From Embryology

Lab 1

1. What is the protein that the sperm binds to??? ZP3

2. Name the 3 stages of follicular development??? Primary (primordial), Secondary (antral and preantral) and Preovulatory (Graffian).

--Joanne Raffel 13:12, 6 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 2

1. What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy??? Secretes hCG to initiate the release of progesterone to maintain the uterine wall.

2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle??? Secretes progesterone to inhibit the menstrual cycle, which is facilitated by hCG which is released by the blastocyst.

3. What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac??? Ectoderm and endoderm

--Joanne Raffel 14:39, 6 August 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 13:56, 13 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 3

1. What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover??? Carnegie stages are used to identify the internal and external developmental process of the embryo. The Carnegie stages are covered over 8 weeks (56 days).

2. What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column??? A somite is a segment of mesodermal tissue that gives rise to the vertebral column, dermis, and skeletal muscle. The sclerotome which results from the somites forms the vertebral column.

3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close??? At Carnegie stage 13 (4 weeks) the neural tube closes completely.

--Joanne Raffel 14:15, 13 August 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 13:41, 20 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 4

1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart??? Sinus venosus receives the majority of fluids from blood vessels.

2. What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult??? The descending aorta.

3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi??? Trophoblasts (consisting of syncitiotrophoblasts & cytotrophoblasts), extraembryonic mesoderm & mesenchyme (which gives rise to blood and placental vessels).

--Joanne Raffel 14:37, 20 August 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 13:12, 27 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 5

1. What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment??? There was no actual question posed, however the concept of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia was discussed.

2. What is the answer to the above question??? Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia occurs when the pleuroperitoneal foramen fails to close, the cavity that is formed is known as the Bochdalek. this abnormality results in allowing the viscera to enter into the thorax, subsequently compressing the lungs and impeding its development. This abnormality is more common on the left side than the right.

--Joanne Raffel 14:22, 27 August 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 13:06, 3 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 6

1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate??? Cleft lip is most common.

2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form??? Forms the tubotympanic recess, which includes the tympanic membrane, tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum and the auditory tube.

3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin??? Forms melanocytes in the skin.

--Joanne Raffel 14:25, 3 September 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 14:32, 17 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 7

1. What is a myotube and how is it formed??? Is a multinucleated cell, arising from the differentiation of myoblasts and gives rise to mature muscle fibres.

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my leg if I:

   a) Suffered a spinal cord injury??? Muscle atrophy would occur.  
   b) Took up marathon running??? There would be a conversion to slow twitch fibres.


--Joanne Raffel 14:54, 17 September 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 13:11, 24 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 8

Peer assessment

--Joanne Raffel 14:11, 1 October 2009 (EST)

Lab 9

Read and identify changes to project page

--Joanne Raffel 13:16, 8 October 2009 (EST)

Lab 10

1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells there were used/studied from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial??? Muscle, bone marrow and adipose tissue.

2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial??? Lenti virus and virus free method known as Episomal vectors.

3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE??? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin." True- as mitochondrial DNA of embryo is of materal origin, where if the mother has a mutation in their mitochondrial DNA, then the embryo will also exhibit that mutation.

--Antonio Lee 15:12, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct.

--Joanne Raffel 14:43, 8 October 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 13:11, 15 October 2009 (EST)

--Joanne Raffel 13:07, 22 October 2009 (EST)