Book - Chemical embryology 2 (1900)

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Needham J. Chemical Embryology Vol. 2. (1900)

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This historic 1900 volume 2 of a textbook by Needham describes chemical embryology.

Internet Archive

Also by this author: Needham J. Chemical Embryology Vol. 1. (1900)

Modern Notes:
Historic Embryology Textbooks

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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Chemical Embryology - Volume Two


Joseph Needham

M.A., Ph.D.

Fellow of Gonville & Cains College, Cambridge, and University Demonstrator in Biochemistry.

New York: The Macmillan Company Cambridge, England: At The University Press 1931 Printed In Great Britain




Section 4. The Respiration and Heat-production of the Embryo

4-1. Early Work on Embryonic Respiration

4-2. Respiration of Echinoderm Embryos in General

4-3. Rhythms in Respiratory Exchange

4-4. Heat Production and Calorific Quotients of Echinoderm Embryos

4-5. Respiration of Annelid, Nematode, Rotifer, and Mollusc Embryos

4-6. Respiration of Fish Embryos

4-7. Respiration of Amphibian Embryos

4-8. Heat-production of Amphibian Embryos

4-9. Respiration of Insect Embryos

4-10. Respiration of Reptile Embryos

4-11. Respiration of Avian Embryos in General

4-12. Heat-production of Avian Embryos

4-13. Later Work on the Chick's Respiratory Exchange

4-14. The Air-space and the Shell

4-15. Respiration of Mammalian Embryos

4-16. Heat-production of Mammalian Embryos

4-17. Anaerobiosis in Embryonic Life

4-18. Metabolic Rate in Embryonic Life

4-19. Respiratory Intensity of Embryonic Cells in vitro

4-20. Embryonic Tissue-respiration and Glycolysis

4-21. The Genesis of Heat Regulation

4-22. Light-production in Embryonic Life

Section 5. Biophysical Phenomena in Ontogenesis

5-1. The Osmotic Pressure of Amphibian Eggs

5-2. The Genesis of Volume Regulation

53. The Osmotic Pressure of Aquatic Arthropod Eggs

54. The Osmotic Pressure of Fish Eggs

5-5. Osmotic Pressure and Electrical Conductivity in Worm and Echinoderm Eggs

5-6. The Osmotic Pressure of Terrestrial Eggs

5-7. Specific Gravity

5-8. Potential Differences, Electrical Resistance, Blaze Currents and Cataphoresis

5-9. Refractive Index, Surface Tension and Viscosity

Section 6. General Metabolism of the Embryo

6-1. The j&H of Aquatic Eggs

6-2. The j&H of Terrestrial Eggs

6-3. rH in Embryonic Life

6-4. Water-metabolism of the Avian Egg

Section 6-5. Water-content and Growth-rate page

6-6. Water-absorption and the Evolution of the Terrestrial Egg

6-7. Water-metabolism in Aquatic Eggs

6-8. The Chemical Constitution of the Embryonic Body in Birds and Mammals

6-9. Absorption-mechanisms and Absorption-intensity

6- 10. Storage and Combustion; the Plastic Efficiency Coefficient

6-11. Metabolism of the Avian Spare Yolk

6-12. Maternal Diet and Embryonic Constitution

Section 7. The Energetics and Energy-sources of Embryonic Development

7-1. The Energy Lost from the Egg during Development

7-2. Energy of Growth and Energy of Differentiation

7-3. The Relation between Energy Lost and Energy Stored

7-4. Real Energetic Efficiency

7-5. Apparent Energetic Efficiency

7-6. Synthetic Energetic Efficiency

7-7. The Sources of the Energy Lost from the Egg

Section 8. Carbohydrate Metabolism

8-1. General Observations on the Avian Egg

8-2. Total Carbohydrate, Free Glucose, and Glycogen

8-3. Ovomucoid and Combined Glucose

8-4. Carbohydrate and Fat

8-5. The Metabolism of Glycogen and the Transitory Liver

8-6. Free Glucose, Glycogen, and Insulin in the Embryonic Body

8-7. General Scheme of Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Avian Egg

