From Embryology

Lab 1 Q1: What is the protein that sperm binds to on the surface of the egg? ZP3

Lab 1 Q2: Name the three stages of follicle development in the ovary: Primordial, pre-antral and Graafian.

--Thomas Dangerfield 14:58, 30 July 2009 (EST)

--Thomas Dangerfield 13:09, 6 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 2 Q1: What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy? (hCG) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

Lab 2 Q2: What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle? (hCG) release encourages the ovary to release oestrogen and progesterone.

Lab 2 Q3: What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac? Ectoderm - nervous system and epidermis epithelium

--Thomas Dangerfield 14:25, 6 August 2009 (EST)

--Thomas Dangerfield 13:49, 13 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 3 Q1: What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover? The first 8 weeks of human development.

Lab 3 Q2: What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column? The sclerotome contributes to the vertebral column.

Lab 3 Q3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close? Carnegie stage 13 is when the human neural tube normally closes completely.

--Thomas Dangerfield 14:01, 13 August 2009 (EST)

--Thomas Dangerfield 13:12, 20 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 4 Q1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart? The sinus venosus.

Lab 4 Q2. What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult? The descending aorta.

Lab 4 Q3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi? mesenchyme differentiates into blood vessels and cells, forms arteriocapillary network, fuse with placental vessels, developing in connecting stalk

--Thomas Dangerfield 13:05, 27 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 5 Q1. What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment? Is it more common for a congenital diaphragmatic hernia to happen on one side or both?

Lab 5 Q2. What is the answer to the above question? They occur on one side only, with the majority of cases occurring on the left side of the diaphragm.

Lab 6 Q1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate? Cleft lip is more common with an 8.1-9.9/1000 live births occurrence rate compared to Cleft palate which has a 4.8-6/1000 live births occurrence rate.

Lab 6 Q2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form? Pharyngeal pouch forms the tubotympanic recess.

Lab 6 Q3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin? Melanocytes.

--Thomas Dangerfield 14:27, 3 September 2009 (EST)

--Thomas Dangerfield 13:19, 17 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 7 Q1. Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

It is the precursor to a mature muscle fibre and it is formed from the differentiation (or fusion) of myoblasts.

Lab 7 Q2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

   a) Suffered a spinal cord injury 

The slow muscle fibre types would begin to atrophy (degenerate)

   b) Took up marathon running

Slow twitch muscle fibres increase in size and efficiency while the fast twitch muscle fibres will begin to slowly degenerate or become less efficient.


--Thomas Dangerfield 13:10, 24 September 2009 (EST)


--Thomas Dangerfield 13:37, 1 October 2009 (EST)

--Thomas Dangerfield 13:46, 8 October 2009 (EST)

Lab 10 Q1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

Bone marrow, Skeletal muscle, Fat tissue.

Lab 10 Q2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the 5 articles discussed during the tutorial.

Episomal vectors. Non-integrating Adenoviruses.

Lab 10 Q3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."


--Antonio Lee 15:09, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct.