Book - Human Embryology - Prenatal Development of form and Function

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Hamilton WJ. Boyd JD. and Mossman HW. Human Embryology - Prenatal Development of form and Function. (1959)

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This is a 1959 textbook on human embryology.

See also the earlier textbook gy the same authors: Hamilton WJ. Boyd JD. and Mossman HW. Human Embryology. (1945) Cambridge: Heffers.

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Human Embryology - Prenatal Development of Form and Function

W J Hamilton, Md,Dsc,Frsp

Professor of Anatomy in the University of London at Channg Cross Hospital Medical School sometime Regius Professor of Anatomy in the University of Glasgow formerly Professor of Anatomy in the University of London at the Medical College of St Bartholomew s Hospital

J D Boyd , MAM Sc Md

Professot of Anatomy m the University of Cambridge and Fellow of Clare College Cambridge sometime Professor of Anatomy in the University of London at the London Hospital Medical College


H W Mossman, MS, PhD

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Wisconsin

And surely we are all out of the eomputation of our age and every man is some months elder than he bethinks him for tie hie moie haie a being, and are subject to the actions of the elements and the malice of diseases, in that other World the truest Microcosm the womb of our Mother

Sir Thomas Browne's Religio Medici 1642



W J. Hamilton,

J D Boyd,

H W Mossman


Printed in Great Britain at the Works of

Wheffer And Sons Ltd , Cambridge, England

To the memory of Thomas Hastie Bryce and George Linius Streeter whom the first edition of this work is dedicated.

Thomas Hastie Bryce George Linius Streeter
Thomas Hastie Bryce 1862 - 1946) George Linius Streeter (1873-1948)

From the Preface to the First Edition

This book is a presentation of the subject of human embryology in the light of the aclvances which have been made in it during the past twenty years An attempt has been made to ht the developmental history of the embryo into the background of the physiological changes in the maternal organism and to correlate the development of embryonic function with that of its form \Nc have also tried to introduce the concepts of development which have been estab lislied b\ the work of experimental embryologists (Chapters I and VIII) These concepts are of c,reat theoretical, and we believe practical importance but, unfortunately, they do not readily lend themselv es to elementary exposition further as they are based almost exclusively on the results of experiments on animals below the mammals it is extremely difficult to present them without assuming a knowledge of comparative Embryology A brief survey of compara tive vertebrate development is therefore, given in the last chapter and if the reader finds difficulty with Chapter VIII it is recommended that he studies Chapter XVI before proceeding with the attempt at mastering the concepts of determination and the organizer Special attention is paid in Chapters V and XVI to placeniation and the embryonic membranes as a knowledge of these aspects of embrvology is of special importance m the study of the problems of embryonic and foetal nutrition and of the prenatal relationship between the mother and the child.

References to embrvological literature arc full not however with the intention that the student shall consult all or even more than a very few of them We feel lint direct reference to the original literature is a habit that the student should acquire early and tint an extensive bibliography gives an opportunity to track down original observations on any aspect of a bio logical problem which may particularly interest the reader For this reason titles of papers have been deliberately given in full even at the expense of lengthening the text It is felt that the bibliographies may also be of service to more senior students

A sound knowledge of embryology cannot be obtained solely from a textbook We recommend students, therefore to obtain access to serial sections through mammalian or if possible human embryos and to study them carefully Many difficulties in organogenesis can quickly be resolved by reference to such scries and the drawing of a number of representative sectiors provides n most excellent discipline for acquiring a knowledge of the basic structure of the mammalian body

London W J H

October 1944


Preface To Second Edition

For this edition the whole text has been extensively revised md many of the chapters have been completely recast and rewritten It has been considered advisable to give a brief intro ductory statement to eacii chapter so as to orientate the reader \n attempt Ins been made to keep the text as short as possible and up to a point we feel that we have succeeded Excluding the index the subject matter has been increased from 343 to 411 pages This increase is mamly due to the increase in the number of illustrations from 364 to 433 A large number of photo micrographs have been added and many of the illustrations of the previous edition have been either redrawn or replaced C onversion from squared off blocks to either cutout or deep etchrd blocks has been widely carried out \\c have also taken the opportunity to introduce a different type face and to shorten the length of the line These typographical altcntions are also partly responsible foi the increase in the size of the book.




We wish to acknowledge our indebtedness to the Carnegie Institution of Washington for the valuable help we have received fiom the numerous publications on embryology by members of the Staff and others associated with them. We would thank especially Dr G W Corner, Director of the Embiyological Laboratory, for original photographs of human embryos at different stages of development. To Dr A. T, Hcrtig and Dr J. Rock we are indebted for photographs of early human embryos. We are especially indebted to them for photographs of the two cell stage and the unattached human blastocyst.

We wish to thank the following foi permission to reproduce illustrations - (a) The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology for illustrations from the American Journal of Anatomy, (b) The American Journal of Obstetncs and Gynecology for Fig. 23 (c) Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics for Fig 18A. [d) Journal of Anatomy. All illustrations from the above sources have been acknowledged in the accompanying legends

We thank the Blakiston Company foi permission to reproduce Fig 424 from Snell’s Biology of the Laboratory Mouse, also Messrs Arnold, London, and Professor S J Cameron, of Glasgow, for permission to reproduce Fig. 91,

In the present edition we have to thank Professor A. Pomfret Kilner for permission to leproduce Fig, 176. We also wish to thank Mr P. J Blaxland, F.R.C S , for permission to reproduce Fig. 260 and the late Dr A. Peacock for Fig 370.

All the new illustrations are from the skilled draughtsmanship of Mr Frank Price and we have to thank him for his skill and patience We are indebted to many readers, and especiallv to Dr W Hammond of Syracuse University, for their constructive criticism and for pointing out a number of ambiguous statements.

We record our indebtedness to Di R. J Haiiison and to Dr T. M Roberts for their help in leading the manuscript and proofs and for their constructive criticism We wish to express our thanks to Mr E, J Park, technician in the Anatomy Department, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, for the care he has taken in “pasting up” the annotations of the new illustrations He has also given us much help in the checking of the references

We have been fortunate in the cordial lelationship which has existed between us and Messrs W. Heffer & Sons Ltd , the Printers and Publishers Mr R G Heffer has ahvays been willing to meet and satisfy our many demands for more illustrations Finally, we wish to thank Mr G Newman, works director of Messrs W Heffer & Sons Ltd , for his patience, resourcefulness and enthusiasm.


Chapter I Introductory Concepts

Chapter II Formation Maturation and Structure of the Germ Cells

Chapter III Cyclic Changes in the Female Genital Tract

Chapter IV Fertilization Cleavage and Formation of the Germ Lavers

Chapter V The Implantation of the Blastocyst and the Development of the Foetal Membranes Placenta and Decidua

Chapter VI The Fate of the Germ Lavers and the Formation op the Essential (Primary) Tissues including the Blood

Chapter VII Growth of the Embryo Development of External Form Estimation of Embryonic and Foetal Age

Chapter VIII Determination Differentiation the Organizer Mechanism Abnormal Development and Twinning

Chapter IX Cardio Vascular System

Chapter X Alimentarv and Respiratory Systems Pleural and Peritoneal Cavities

Chapter XI Urogenital System

Chapter XII Nervous System

Chapter XIII Skeletal System

Chapter XIV Muscle and Fascia

Chapter XV Integumentary System

Chapter XVI Comparative Vertebrate Development



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, June 21) Embryology Book - Human Embryology - Prenatal Development of form and Function. Retrieved from

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