From Embryology

--Navneet Ahuja 23:38, 28 July 2010 (UTC) - LAB 1 Attendance

Something else

External link SMH


Early zygote.jpg

--Navneet Ahuja 23:15, 4 August 2010 (UTC) LAB 2 Attendance

Lab 2 Questions

What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

a> Synctiotropoblast secrete hormone hCG - Human chorionic gonadotropin that support the pregnancy

What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?

b> Corpus luteum produces hormone Estrogen and Progesterone that prevents mentruation

--Navneet Ahuja 23:04, 11 August 2010 (UTC) LAB 3 Attendance

Questions for lab 3 :

What Carnegie stages occur during week 3 and week 4?

Stages 7 to 9 in week 3 where 3 major importance was given to gastulation,placentation and notochord formation

stages 10 to 13 in week 4 where organogenisis occurs and major organ such as heart are formed.

From week 3 to week 4 = 7-13 carnegie stages

What is the change in overall embryo size form the beginning of week 3 to the end of week 4? At week 3 embryo is 0.4 mm in size measure by CRL and by the end of week 4 (carnegie stage 13) the embryo became 3-5 mm and hence the growth is between 2.6-4.6 mm

Approximately when do the cranial (anterior) and caudal (posterior) neuropores close in the human embryo? The cranial neropore closes at Carnegie stage 11 (about 24 days) within a few hours.

The caudal neropore closes later than cranial neropore since it closes at Carnegie stage 12 (about 26 days) over a day.

--Navneet Ahuja 23:09, 18 August 2010 (UTC) LAB 4 Attendance

Lab 4 Questions

Name the vessels that drain into the sinus venosus?

3 pairs of veins empty into the sinus venosus of the heart :

1-vitelline vein

2-umbilical vein

3-cardinal vein

What is the fate of the vitelline artery and vitelline vein?

The vitelline arteries arise from the dorsal aorta and enter the yolk sac, covering its entire surface. It contribute to adult GIT arteries (fuse to become superior mesenteric artery (midgut)

The vitelline veins return red blood cells from the capillary beds to the sinus venosus, posterior to the heart. The vitelline vessels eventually contribute to the portal system of the liver in the adult.

Name the 4 layers that constitute the placental barrier?

The 4 layers that separate maternal and fetal blood are :



3-villi connective tissue

4-fetal capillary endothelium

What stem cells are found in abundance, and may be harvested from the placenta for therapeutic uses?

Cord blood (umbilical cord blood, UCB) can be harvested at birth from which Haematopoetic stem cells can be collected, typed and stored in Cord Blood Banks. These cells provide a resource for bone marrow replacement therapy in many diseases.

Lab 5 Attendance --Navneet Ahuja 23:29, 25 August 2010 (UTC)

Lab 5 Questions

What is the origin of the gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle?

The mesoderm adjacent to the endoderm is now called the splanchnic mesoderm which forms the connective tissue and muscular wall of the GIT.

At what Carnegie stage does the buccopharyngeal membrane begin to break down?

buccopharyngeal membrane breaks down and opens the gastrointestinal tract to the amnion at carnegie stage 11

Identify the lung developmental stage in late embryonic to early fetal period .

At carnegie stage 22 respiratory system developed from trachea to lungs and diaphragm

In premature infant birth, which respiratory cell type may not have fully developed?

premature babies have difficulties associated with insufficient surfactant resulting from underdeveloped type 2 alveolar cells.

Lab 6 Question

Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

Myotube is multinucleated, but undifferentiated contractile apparatus (sarcomere)

Myoblasts undergo frequent divisions and coalesce with the formation of a multinucleated, syncytial muscle fibre or myotube. The nuclei of the myotube are still located centrally in the muscle fibre

What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

a) Suffered a spinal cord injury

suffering spinal cord injury can cause Muscle Atrophy which will reduce the slow twitch fibres and become fast twich fibres

b) Took up marathon running

Muscles would change from fast twitch to slow twitch fibres

Lab 7 Attendance --Navneet Ahuja 23:16, 15 September 2010 (UTC)

Peer review

Group 2= This project had tons of photos which is super great because its much easier to follow... Most of the point made is supported with pictures ..definetly provided me a better understanding of CVS ..I agree with what others have mentioned its very informative and especially with just 2 team members .. fantastic work

what could be improved = a little more reference in the "result and accuracy" section since it included some percentage other than that fantastic work

Group 3 = I really like the photos used especially the hand drawn ones and they project is very easy to read and follow. There are alot of references which indicated some serious research .

What could be improved - although everything is already beautiful glossary and timeline(for history)would be better..other than that everything is fantastic

Group 4=I loved your project especially the introduction it was so straight forward. the whole project is very ceasy to follow and both the hand drawn and chosen pictures were very appropriate . I also like the way you break everything into points so i dont get lost with words.

What could be improved is by Adding a little more reference and more glossary but other than that everything is perfect

Group 5 = Fetal Fibronectin I really like how all the parts are broken down into points which made it easy to follow except for the "current research" . It is very structured and the picture looks great.

What could be improved is adding more pictures and break down the current research into bullet points but other than that its great

Group 6 =Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein

The project is very organised and the pictures included were very related to the text. I really liked the link too because that not only showed you did alot of research for this project but also made it outstanding. Definetly provide me with better understanding About MSAFP.

How you can improve = There are alot of words may be try to break them down into point form but other than that everything looks good

Lab 8 Attendance --Navneet Ahuja 23:03, 22 September 2010 (UTC)

Lab 9 Attendance---Navneet Ahuja 23:03, 29 September 2010 (UTC)

Lab 10 Attendance--Navneet Ahuja 22:03, 6 October 2010 (UTC)

Lab 11 Attendance--Navneet Ahuja 22:15, 13 October 2010 (UTC)

Lab 12 Attendance--Navneet Ahuja 22:33, 20 October 2010 (UTC)

Lab 10 Questions

Development of which endocrine organ is affected by low dietary iodine? Thyroid gland is effected with low iodine

What are the affects of this deficiency on other non-endocrine system development?

It can cause miscarriage , mental retardation , low body weight and abnormal speech and impaired hearing.

At approximately what week in development do many endocrine organs appear to begin their function? At week 10

lab 12 Questions

During which trimester does fetal length change the most and when does fetal weight change the most?

The fetal period (9-36 weeks) is about continued differentiation of organs and tissues, most importantly this period is about growth both in size and weight.

Fetal length change is greatest in the middle period (second trimester).

fetal weight change is greatest in the third trimester.

What is the name of the theory that links postnatal health with prenatal development?

The Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Which hormone initiates and maintains labour during birth and where does it come from?

Oxytocin is Peptide hormone (8aa) from maternal posterior pituitary, initiation and maintenance of labour (synthetic form labour induction) -myometrium sensitivity to oxytocin (increased by estrogen, decreased by progesterone) -stimulus for release - mechanical stimulation of uterus, cervix and vagina (ethanol inhibits release)