From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab Attendance

--Z3332327 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

Z3332327 22:25, 3 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332327 11:42, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--Lisa Xiao 12:43, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--z3332327 11:28, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--Lisa Xiao 11:15, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--Lisa Xiao 11:11, 29 September 2011 (EST)

--Lisa Xiao 11:43, 6 October 2011 (EST)

--z3332327 11:06, 13 October 2011 (EST)

--Z3332327 11:48, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 1 Online Assessment

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

An American doctor, John Rock was the first to extract an intact fertilised egg, which is an important technique used to complete IVF today. Robert Edwards was awarded the 2010 nobel prize for his success in replicating conception through IVF.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Pregnancy after Age 50: Defining Risks for Mother and Child. Kort DH, Gosselin J, Choi JM, Thornton MH, Cleary-Goldman J, Sauer MV. Am J Perinatol. 2011 Aug 1.

In 2011, a study was performed on women over the age of 50 undergoing IVF treatment and its associated risks. The study shows that with increased maternal age, the risks associated with birth defects and maternal complications is greatly increased.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Cleft Palate and congenital hip dysplasia

Z3332327 12:51, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2 Online Assessment

1.Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilization.

ZP3 is the only glycoprotein that functions as a sperm receptor. It is known that ZP3 protein, in the zona pellucida, binds sperm and stimulates acrosomal exocytosis, enabling the process of zonal penetration (Clark, GF). In order to prevent polyspermy, it is believed that certain enzymes break down the zona pellucida and hence inactivating the ZP3 glycoprotein.

Clark, G.F. (2011).The molecular basis of mouse sperm-zona pellucida binding: a still unresolved issue in developmental biology. Reproduction.

Z3332327 16:43, 8 August 2011 (EST)

Lab3 Picture

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21.jpg

Lab 3 Online Assessment

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Research has shown that folate is an important dietary requirement for the closure of the neural tube in foetal development. Incomplete or non closure may result in spina bifida (which occurs at the caudal end) or anancephaly (occurs at the cranial end).

2. Upload a picture relating to you group project. Add to both the Group discussion and your online assessment page. Image must be renamed appropriately, citation on "Summary" window with link to original paper and copyright information. As outlined in the Practical class tutorial.

Flow of participants.JPG

File: Flow of Participants

Lab 4 Online Assessment

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois extends from the early hindgut and is continuous with the urinary bladder.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

A) The foramen ovale is located between the right and left atria. It closes at birth and forms the anatomical feature: fossa ovalis.

B) The Ductus arteriosus is found between the pulmonery artery and the descending aorta.

C) The Ductus venosus is located between the portal vein, umbilical vein and inferior vena cava.

3.Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

Diagnosis, future/current prospect (treatments?) + 1 case study

Lab 5 Online Assessment

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic hernia commonly occurs on the left side as it tends to close later then the right side in development.

Lab 6 Online Assessment

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

2. What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Lab 7 Online Assessment

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

A) No they are not necessary. B) Yes they are generally involved.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Chronic low frequency stimulation causes fast muscles to slow their pattern of motor activity and hence alters its contractile characteristics.

3. Write a comment about the online page on Trisomy 21 based upon the group assessment criteria.

  • Introduction is brief and paragraphs do not flow
  • Good use of external links.
  • Appropiate images are used and but arent correctly cited e.g. for the image of 'John Langdon Down'
  • Subheadings are a bit confusing and lack flow. Perhaps the defects could be combined. Meiosis 1 and 2 does not seem like an appropriate heading for that particular section.
  • Contents of the prevalence section would have benefited from a table format and a bit more information about other regions involved.
  • Screening by country looks incomplete with only reference to spain
  • There is no mention of treatment or management
  • Needs more terms added to the glossary
  • References: very extensive and reliable sources used. Shows great understanding and research of the topic
  • The page would benefit from a timeline or a section on the history of trisomy 21

Lab 8 Online Assessment

Peer Assessment

Group 1: Turners Syndrome

  • The introduction is very extensive and provides a good overview to the website. Maybe a bit too much information/detail for the introduction.
  • Headings and Subheadings are appropriate and demonstrate a good understanding of the topic. Information flows from each heading to the next and is quite easy to follow.
  • Perhaps adding a few more terms to the glossary from the epidemiology section such as: ‘gonadoblastoma’.
  • Etiology: good use of glossary, very useful
  • Clinical Manifestations: easy to understand but perhaps consider a table format? And particularly in the physical attribute subheading, this could be improved with an image.
  • The diagnosis section is well balanced in terms of images and text. The tables are a good idea, however could be formatted a bit differently so that the text and images are in proportion – eliminates excessive blank space in the age and phenotypic manifestation column.
  • Research: good layout; may benefit from use of external links or links to the glossary.

