From Embryology

Lab 1 Questions

1. What is the protein that the sperm binds to on the surface of the ova? ZP3 protein

2. Name the 3 stages of follicle development in the ovary? Primary Secondary Graafian

Though I thought i loaded this up when I was in Class... At least i thought i did sorry and i also heard the question differently.

--Sally Clarke 13:12, 6 August 2009 (EST) Lab 2 Questions

1.What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy? HCG (human chorionic Gonadotropin) hormone secreted to stop the menstral cycle by acting on cells in the ovary. These cells in the ovary secrete hormones such as progesterone and oestrogen to stop the menstral flow. It also maintains the Decidua and the Corpus Luteum and secretes proteletic enzymes. HCG in the urine is what a pregnacy test, tests for to determine pregancy.

2.What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle? The Leteul cells – granulosa and theca (synthesise in the hormone) secretes Progesterone which stops menstral cycle. The corpus luteum is signalled by the HCG produced by the Synctiotrophoblasts.

3.What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac? The main tissues are the Nervous Tissue and Epithelial Layer

Process: Epiblast and hypoblast layers are in the Bilaminal Layers --> formation of the Trilaminal Layers with the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm layers. Here the Hyperblast layer is lost and the Yoke, Chorionic and Amnoitic Sac are formed. Yoke sac – layer is lined with endoderm, contributes to the gut formation – The yoke sac is lined with the same cells that will form the gut Corionic sac – aminon fuses with the cornion

--Sally Clarke 13:05, 13 August 2009 (EST) Lab 3 Questions

1.What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover? 8weeks – 8 weeks 4 days

2.What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column? The column differentiates from the paired sclerotome component (ventral half) of the somite and the midline ventral patterning structure the notochord thus contributing to the vertebral column.

3.At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close? Stage 13 – 4 weeks.

--Sally Clarke 13:10, 20 August 2009 (EST) Lab 4 Questions

1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart? Sinus Venosus

2. What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult? The Desending Aorta

3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi?

  • Cytotrophoblast layer
  • Extra-Embryonic Mesoderm
  • Blood Vessels

--Sally Clarke 13:14, 27 August 2009 (EST) Lab 5 Questions

1. What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment? I'm assuming the question was to "Explain the foramen of Bochdalek within Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia"

2. What is the answer to the above question? When the pleuroperitoneal foramen (foramen of Bochdalek) fails to close it allows different viscera into thorax. Thus Intestine, stomach or spleen can enter the pleural cavity, compressing the lung which stops full development of the lung. This usually occurs on the left side more commonly than the right.

--Sally Clarke 13:06, 3 September 2009 (EST) Lab Question 6

1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate? The Cleft lip is more common because a cleft lip always forms from a cleft palate but a cleft lip can also occur individually as well, whereas a cleft palate can not.

2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form? The Pharyngeal arch elongates to form tubotympanic recess, tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, eustachian tube

3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin? Forms melanocytes within the skin

My apologies for my absence from class I was at a Funeral. I will complete the questions tonight. Sal

Lab 7 Questions

1. What is a myotube and how is it formed? It is a multi-nucleated cell that comes from the differentiation of myoblasts and creates the mature muscle fibres.

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my leg if I...

(a) Suffered a spinal cord injury? Muscle Atrophy would occur within the muscles

(b) Took up Marathon Running? There would be a conversion to slow twitch fibres within the muscles


--Sally Clarke 13:57, 24 September 2009 (EST)Lab 8 Questions

Feedback on Websites

--Sally Clarke 14:29, 1 October 2009 (EST)

--Sally Clarke 14:38, 8 October 2009 (EST)Lab 10 Questions

Question 1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the above 5 articles.

  • Muscle
  • Fat(adipose tissue)
  • Bone Marrow

Question 2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the above 5 articles.

  • Virus - Lenti Virus containing 4 genesIntroduction of 4 genes into Adipose tissue,its twice as quick growth. Want to find out which type of Adipose cell is most programable. Yamanaka Factors.
  • Virus Free integrations Epizonal Vectors- avoids viruses intergrating into the genome

Pluripotency is the ability of the human embryonic stem cell to differentiate or become almost any cell in the body.

Question 3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."

  • TRUE

--Antonio Lee 15:10, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct. (NB Q2 Episomal Vectors)