8-8. Embryonic Tissue Glycogen

8-9. Embryonic Blood Sugar

8-10. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Amphibian Development

8-11. Carbohydrate Metabolism of Invertebrate Eggs

8-12. Pentoses

8-13. Lactic Acid

8-14. Fructose

Section 9. Protein Metabolism

9-1. The Structure of the Avian Egg-proteins before and after Development

9-2. Metabolism of the Individual Amino-Acids

9-3. The Relations between Protein and non-Protein Nitrogen

9-4. The Accumulation of Nitrogenous Waste Products

9-5. Protein Catabolism

9-6. Nitrogen-excretion; Mesonephros, Allantois, and Amnios

9-7. The Origin of Protective Syntheses

9*8. Protein Metabolism of Reptilian Eggs

9-9. Protein Metabolism of Amphibian Eggs

9' 10. Protein Metabolism in Teleostean Ontogeny

9-11. Protein Metabolism in Selachian Ontogeny

9-12. Protein Metabolism of Insect, Worm, and Echinoderm Eggs

9-13. Protein Utilisation in Mammalian Embryonic Life

9-14. Protein Utilisation of Explanted Embryonic Cells

9-15. Uricotelic Metabolism and the Evolution of the Terrestrial Egg

Section 10. The Metabolism of Nucleins and Nitrogenous Extractives

10-1. Nuclein Metabolism of the Chick Embryo

10-2. The Nucleoplasmatic Ratio

10-3. Nuclein Synthesis in Developing Eggs

10-4. Creatinine, Creatine, and Guanidine

Section 11. Fat Metabolism

11-1. Fat Metabolism of Avian Eggs

11-2. Fat Metabolism of Reptilian Eggs

11-3. Fat Metabolism of Amphibian Eggs

11-4. Fat Metabolism of Selachian Eggs

11-5. Fat Metabolism of Teleostean Eggs

11-6. Fat Metabolism of Mollusc, Worm, and Echinoderm Eggs

11-7. Fat Metabolism of Insect Eggs

11-8. Combustion and Synthesis of Fatty Acids in Relation to Metabolic Water

11-9. Fat Metabolism of Mammalian Embryos

Section 12. The Metabolism ofLipoids, Sterols, Cycloses, Phosphorus and Sulphur

12-1. Phosphorus Metabolism of the Avian Egg

12-2. Tissue Phosphorus Coefficients

I2-3. Choline in Avian Development

12-4, The Metabolism of Sterols during Avian Development

12-5. The Relation between Lipoids and Sterols; the Lipocytic Coefficient

12-6. Cycloses and Alcohols in Avian Development

12-7. Sulphur Metabolism of the Avian Egg

12-8. Phosphorus, Sulphur, Choline, and Cholesterol in Reptile Eggs

Section 12-9. Lipoids and Sterols in Amphibian Eggs

12-10. Lipoids, Sterols, and Cycloses in Fish Eggs

i2-11. Phosphorus, Lipoids and Sterols in Arthropod Eggs

12-12. Phosphorus, Lipoids, and Sterols in Worm and Echinoderm Eggs

12-13. Lipoids and Sterols in Mammalian Development

Section 13. Inorganic Metabolism

13-1. Changes in the Distribution of Ash during Avian Development

13-2. Calcium Metabolism of the Avian Egg

13-3. Inorganic Metabolism of other Eggs

13-4. The Absorption of Ash from Sea-water by Marine Eggs

13-5. The Ani on/Cation Ratio

13-6. Inorganic Metabolism of Mammalian Embryos

13-7. Calcium Metabolism of Mammalian Embryos

Section 14. Enzymes in Ontogenesis

14-1. Introduction

4-2. Enzymes in Arthropod Eggs

4-3. Enzymes in Mollusc, Worm, and Echinoderm Eggs

4-4. Enzymes in Fish Eggs

4-5. Enzymes in Amphibian Eggs

4-6. Enzymes in Sauropsid Eggs

4-7. Changes in Enzymic Activity during Development

4-8. Enzymes of the Embryonic Body

4-9. Enzymes in Mammalian Embryos

4-10. The Genesis of Nucleases

4-11. Foetal Autolysis

Section 15. Hormones in Ontogenesis

15-1. Introduction

15-2. Adrenalin

15-3. Insulin

15-4. The Parathyroid Hormone

15-5. The Hormones of the Pituitary

15-6. Secretin

15-7. Thyroxin

15-8. Oestrin and other Sex Hormones

Section i6. Vitamins in Ontogenesis

16-1. Vitamin A

16-2. Vitamin B

16-3. Vitamin C

16-4. Vitamin D

16-5. Vitamins in Mammalian Development

16-6. Vitamin E

Section 17. Pigments in Ontogenesis

17-1. The Formation of Blood Pigments

17-2. The Formation of Bile Pigments

17-3. The Formation of Tissue Pigments

