From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

  • Glossary terms INCREASE.
  • Pictures.
  • Any recent research.

2011 Group Project 5

Laboratory Sessions


--Z3290689 12:58, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 12:00, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 11:33, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 13:00, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 12:00, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 11:11, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 11:10, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 11:49, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 12:04, 6 October 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 11:07, 13 October 2011 (EST)

--z3290689 11:20, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Online Assignments

Labrador Session 1

Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

The first successful use of In Vitro Fertilization as an assisted reproductive technology occurred in 1978 under the direction of Robert D. Edwards, et al with the birth of Louise Brown. In 2010, Robert D. Edwards received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the development of in vitro fertilization."

Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

Eskander R.N., Randall L.M., Berman M.L., Tewari K.S., Disaia P.J., Bristow R.E. (2011). Fertility preserving options in patients with gynecologic malignancies. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.01.025 The key findings of this paper were that given the rising median age of primiparous women - when correlated with the median age of diagnosis of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer - exhibited a trend whereby a higher portion of nulliparous women would be diagnosed with conditions which could potentially severely reduce fertility. Consequently, there is increased pressure on obstetricians to offer non-standard treatments with higher risks to patients wishing to retain the option to bear children.

Identify 2 congenital anomalies.
Sufferer of neurofibromatosis (Joseph Merrick)

Neurofibromatosis and Cystic Fibrosis:

  • Neurofibromatosis is a condition presenting with diffuse tumour growth in nervous tissue, often presenting superficially with raised welts.
  • Cystic Fibrosis is a disease in which electrolyte balance, regulation and transport is compromised due to the absence of a certain protein. Signs and symptoms are numerous and varied.

--z3290689 12:34, 4 August 2011 (EST)

Labrador Session 2

Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

ZP3 and ZP4 are the first proteins to bind to sperm, inducing the acrosome reaction. After induction of the acrosome reaction, ZP2 binds spermatozoa and is cleaved, causing conformational change of ZP3 that prevents polyspermy.

Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic.

Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy:

Feltri M.A., et al (2000). P0 Glycoprotein Overexpression Causes Congenital Hypomyelination of Peripheral Nerves. The Journal of Cell Biology 148(5), 1021-1034

Article Abstract

This article addresses the role of the Myelin protein zero gene in regulating the levels of P0 protein, and the resulting degrees of either hypo- or hyper-myelination.

--z3290689 21:14, 7 August 2011 (EST)

Labrador Session 3

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Iodine. --z3290689 17:10, 16 August 2011 (EST)

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21.jpg

File:Differentially expressed RefSeq genes in human trisomy 21

Labrador Session 4

The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is continuous with the superior end of the developing bladder.

Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

In the heart lies the foramen ovale, joining the atria to prevent blood travelling to the lungs for oxygenation.

Within the aortic arch lies the ductus arteriosus, connecting it to the pulmonary artery.

Ductus venosus is found in the liver and connects the umbilical and portal veins to the IVC.

--z3290689 19:35, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

I'll do Aetiology of Fragile X Syndrome --Boris Zolotarev 10:38, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Labrador Session 5

--z3290689 11:26, 25 August 2011 (EST)

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The majority of congenital diaphragmatic herniations are Bochdalek hernations and the majority of Bochdalek herniations occur on the posterior left side. They occur as a result of the pleuroperitoneal foramen's failure to close, allowing the viscera to enter the thorax. --z3290689 13:26, 26 August 2011 (EST)

Labrador Session 6

What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

Week 7 is when the palatal shelves fuse.

What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

Chicken embryos were utilized to determine neural crest origin/cell migration.

What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot

Labrador Session 7

Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

Satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy, but when they are present they are in fact actively involved.

Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

Satellite cells are involved in maintaining long-term stability of activity-induced transitions between fibre types. Chronic low frequency stimulation triggers satellite cell activity, resulting in the shift from fast to slow muscle fibre types.