Group 2: DiGeorge Syndrome

  • initial browse through the webpage: well balanced use of text, image, colour and table format.
  • introduction: well summarised and good use of image. It is interesting and provides a good overview to the syndrome. Minor adjustment: give one or two examples of symptoms rather than providing a list.
  • Historical background: good use of timeline, and layout.
  • Epidemiology & Etiology: needs to define terms in glossary such as velocardial syndrome.
  • I appreciate the subheadings used in the pathogensis section... it breaks up the mass of information, creates flow and also shows understanding. Needs to define a few terms in glossary such as: hypoplasia, hypoparathyroidism, parturition etc.
  • Diagnostic tests: well set out, I think the use of colour is aesthetically pleasing and adds to the overall presentation of the webpage.
  • Clinical Manifestations: well set out and good use of images. Table could benefit from use of borders, just to clearly separate the rows where the information appears to overlap.
  • Current&Future Research: could benefit from formatting of previous headings. That is, in a table to break up the information, or by using subheadings

Group 3: Klinefelter’s Syndrome

  • overall look: inconsistent formatting, imbalance of text and images in some sections, appropriate headings used.
  • introduction: very broad, maybe too much detail?
  • history is well researched; I really like the timeline at the end which summarises the major advancements. But it is very short and ends in the 1970s. It could include current research/advancements.
  • Epidemiology: could benefit from a few subheadings or breaks in the text.
  • Aetiology: I really like the use of external links.
  • Signs and symptoms: works well in a table format but not sure why some cells are coloured and others are not.
  • Other similar defects: interesting addition to the webpage, allows audience to continue research. Also demonstrates extensive knowledge of the syndrome. Great idea!
  • Minor adjustment: just for convenience, glossary terms could be linked

Group 4: Huntington’s Disease Initial thoughts, was wow! Clearly immense time and effort was put into this! Loved the structure of the headings and sub-headings.

  • Introduction: Top notch, just needs an image to complete it.
  • History: Nice use of the quote box, this section was done very well, except BOLD the years. Personally, I would have liked it more if the timeline itself was in a coloured table, no biggie.
  • Epidemiology: Add “(Australia)” After Tasmania? Or just listing countries would be better? Overall, nicely done.
  • Genetics: “Inheritance” part feels a little too short. Preferred if the image had black text over a white background. Everything else was great!
  • Molecular Mechanisms & Pathogenesis: The space between the purple words and commas could be removed. The purple colour, made me think they were hyperlinks, maybe chose either to bold or colour the words, as having both is a bit much.
  • Clinical Manifestations: The features would look better in a table, in my opinion. I like the image, very nice indeed! Good summary.
  • Diagnostic Tests: Done well, though compared to the rest of the webpage, it looks very insignificant. I suggest adding more information!
  • Video: Fix the formatting please!
  • Treatment: Nice table, informative. The “Tetrabenzine” section, the text needs some formatting, sentences are cut off to the next line for some reason, to be honest Medications and Therapies seem to be most important part, so they should maybe be expanded on?
  • Glossary: Looks good, just a few full stops missing!

Group 5: Fragile X

  • Introduction: Maybe a bit too concise, some of the content that should be in the intro is missing. Maybe this should be redone with references! Also, it doesn’t draw the reader’s attention unfortunately.
  • History: Simple table, but a small explanation regarding the significance of the discoveries would be very helpful.
  • Epidemiology: Nice picture, had to tilt my head a little. The “Screening/Population testing” seems like a whole new section itself. Might have to look into that?
  • Etiology: This section was very well managed.
  • Development: I like the subheadings, maybe an image to help add some visuals, but not required.
  • Signs and Symptoms: This again, was well done, though detailed, the mass text was slightly disorientating, another image perhaps?
  • Diagnosis: Looks incomplete, more info required, probably another sub-heading would do.
  • Treatment: Best section in this webpage. Detailed and neatly laid out.
  • Glossary: Some explanations and a few more words added here would do the trick!
  • Overall: The basic fundamentals are there, some more info here, and a few tweaks there is all that is needed! Keep it up.

Group 6: Tetralogy of Fallot

  • Introduction: well summarised, but paragraphs don’t flow. This section needs referencing and a few terms could be defined in the glossary.
  • History: good use of images to break up text. Maybe consider a timeline just to summarise the section since there is a lot of information here to digest.
  • Signs & Symtoms: I like the use of subheadings – clearly indicates topics discussed. Maybe consider un-bolding the list of mumurs since they are not headings, just to keep the formatting consistent.
  • Genetics: I like the images which are consistent throughout and the use of gene profiles – nice touch.
  • Pathophysiology and abnormalities: well written & formatted section. Referencing?
  • Treatment/Management: The only thing I would suggest is to add borders to the table so that the rows are clearly separated. I like the external links.
  • Perhaps the page needs just a few more images/tables to break up the heavy text. And the glossary should be expanded.

