehre der Wirbeltiere. Bd. 1, Fischer, Jena.

Hubrecht, A. A. W. 1895 Die Phylogenesc des Amnios unci die Bedeutung des Trophoblast. Vcrh. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, Scr. 2 (quoted from O. Hertwig).

Jenkinson, J. W. 1900 A reinvestigation of the early stages of the development of the mouse. Quart. Jr. Mic. 8c., vol. 43, N. S.

Keibel, F. 1888 Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Igels. (Erinaceus europaeus). Anat. Anz., Bd. 3.

King, H. D. 1913 Some anomalies in the gestation of the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albinus). Biol. Bull., vol. 24.

Kinkham, W. B., and Burr, II. S. 1913 The breeding habits, maturation of the eggs and ovulation of the albino rat. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. lo.

Kulster, R. 1903 Zur Kenntnis der Embryotrophe beim Vordhandensein einer Decidua Capsularis. Anat. Hefte, vol. 22.

Kupffer, C. 1882 Das Ei von Arvicola arvalis und die vermeintliche Umkehr der Keimbliitter an demselben. Sitz. Ber. d. K. b. Akad. d. Wiss., II CI, Bd. 5.

Lee. T. G. 1903 Implantation of the ovum in Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, Mitch. Mark Anniversary Volume. Henry Holt and Co., New York.

Long, J. A., and Mark, E. L. 1911 The maturation of the egg of the mouse. Carnegie Institute of Washington, Publication No. 142.

Long, J. A. 1912 Studies on earlj' stages of development in rats and mice, No. 3, by Mark and Long. The living eggs of rats and mice with a description of apparatus for obtaining and observing them. University of California Publications in Zoology, vol. 9.

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1911 Die Entwicklung des Eies der Maus vom erst en Auftreten des Mesoderms an bis zur Ausbildung der Embryonalanlage und dem Auftreten des Allantois. I Teil: Die Keimblase. Arch. f. mik. Anat., Bd. 78.

Sobotta, J., and Burckhard, G. 1911 Reifung und Befruchtung des Eies der weissen Ratte. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 42.

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Normal: Introduction | Materials and Methods | Ovulation, Maturation and Fertilization | Pronuclear Stage | Segmentation Stages | 2-ceIl stage | 4-ceIl stage | 12 to 16-ceIl stages | Summary of segmentation stages | Completion of segmentation and blastodermic vesicle formation | Blastodermic vesicle | Late stages blastodermic vesicle | Egg-cylinder formation | Late stages in egg-cylinder | Conclusions | Literature cited | Figures
Abnormal: Introduction | Half Embryos in Mammalia | Degeneration of ova at the end of segmentation | Incomplete or retarded segmentation | Abnormal segmentation cavity formation | Degeneration of ova as a result of pathologic mucosa | Imperfect development of ectodermal vesicle | Two egg-cylinders in one decidual crypt | Conclusions | Literature cited
Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Book - The Development of the Albino Rat 10. Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_The_Development_of_the_Albino_Rat_10

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