Labrador Session 8

Peer Reviews
Group 1
  • Broad scope of the topic is covered both textually and pictorially.
  • Could possibly use more references at the beginning. Referencing was otherwise entirely suitable, very in-depth.
  • Own diagrams were used; easily understandable.
  • The distribution of information within headings made for very smooth reading; each facet of the topic was introduced in a logical, sequential manner.
  • Inclusion of current and future research was interesting.
  • "Treatment" section may have been ordered better, perhaps in terms of corrections of physical appearance vs. physiological abnormalities.
  • Some errors in grammar and punctuation were noted, but only with directed reading.
Group 2
  • Many of the pictures do not have a legend/explanation associated with them. However, the hand-drawn picture is underscored by a legend.
  • The introduction is rather abrupt; definition of "congenital disorder" could have been a simple hyperlink or a note in the glossary.
  • Is the historical background necessary? In the section, the photo of the two people is not explained.
  • Section on epidemiology seems to cross over significantly with clinical manifestations.
  • Thorough referencing throughout. However, some of the references appear strangely in the references section (could be a vestige of that crash a few weeks earlier?)
  • The table in clinical manifestations is strangely.....implied. Section on Tetralogy of Fallot can be cleaned up in terms of layout.
  • Inclusion of current and future research is noted, and well set out/referenced.
  • Glossary is thorough.
  • Overall, a very thorough and broad exploration of the topic.
Group 3
  • Picture under "management" is not explained.
  • Introduction properly touches on all the topics elucidated later without crossing over too much.
  • History is made relevant, linking it to Signs and Symptoms as well as Aetiology.
  • Pathogenesis needs more references, as could Signs and Symptoms.
  • The layout of Diagnosis At Birth is peculiar.
  • Signs and Symptoms could use more demonstrative pictures.
  • Glossary is fairly comprehensive.
  • Use of related diseases section is interesting, but perhaps should be included within Diagnosis under "Differential diagnoses" or something similar....
Group 4
  • Introduction does well in that it briefly addresses each of the facets of the topic that follow.
  • Relevance of each historical point in the timeline is not adequately explained.
  • Use of the table to show epidemiology is very nicely set up.
  • Epidemiology is very much at the level required, delving into specific research details.
  • You misspelled "Huntington" in "Huntingtin Gene". Really?
  • Image error in the Molecular Mechanisms section. Remaining picture is very comprehensive though.
  • Could potentially use more references in the Molecular Mechanisms section; otherwise decently referenced.
  • The Diagnostic tests aren't actually mentioned, only their significance is outlined.
  • "Neuropathology" section is not properly titled - it seems to be a subset of the Video section (which, incidentally, can probably be moved within Clinical Manifestations)
  • Medication table is very nicely set out.
  • Picture in Current/Future research (mouse/person/etc) seems irrelevant, and is not actually explained.
  • Glossary is thorough
Group 6
  • Introduction needs more/any references.
  • Use of a quote in History is interesting.
  • History sections seems to be too focused on certain specific procedures rather than their significance for the disease itself and the patients.
  • Some grammatical errors in various sections.
  • Epidemiology seems a bit short...if no other details can be found for it, consider merging it with another section?
  • Signs and Symptoms can use more references, but the subheadings used are very fitting and set out the information well.
  • The subheadings in Genetics/Aetiology mean nothing to me. Explanations? On that note, the glossary can be more filled out.
  • The layout of Genetics/Aetiology can probably be tweaked a bit.
  • Pathophysiology is set out very nicely, but it needs references.
  • The table in Diagnostic Tests is very succinct, but the section needs some text, if only to introduce/explain the table. Also, there is a random reference at the bottom.
  • Treatment/Management needs more references. The table therein is strange, but the information is very well presented.
  • The inclusion of a Prognosis section is interesting, but maybe consider putting it within Treatment/Management?
  • Inclusion of Future Directions is very good but the references need to be cleaned up.
Group 7
  • Pictures vs text vs tables are well balanced, but perhaps could use a picture earlier
  • "Incorrectly referred to as 'happy puppet' syndrome". Why is this incorrect? Do you mean "colloquially referred to as..."?
  • History has no references.
  • Epidemiology is rather poorly laid out. If that is all the information found, perhaps it should be grouped with another section?
  • Aetiology is succinct but informative. Perhaps the layout of this section could be modified to remove the blank space between the text and the table.
  • Pathogenesis is set out very well, with interesting/easily understood subheadings and a good balance between pictures and text; interesting placement on the page.
  • Signs and Symptoms is similarly well set out and well referenced, with a good balance between text and pictures. However, the table is a little bit confusing.
  • Complication section would be better inserted within another section.
  • Diagnosis has an image error, while another picture is not explained with a subtitle.
  • There is a random floating reference in Treatment and Management.
  • The glossary is rather comprehensive, explaining even some specific genetic terms.
Group 8