17-4. The Pigments of the Avian Egg-shell

17-5. The Pigments of the Avian Yolk

17-6. Egg-pigments of Aquatic Animals

17-7. Melanins in Ontogenesis

Section 18. Resistance and Susceptibility in Embryonic Life

18-1. Introduction

18-2. Standard Mortality Curves

18-3. Resistance to Mechanical Injury

18-4. Resistance to Thermal Injury

18-5. Resistance to Electrical Injury

18-6. Resistance to Injury caused by Abnormal j&H

18-7. Resistance to Injury caused by Abnormal Gas Concentrations (non-Avian Embryos)

18-8. Critical Points in Development

18-9. Resistance to Injury caused by Abnormal Gas Concentrations (Avian Embryos)

18-10. Resistance to Injury caused by Toxic Substances

18-11. Resistance to Injury caused by X-rays, Radium Emanation, and Ultra-violet Light

Section 19. Serology and Immunology in Embryonic Life

19-1. Antigenic Properties of Eggs and Embryos

19-2. The Formation of Natural Antibodies

19-3. The Natural Immunity of Egg-white

19-4. Inheritance of Immunity in Oviparous Animals

19-5. Serology and Pregnancy

19-6. Resistance of the Avian Embryo to Foreign Neoplasms

Section 20. Biochemistry of the Placenta

20-1. Introduction

20-2. General Metabolism of the Placenta

20-3. Placental Respiration

20-4. Nitrogen Metabolism of the Placenta

20-5. Carbohydrate Metabolism of the Placenta

20-6. Fat and Lipoid Metabolism of the Placenta

20-7. Placental Enzymes

Section 21. Biochemistry of the Placental Barrier

21-1. The Autonomy of the Foetal Blood

21-2. Evolution of the Placenta

21-3. Histotrophe and Haemotrophe

21-4. Mesonephros and Placenta

21-5. Colostrum and Placenta

21-6. Placental Transmission and Molecular Size

21-7. QuaHtative Experiments on Placental Permeability

21-8. The Passage of Hormones

21-9. Factors Governing Placental Transmission

2I-IO. Quantitative Experiments on the Passage of Nitrogenous Substances

21-11. Quantitative Experiments on the Passage of Phosphorus, Fats, and Sterols

21-12. Quantitative Experiments on the Passage of Carbohydrates

21-13. Quantitative Experiments on the Passage of Ash

21-14. The Passage of Enzymes

21-15. The Unequal Balance of Blood Constituents

Section 22. Biochemistry of the Amniotic and Allantoic Liquids

22-1. Introduction

22-2. Evolution of the Liquids

22-3. Avian Amniotic and Allantoic Liquids

22-4. Amount and Composition of Mammalian Amniotic and Allantoic Liquids

22-5. Maternal Transudation and Foetal Secretion

22-6. Interchange between Amniotic and Allantoic Liquids

22-7. Vernix Caseosa

Section 23. Blood and Tissue Chemistry of the Embryo

23-1. Blood

23-2. Lung

23-3. Muscle

23-4. Heart

23-5 Nervous Tissue

23-6. Connective Tissue

23-7. Lymph

23-8. Sense Organs

23-9 Intestinal Tract

Section 24. Hatching and Birth

24-1. Introduction

24-2. Hatching Enzymes

24-3. Osmotic Hatching

24-4. Egg-breakers

24-5. Hatching of the Avian Egg

24-6. Mammalian Birth


The Two Problems of Embryology

The Cleidoic Egg and its Evolution

Chemical Synthesis as an Aspect of Ontogeny

Biochemistry and Morphogenesis

Transitory Functions in Embryonic Life

The Theory of Recapitulation

Recapitulation and Substitution

Chemical Recapitulation

Provisional Generalisations for Chemical Embryology

The Organisation of Development and the Development of Organisation

The Future of Embryology

PART IV Appendices

i. Normal Tables of Magnitudes in Embryonic Growth

ii. A Chemical Account of the Maturation of the Egg-cell

iii. The Chemical Changes during the Metamorphosis of Insects (by Dorothy Needham)

iv. The Development of the Plant Embryo from a Physico-chemical Viewpoint (by Muriel Robinson)

PART V Bibliography and Author-Index

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, July 8) Embryology Book - Chemical embryology 2 (1900). Retrieved from

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