From Embryology

Apparently it did not save when I answered the questions in the class, so here I go again.

1) What is the protein that sperm binds to on the surface of the egg? Zona Pellucida protein ZP3

2) Name the 3 stages of follicle development in the ovary? 1-Primordial follicle 2-Preantral follicle 3-Antral follicle

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:10, 6 August 2009 (EST)

1. What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy? hCG - Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle? hCG - Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, which acts on the ovary, altering the secretion of oestrogen, and progesterone, altering menstrual cycle

3. What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac? Ectoderm, which forms nervous system tissue, and epidermis epithelia tissue types

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:14, 13 August 2009 (EST)

1. What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover? 8 weeks 2. What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column? Sclerotome 3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close? Carnegie stage 13

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:08, 20 August 2009 (EST) Into what structure do most blood vessels empty before they enter the embryonic heart? Sinus venosus

What do the dorsal aortas become in the adult? Descending aorta

What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi? mesenchyme differentiates into blood vessels and cells, forms arteriocapillary network, fuse with placental vessels, developing in connecting stalk

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:12, 27 August 2009 (EST)

1. What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment?

Is it more common for a congenital diaphragmatic hernia to happen on one side or both?

2. What is the answer to the above question?

They occur on one side only, with the majority of cases occurring on the left side of the diaphragm.

--Mitchell Mathieson 14:17, 3 September 2009 (EST)

1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate? Cleft lip with 8.1-9.9 abnormalities out of 100,000, versus 4.8-6 abnormalities per 100,000 for cleft palate

2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form? Forms the tubotympanic recess, the tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, and the eustachian tube

3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin? Melanocytes

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:23, 17 September 2009 (EST)

1. Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed? A myotube is a single unit of a muscle fibre. It is formed by the determination of myogenic progenitor cells, and then the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes.

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

a) Suffered a spinal cord injury Slow fibres get converted to fast fibres

b) Took up marathon running

A conversion of fast muscle fibres to slow muscle fibres


--Mitchell Mathieson 13:11, 24 September 2009 (EST)

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:27, 1 October 2009 (EST)

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:19, 8 October 2009 (EST)

Question 1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the above 5 articles.

Muscle stem cells, adipose stem cells, bone marrow stem cells

Question 2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the above 5 articles.

(the ways to introduce the adult cells into prepotent stem cell state) - Virus (what type), Non-viral (term) Adult human adipose stem cells using nonintegrating adenoviruses Non viral method to induce genes by episomal reprogramming strategy

Question 3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."


--Antonio Lee 15:08, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct.

--Mitchell Mathieson 13:22, 15 October 2009 (EST)