From Embryology

30/7/09 Lab 1 Questions

1. What is the zona pellucida protein that binds spermatozoa to the oocyte surface?

  A: Zona pellucida protein ZP3

2. Name the 3 main stages of follicle development in the ovary.

  A: (i)   Primordial follicle
     (ii)  Preantral follicle
     (iii) Antral (or Graafian) follicle

6/8/09 Lab 2 Questions

1. What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

  A: hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone)

2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?

  A: Progesterone, Oestrogen.

3. What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac?

  A: The germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac is ectoderm. 
     It's two main derivatives are:
       (i)  Nervous Tissue
       (ii) Epithelial Layer of Skin

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:18, 6 August 2009 (EST)

13/8/09 Lab 3 Questions

1. What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover?

  A: The first 8 weeks

2. What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column?

  A: The Sclerotome forms the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks.

3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close?

  A: Stage 13

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:03, 13 August 2009 (EST)

20/8/09 Lab 4 Questions

1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart?

  A: Sinus venosus

2. What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult?

  A: The descending thoracic aorta

3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi?

  A: Endothelium of the capillary, 
     Extraembryonic mesoderm, 
     Cytotrophoblast, and 

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:00, 20 August 2009 (EST)

27/8/09 Lab 5 Questions

1. What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment?

  A: Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia occurs when the pleuroperitoneal foramen fails to close.     
  Which side of the diaphragm is more common for this abnormality?

2. What is the answer to the above question?

  A: The left side (80% of cases)

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 13:29, 27 August 2009 (EST)

3/9/09 Lab 6 Questions

1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate?

  A: cleft lip

2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form?

  A: tympanic cavity, auditory (or eustachian) tube, mastoid antrum, tubotympanic recess 

3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin?

  A: melanocytes

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:01, 3 September 2009 (EST)

17/9/09 Lab 7 Questions

1. Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

  A: Myotube or myofibral is a multinucleated, undifferentiated contractile apparatus. 
     The myotube is formed by fusion of myoblasts during skeletal development.

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

a) Suffered a spinal cord injury

b) Took up marathon running

  A: a) Conversion of slow twitch muscle fibres (type I fibres) to fast twitch muscle 
     fibres (type II fibres). Muscle atrophy would also result from a spinal cord injury.
     b) There would be a shift towards more slow muscle fibres.


--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:00, 17 September 2009 (EST)

24/9/09 Lab 8

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:21, 24 September 2009 (EST)

1/10/09 Lab 9

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:34, 1 October 2009 (EST)

8/10/09 Lab 10

1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

  A: bone marrow, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue

2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

  A: Viral generation - Lentivirus used to deliver yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-MYC) to a cell.
     Virus-free integration - epizonal factors. Avoids possibility of virus genome insertion into the receiving cell.

3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."

  A: True

--Antonio Lee 15:12, 31 October 2009 (EST)3/3 Correct. (NB Q2 Episomal Vectors)

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:10, 8 October 2009 (EST)

15/10/09 Lab 11

--Bronwyn Lewis-Jones 14:00, 15 October 2009 (EST)