Book - A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate Embryology (1947)

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Adamstone FB. and Shumway W. A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate Embryology. (1947) John Wiley & Sons, London.

   A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate Embryology 1947: Frog | Chicken | Pig
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A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate Embryology

Anatomy of Selected Embryos of the Frog, Chick, and Pig


F. B. Adamstone, Ph. D.

Professor of Zoolooy, University Of Illinois

Waldo Shumway, Ph. D.

Professor Of Zoology, University Of Illinois


In teaching laboratory clasBes in vertebrate embryology the instructor is confronted with a number of difficulties, chief of which is the fact that most students have had no previbus experience with the methods which must be employed. This manual attempts to introduce these methods and to substitute a thorough, careful study of the anatomy of certain developmental stages of the frog, chick, and pig for the time-honored method of drawing a few individual and supposedly representative sections of these forms. The outline was developed over a period of about ten years, and the results were first embodied in a manual on the chick and 10-mra. pig published by one of us (F. B. A.) in 1938. After a year’s employment in the laboratory, the original work was enlarged and a chapter devoted to the anatomy of frog embryos was added. All drawings were specially prepared by us, and those of models depict wax reconstructions made by students in our courses.

The preliminary work on frog eggs and embryos up to the 6-mm. stage and the 18-, 24-, and 33-hour chicks is carried out by the old method for three reasons, namely : that the embryo is still comparatively simple, the student is usually unfamiliar with any other method of study, and in addition the old method gives the student an opportunity to become familiar with the general appearance of the structures which are most frequently encountered in the more intensive study of serial sections.

At the 6-mm frog and the 48-hour chick stage the transition is made from the old to the new method. The student is expected first to draw a number of representative sections in the orthodox manner, but he must, before this, study carefully the numbered drawings presented in order to be able to recognize structures in the section. After this has been done he is required to study the entire series, make a record of the structures identified, and begin the process of learning to recognize them by means of their diagnostic features and their relation to each other. The study of the 11-mm. tadpole, the 72-hour chick, and the 10-mm. pig dispenses entirely with drawings except for those of the total mount and for the informal sketches made by the student as reference records. Marginal spaces are provided for these records and sketches. An asterisk has been prefixed to certain structures which we ask the students in our laboratory to sketch in the appropriate marginal spaces. Drawings and similar records are not overemphasized, and the success or failure of the student is determined by individual quizzes.

As here organized, the material for laboratory work is divided into three parts, treating the embryology of the frog, chick, and pig,, respectively. Since in many courses time does not permit the intensive study of more than two forms, the part dealing with the frog or pig may be omitted at the choice of the instructor. In our own laboratory, sections on the 6-mm. and 11-mm. frog embryo are omitted in order to permit the students to make their own preparations of the 72-hour chick and 10-mm. pig.

The following programs are suggested:

A. For a course including 6 clock hours in the laboratory, any of the following combinations:

  1. Frog (complete) and chick,
  2. Frog (omitting 11-mm.), chick, and pig.
  3. Frog (omitting 6- and 11-mm.), chick, and pig, including practice in microscopical technique. This program is used by us.

B. For a course including 4 clock hours in the laboratory, any of the following combinations:

  1. Chick and pig.
  2. Frog (omitting 11-mm.) and chfck.

Since it has become necessary to issue a new edition of the manual, we have taken advantage of this opportunity to correct errors and to improve the method of presentation at those points where students encountered the greatest difficulty. We are grateful to both students and instructors who have called these to our attention. The general method of approach remains the same but a more generous allotment of drawing space has been provided throughout the book.

Urbana, Illinois

January, 1947

F. B. A. W.S.




The Oebm Cells and Febtiuzation 1


Oebm Layeb Fobhation 4

Formation of the Neubal Turn 6

Embbto 7

6-mm Embryo 12

Embryo 20


The Gebm Cells and Fertilization

Cleavage and Germ Layer Formation

15-hour Embryo

24-hour Embryo

33-hour Embryo

48-hour Embryo

72-hour Embryo


External Form

Internal Anatomy

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, June 12) Embryology Book - A Laboratory Manual of Vertebrate Embryology (1947). Retrieved from

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