From Embryology

Lab Attendance

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--Seow Liew 22:14, 6 October 2010 (UTC)

--Seow Liew 22:07, 13 October 2010 (UTC)

--Seow Liew 22:48, 20 October 2010 (UTC)

Progressive assessment

Lab 1

This is an internal link :Cell division lecture L2

This is an external link:SMH

Internal link to fertilization:TADA


Early zygote.jpg

Lab 2

1.What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

Synctiotrophoblast cells secrete Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to support the ongoing pregancy.

2.What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?

Corpus luteum secrete progesterone to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle.

Lab 3

1.What Carnegie stages occur during week 3 and week 4?

Carnegie stage 7,8 and 9 occurs in week 3 whereas, Carnegie stage 10,11,12,and 13 occur in week 4.

2.What is the change in overall embryo size form the beginning of week 3 to the end of week 4?

The embryo grows from the size of 0.4mm at the beginning of week 3 to 3.5mm at the end of week 4.

3.Approximately when do the cranial (anterior) and caudal (posterior) neuropores close in the human embryo?

The cranial neuropore closes on day 24 , whereas ,the caudal neuropore closes on day 26.

Lab 4

1.Name the vessels that drain into the sinus venosus?

The vessels that drain into sinus venosus are the umbilical(placental),the vitelline and the common cardiac vein.

2.What is the fate of the vitelline artery and vitelline vein?

The vitelline venous system will eventually give rise to liver sinusoids and portal system.

3.Name the 4 layers that constitute the placental barrier?

The four layers that contribute to the placenta barrier are syncitiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, villi connective tissue and fetal capillary endothelium.

4.What stem cells are found in abundance, and may be harvested from the placenta for therapeutic uses?

Haematopoetic stem cells are found in abundance, and may be harvested from the placenta for therapeutic uses.

Lab 5

1.What is the origin of the gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle?

The origin of gastrointestinal smooth muscle is splanchnic mesoderm, considering gastrointestinal smooth muscle is derived from splanchnic mesoderm.

2.At what Carnegie stage does the buccopharyngeal membrane begin to break down?

The buccopharyngeal membrane begin to break down at Carnegie stage 11.

3.Identify the lung developmental stage in late embryonic to early fetal period.

Lung development which is the budding of lungs from the trachea begins at Carnegie stage 22.

4.In premature infant birth, which respiratory cell type may not have fully developed?

Premature babies may not have fully developed type 2 alveolar cells which secrete surfactant.

Lab 7

1. Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

A myotube is a nucleated muscle fibre that has yet matured and still undergoes developing processes.It is formed by the fusion of myoblasts.

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

   a) Suffered a spinal cord injury 
   b) Took up marathon running

a)If i suffered a spinal cord injury,i would expect to see an atrophy in the legs. b)If i took up a marathon running , i would expect to see some of my leg fast fibers being converted to slow fibers.

Lab 10

1.Development of which endocrine organ is affected by low dietary iodine?

Development of endocrine organ,the tyroid gland is affected by low dietary iodine.

2.What are the affects of this deficiency on other non-endocrine system development?

Iodine deficiency causes preventable mental retardation and brain damage.

3.At approximately what week in development do many endocrine organs appear to begin their function?

The endocrine function of pancreas starts from 10 to 15 weeks onwards with the release of hormones,whereas the exocrine function of it starts postnatal onwards. The thyroid starts functioning from week 10 onwards. The presence of high levels of hCG in week 8 to 12 in the body stimulates Leydig cells of testes to start producing testosterone from week 8 onwards with the secrete of testosterone and androstenedion.

Lab 12

1. During which trimester does fetal length change the most and when does fetal weight change the most?

The fetal length changes the most during the second trimester and the fetal weight changes the most during the third trimester.

2. What is the name of the theory that links postnatal health with prenatal development?

The fetal origins hypothesis.

3. Which hormone initiates and maintains labour during birth and where does it come from?

The oxytoxin initiates and maintains labour during birth, it comes from pituitary gland.

Peer Accessment

Group One

This web page is very well organised. The information is easy to understand and the subheadings are indicative of the historical development and the use of the ultrasound.Most of the points made is supported with pictures ,definitely provid me a better understanding of CVS.Also,I like the pictures and tables for the different types of ultrasounds.Anyway, this is an informative website,in other words, it's educational value is high as it is very informative.It makes use of external pages.Well done.

Group Two

A lot of research has gone into this assignment and it’s evident in the information presented as its precise which also helps capture the attention of readers.The reference list is indicative of your extensive research.Very good effort.The table of deformities was a stand out for me as it was very well organised and was a effective break from the text. You also used excellent external links that were very well placed within the web page. A slight improvement would be to include a link or a reference to the brief time line where you state the names of the authors, and as previously mentioned, reference the statistics that you have included.Well done.

Group Three

I personally think the introduction part is too lenghty.I don't think an outline of what the webpage consists of is completely necessary seeing as there is a table of contents. A Glossary and proof reading are also needed to help make the reader understands more easily. Other than that,in general,the web page is well done. The table of disorders that you have included is encompassing and simple enough to easily follow. It s a very well-rounded overview of Amniocentesis.Good work.

Group Four

I feel that this is a good project guiding through readers who don't know much about this area.I think you should keep the history first then the procedure and so on. There are too few references which do not adequately support the claims that you make.The glossary is sorta short as there are some words that I had to google them. Other than that,good work.Put up some more pictures and possibly , a larger referencing list would make the page better , i think.Good effort.

Group Six

The page is too much of informative and too lengthy .I personally think you need to break it up a bit.Maybe put it in point form.You have a lot of great pictures.This is certainly a good work.Also, you might wanna include a table or flow chart for the procedure because it is quite hard to follow. Your glossary is adequate although your referencing may fall short in the screening test section.The layout is great in general and i like how you put in a link to a video.