From Embryology


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Lab Week 2

Internal Link Cell Division Lecture

External Link SMH

Link for Fertilisation information


Early zygote.jpg

Lab 2 (Week 3) Questions

1. What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

They secrete Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone (hCG).

2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?

The corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone hormones.

Lab 3 (Week 4) Questions

1. What Carnegie stages occur during week 3 and week 4?

Week 3 - stages 7, 8 & 9

Week 4 - stages 10, 11 & 12

2. What is the change in overall embryo size form the beginning of week 3 to the end of week 4?

Ranges from 2.6mm - 4.6mm (from 0.4mm in week 3 to 3-5mm in week 4)

3. Approximately when do the cranial (anterior) and caudal (posterior) neuropores close in the human embryo?

Cranial- stage 11 (days 23-26)

Caudal - stage 12 (days 26-30)

Lab 4 (Week 5) Questions

1. Name the vessels that drain into the sinus venosus?

Vitelline veins, ubilical veins and cardinal veins

2. What is the fate of the vitelline artery and vitelline vein?

Contribute to the portal system of the liver in the adult

3. Name the 4 layers that constitute the placental barrier?

Syncitiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, villi connective tissue and fetal capillary endothelium.

4. What stem cells are found in abundance, and may be harvested from the placenta for therapeutic uses?

Lab 5 (Week 6) Questions

1. What is the origin of the gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle?

Splanchnic mesoderm

2. At what Carnegie stage does the buccopharyngeal membrane begin to break down?

carnegie stage 11

3. Identify the lung developmental stage in late embryonic to early fetal period.

4. In premature infant birth, which respiratory cell type may not have fully developed?

alveolar cell type 2

Lab 7(Week 8) Questions

1. Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

a myotube is a multi-nucleated cell, that is formed from myoblast fusion (division)

2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

a) Suffered a spinal cord injury

Muscle atrophy

b) Took up marathon running

development of slow twitch fibres from fast fibres

Lab 10 questions

1. Development of which endocrine organ is affected by low dietary iodine?

Thyroid gland

2. What are the affects of this deficiency on other non-endocrine system development?

It leads to neurological defects

3. At approximately what week in development do many endocrine organs appear to begin their function?

10th week

Lab 12 questions

1. During which trimester does fetal length change the most and when does fetal weight change the most?

Fetal length changes mostly in the 2nd trimester and fetal weight changes most in the 3rd trimester

2. What is the name of the theory that links postnatal health with prenatal development?

Fetal origins hypothesis

3. Which hormone initiates and maintains labour during birth and where does it come from?


Peer Review Assessment


I thought this project was very well done, and was easy to understand. The headings helped. I especially like the table describing the different sorts of transducers, the pictures made it easier to know what you were talking about. It was overall very informative as i learnt about how many different ways you can identify the embryo and how many defects can be detected. What could be improved is perhaps a picture or two showing a defect, just to break up the amount of information presented. But otherwise this project was very good.


This project was highly informative about CVS. It contained a lot of information in which it shows that a lot of research has gone into it. Everything has been covered like, what the test predicts and what risks are associated with this test. It was very scientific, yet easy to understand at a non-scientific level. I liked the external links how it directed me straight to a page of different articles about CVS. What could be improved is maybe placing the "abnormalities found by CVS" section towards the top of the page, because i was a bit unsure on what this test predicted in the first place. I got confused between the risks of this test and what it predicted. But I managed to understand it all once all read through. Also, a definition of a "cannula" may be helpful in the glossary too I wasn't sure what that exactly was.


This project was very well written and highlighted the main points of amniocentesis. The structure of it was very clear which made it easy to understand and follow. I feel that it was a good project addressing students and people who don't know much about this area. What could be improved is that there were no references in the ethics section, which may be a problem. Also a glossary may be needed at the end of the page.


Your project is very informative and well understood. I love the drawn pictures, they are labelled very clearly and you've gone into a lot of detail which is good. The structure of your project is also very good, so i was able to follow it pretty well. Some improvements - in the introduction, you've spelt abnormalities wrong "anomalities". and also perhaps a few more references would be good, especially in the history part of your project. but otherwise it was great to read.


I enjoyed reading this project, the layout was overall great and i liked how you put in a link to a video. It was very understandable and i was able to follow what was said throughout reading it all. It was scientific enough but easy for anyone to read. Improvements - the pictures were a little small, so maybe enlarge them a bit. Also, maybe break the procedure section into the different steps that are taken.