Group 7: Angelman Syndrome

  • Overall, webpage looks well researched and evenly balanced between text and images.
  • Introduction: maybe a bit too concise. But I like the fact that it briefly touches on everything.
  • History: There are no references in this section. I like the table at the end, nice touch.
  • Epidemiology: information is there, but I’m too sure about the layout.
  • Pathogenesis: lots of information here + imagery. Consider making the images smaller and adding a caption.
  • Signs and symptoms: not sure about the table content, just seems a bit confusing. However rest of information is interesting and well referenced.
  • Complications: very short section. Perhaps it could be incorporated under another heading?
  • Diagnosis: very large image used. Don’t really like how it separates that section because the information following on seems disjointed.
  • Glossary: extensive. Great job

Group 8: Friedreich’s Ataxia

  • Overall: Well done on headings/sub headings and consistent formatting. Well balanced in terms of text and imagery.
  • Introduction: brief, concise and captivating. Good start to the webpage.
  • History: I like the addition of a timeline – always a nice touch to summarise history of disease
  • Aetiology: Well done with those hand drawings, but definitely need to be darker
  • Neuropathology: evidently a well researched and presented section. Referencing is good and reinforces reliability of information provided. Well done
  • Diagnosis: good use of table, but some sections are too wordy
  • Current Research: well referenced but the bullet points make the section look incomplete. Consider using paragraphs or adding more information.

Group 9: Williams Syndrome

  • First few sections are lacking in images to draw readers attention.
  • Intro: brief but still provides a good overview to the webpage.
  • History: Timeline is a great addition, but maybe consider a table format just to clean up the text a little bit.
  • Genetic factors: Good use of image and table. Also well referenced.
  • Epidemiology: I think this section would benefit from a few paragraphs of information rather than just bullet points.
  • Current research: needs more information here about the research itself, not just the foundations
  • Specialised facilities and supportive associations: is a nice touch the webpage
  • Glossary: could be expanded upon and is incomplete.

Group 11: Cleft Palate/Lip

  • Introduction: That is not an introduction, much more info needed, please expand.
  • History & Timeline: Definitely combine these two sections. Put the timeline into a table would be nice, this would help remove all that spacing. The History section is pretty okay, maybe an image?
  • Diagnosis: Very well done! Big improvement compared to the initial sections. There is a lot of content, but not overly so. The layout of the images and tables are well done. However, there are some minor punctuation errors, like missing fullstops, but other than that, well summarised!
  • Development: Needs to have more info. Aetiology section is done well, but where are the references! Developmental Staging section seems to be targeting a specific audience, maybe “dumb” it down a little for the rest to understand better.
  • Pathophysiology: All the content seems to be there, just need a few images and maybe subheadings to make that block of text into something more appealing to read.
  • Genetic Configuration: No references in this section! There should be a way to also clean up the layout and spacing, of 1) Womb environment and 2) External environment sub-part.
  • Neuroembryology: No faults here, good job.
  • Treatment: Plenty dot points, but no explanation, seems empty. Need references.
  • Problems: Same as treatment, need more explanation per dot point, as well as references.
  • Current and Future Research: Obviously needs much more info.
  • Glossary: Getting there, many more words are required here.

Lab 10 Online Assessment

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

Another environmental teratogen that contributes to hearing loss is exposure to radioactive wastes.

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

  • The lumen of the Eustachian tube in infants is narrower which can result in blockage
  • The angle of the Eustachian tube is only 10 Degrees (almost horizontal) which allows easier transfer of fluid and bacteria from the oral cavity into the ear canal
  • There is only one muscle in the infant which actively contracts to open and close the tube (as opposed to two in adults). This contributes to poor drainage and increased risks of ear infection.

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)

Lab 11 Online Assessment

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

The interatrial septum is made up of the Septum Primum (found on medial wall of left atrium) and the Septum Secundum (found on the medial wall of right ventricle). There are two passages that connect the right and left atria: the foramen secundum and the foramen ovale.

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract.

Improper division of the outflow tract leads to:

  • aortic stenosis
  • ventricular septal defects

Lab 12 Online Assessment

1. Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

  • Respiratory System
  • Genital Development
  • Neural Development

2. Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)(OMIM)
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism (CH)
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)