From Embryology


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internal link: cell division

external link: SMH

link: fertilization topic on main page

lab 2

Q1) The syncitiotrophoblast cells secrete Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone (hCG) to maintain the decidua and corpus luteum, which in turn secrete other factors, including progesterone, that support pregnancy.

Q2) The corpus luteum secretes progesterone to maintain the endometrium.


Early zygote.jpg

lab 3

Q1) carnegie stages 7, 8, 9 and 10 occur over weeks 3 and 4

Q2) from the start of week 3, the embryo grows from 0.4mm to between about 3-5mm by the end of week 4.

Q3) The cranial neuropore closes at about 24 days and the caudal neuropore closes later at about 26 days.

lab 4

Q1) viteline vein, umbilical vein, common cardinal vein

Q2) viteline arteries contribute to adult GIT arteries. They fuse to become the superior mesenteric artery in the midgut. viteline veins empty into sinus venosus. They contribute to the adult portal system.

Q3) syncitiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, villi connective tissue, foetal capillary endothelium

Q4) placenta blood is a source for stem cells

lab 5

Q1) GI tract smooth muscle originates from the splanchnic mesoderm

Q2) carnegie stage 11

Q3) The canalicular stage from week 16 to 25

Q4) Alveolar cells type 2 that secrete surfactant

lab 7

Q1) a myotube is a multinucleated, syncytial skeletal muscle fibre made up of myoblasts that originate from the paraxial mesoderm. The myoblasts undergo cellular division and coalesce to form a myotube.

a) they would atrophy

b) slow twitch fibres would develop

lab 10

Q1) thyroid

Q2) iodine deficiency during development leads to neurological defects ie. cretinism

Q3) week 10

lab 12

Q1) fetal length changes the most in 2nd trimester and fetal weight changes the most in 3rd trimester

Q2) fetal origins hypothesis

Q3) oxytocin-from maternal post pituitary

Group project reviews

group 1

Group 1: Your project is put together very well in terms of its structure and layout, making it easy to keep up with the expanse of information you have provided. The detail and depth you've gone into is very impressive especially in the "how it works" and "current uses" sections. The use of tables is especially effective in these sections because i feel it presents the content in a clear and concise way making it easier for the reader to understand and make comparisons. I also found the links to be a useful addition. One thing you could add to improve your page is to maybe elaborate on the limitations of ultrasounds in terms of accuracy in immediate diagnosis or a comparison with other diagnostic techniques. Otherwise, the page is very well thought out and i definitely felt like i gathered a thorough overview from it.

group 2

Group 2: Your project is very impressive in content as well as organisation. The most notable thing for me was the wide use of pictures which must have taken a lot of time and effort to source. They definitely create an engaging page especially in conjunction with the use of tables and clear subheadings. The structure you have used is very effective as it allows your information to be scientific and thorough but at the same time it is concise and easy to navigate. I felt like i got an extensive overview of CVS after having read your page and the use of pictures and subheadings kept it from being a chore. I felt the history and abnormalities sections were particularly interesting. I also appreciate how you have seemed to approach this topic from all angles and not just a one-sided, all current and positive viewpoint. To improve your page perhaps you could explore the future role of CVS in prenatal diagnosis or even the role of invasive procedures altogether. Either way your page is probably up to standard as it is and it is obvious that you have worked hard at it. Job well done.

group 3

Group 3: I thought your page was very thorough and informative especially the procedure section, plus the way in which you have structured the information with concise subheadings keeps it easy to understand. Only thing is that the page lacked a glossary section which would really help the reader understand the concepts better if added. A very good use of table and pictures throughout to keep the content engaging all the way through. To improve the page, perhaps you could talk about the advantages of amniocentesis and even compare it to other techniques. Maybe you could also expand the section on current research by exploring the future prospects of this technique? but overall really good effort.

group 5

Group 5: I found your page to be very concise and to the point and your information seems to cover all concepts without rambling on. This is a good thing because it makes reading the text straightforward and simpler to understand but at the same time i think you could still have used with some background information, perhaps in a history section, and maybe even a discussion about limitations. More pictures would also greatly improve not only the look of your page but also compliment the information and engage your reader. In terms of structure, i think that improvements could be made here to allow the information to flow better. Perhaps the 'preventions' section could be merged with "what next?' because the content is related so it would be natural progression and even put into a table to aid understanding? But overall its looking good and the research is evident. good job

group 6

Group 6: Your page is very well put together. The information is in depth and structured nicely so that it seems to flow well as you read it and seems to cover all concepts. I feel like i get a very good overview of the topic after reading it and i found the "testing and the community" section particularly engaging. You could try to improve the page with the use of more pictures and maybe a discussion about this technique in relation to others that also use maternal blood. You could also discuss the future of this technique and the benefits of direct analysis of fetal material through maternal blood in comparison to invasive techniques? but overall a really good job