From Embryology

Lab 1 Questions

1. What is the protein that the sperm binds to on the egg surface?


2. Name the three stages of follicle development in the ovary?

Primordal Follicle Primary Follicle Graafian Follicle

--Jenny Guy 15:00, 30 July 2009 (EST)

Lab 2 Questions

1. What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

hCG is secreted

2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?

an increase in progesterone as usually there is a decrease in progesterone as a result of corpus luteum degeneration at the end of a menstrual cycle.

3. What are the 2 main tissues to be derived from the germ cell layer continuous with the lining of the amniotic sac?

Ectoderm - Neural and epithelium.

--Jenny Guy 14:31, 6 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 3 Questions

1. What period of human development (in weeks) do the 23 Carnegie stages cover?

8 weeks

2. What part of the somite will contribute to the vertebral column?


3. At what Carnegie stage does the human neural tube normally completely close?

stage 13

--Jenny Guy 13:58, 13 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 4 Questions

1. Into what structure do most blood vessels empy before they enter the embryonic heart?


2. Into what do the dorsal aortas become in the adult

Descending aorta

3. What are the layers of cells found in a tertiary villi?

syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, mesoderm, fetal capillaries

--Jenny Guy 14:24, 20 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 5 Questions

1. What was the question I said in the respiratory lecture would be part of this week's assessment?

"Is the Congenital Disphramatic Hernia more common on one side or both?"

2. What is the answer to the above question?

Yes it is more common for the hernia to happen on one side than the other resulting in the viscera entering the thorax and compressing the lung.

--Jenny Guy 14:31, 27 August 2009 (EST)

Lab 6 Questions

1. Which is the more common clefting, cleft lip or cleft palate?

Cleft Lip

2. What structures does pharyngeal pouch 1 form?

tubotympanic recess - tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, eustachian tube

3. Neural crest forms which cells within the skin?


--Jenny Guy 14:52, 3 September 2009 (EST)

Lab 7 Questions

1. What is a myotube and how is it formed?

It is a multi-nucleated cell that comes from the differentiation of myoblasts and creates the mature muscle fibres.

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my leg if I...

(a) Suffered a spinal cord injury? Muscle Atrophy would occur within the muscles

(b) Took up Marathon Running? There would be a conversion to slow twitch fibres within the muscles

--Jenny Guy 15:23, 17 September 2009 (EST)


Lab 8 Questions

Peer marking of other groups

Lab 9 Questions

Combination of the peer responses on group project discussion page.

Lab 10 Questions

Question 1. Identify and name 3 tissue types which contain adult (somatic) stem cells that were used/studied from the above 5 articles.

  1. muscle
  2. bone marrow
  3. fat

Question 2. Name 2 reprogramming strategies/methods used in generating human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) from the above 5 articles.

  1. episomal vectors virus free
  2. lenti virus with ‘‘Yamanaka’’ four factors

Question 3. Is the following statement TRUE or FALSE? "Unlike the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial DNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin."

TRUE, mtDNA is maternally inherited through the egg's cytoplasm, whereas sperm mitochondria constitute a minor fraction of the zygote's cohort and are rapidly eliminated after fertilization.

--Antonio Lee 15:06, 31 October 2009 (EST) 3/3 Correct.

Lab 11 Questions

Cardio questionnaire

Week before the final exam