  • Good balance between text and pictures; inclusion of self-drawn pictures is noted.
  • The Introduction gives a very good broad overview of the topic, properly referenced, without impinging on the information presented later.
  • The History presented is made relevant to the understanding and treatment of the disease.
  • Appropriate subheadings are used in the Epidemiology section and the text is succinct, makes things more understandable. Well referenced. Similar story with Aetiology - the inclusion of pictures works well, as each is fairly relevant.
  • To be honest, it's really just good overall. There's nothing that needs fixing, in my view....
Group 9
  • Introduction is well referenced and nicely detailed, outlining each of the facets of the topic that follow.
  • Relevant information presented in the history, outlining in enough detail the sequence that led to recognition of the syndrome. The timeline may be superfluous though.
  • Good balance between table, text and pictures in Genetic Factors/Etiology; the table in particular presents complex information in a very understandable form, but it could contain more references.
  • Each subheading in Diagnosis is thoroughly researched, however each segment of Diagnosis requires more references.
  • The subheadings of Epidemiology are a bit peculiar. Management and Treatment wouldn’t usually be listed under these headings.
  • I would have placed Phenotype earlier on the page, probably after Etiology. This section could also use some more free text, even if to explain the table. The table itself is very comprehensive though.
  • I would have probably linked Phenotype and Cardiac/Genitourinary Conditions, Endocrine and Other Associated Medical Conditions together. Also, the “other problems” subheading seems like it should be a main heading, with all the afore-mentioned segments following it as subheadings themselves.
  • In Renal Tract Abnormalities, a subheading is introduced by a colon following a sentence in a free paragraph; very strange. The information presented however is very in-depth.
  • Cognitive etc section needs many more references. Peculiar sentence structure (“as having a cognitive variety of relative strengths and weaknesses”). Incorrect grammar is evident in places. The Sociability and Anxiety both seems to have redundancies.
  • The glossary is insufficient.
  • Structural differences needs many more references.
  • Specialised etc can’t start with “Here in Australia” (welcome to the internet). Also, the information presented about the support groups is entirely too detailed; a link would be preferable.
Group 10
  • The introduction is detailed but a bit “in your face.” It may even be a bit too detailed, going into the pathogenesis of the disorder.
  • History is very detailed, perhaps slightly story-like but enjoyable nonetheless. Could use a picture or two. Sufficiently referenced.
  • Epidemiology is very thorough and well referenced.
  • The tone of Aetiology/Genetics is a bit conversational; needs to be more detached. Good use of picture, although the legend to it is not in the correct format.
  • Pathogenesis could use more references, especially for the last paragraph. Could potentially use some pictures to make clearer the specific structures discussed in the text (although they are elaborated on in the glossary).
  • All the signs listed in Clinical Manifestations etc are decently elaborated upon, and the section is well-referenced. Smooth Muscle has strange “&&&” signs though. Respiratory Problems needs cleaning, notably with the line “[Effects of high CO2 and the problems it can cause]”
  • Diagnosis is nicely laid out, although more references are needed.
  • Treatment is decently set up and clearly explains each of the treatment plans.
Group 11
  • No references in the Introduction. All the information presented in this section is in keeping with an Epidemiology section, NOT an introduction.
  • History is very enjoyable to read, but it leaves the development of an understanding of the specific mechanisms of the disease entirely to the timeline. Perhaps try link the two more? The picture in the timeline is impressively made relevant by the legend below it.
  • Very good presentation of diagnosis, outlining the limitations of diagnostic techniques. Very good use of tables to elucidate the specifics of the techniques.
  • Syndromes and Anomalies etc. “text will be added soon”. Really? Could possibly use more references, but the text itself is very in-depth.
  • Development needs references, but the information presented covers a broad scope. Inventive use of picture alignment.
  • Inclusion of the section Types of Cleft Palate/Lip as an independent body is a rather good idea, but it may perhaps be better placed closer to the start of the page.
  • Pathophysiology: “DRAWING!!! To be added soon,” these things really need to be cleaned up. The section as a whole needs more references. The section could also benefit from the inclusion of pictures.
  • Genetic Configuration needs references, and could be cleaned up in terms of layout.
  • Neuroembryology and Functional etc is very detailed and well explained, with good use of pictures. However, it seems like a lot of what’s stated there has already been stated in other sections.
  • Treatment needs references. Very good use of pictures, however.
  • Problems Associated etc could probably do better with actual text rather than bullet-points. Also, references.
  • Current/Future Research is very strangely set up. Needs more explanation of the directions of research.
Trisomy 21

Labrador Session 9

"There was no assessment added for this class" - Mark Hill

Labrador Session 10

Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss

A maternal infection with Rubella virus will lead to hearing loss in the unborn child, especially during the first 3-4 months of development. Barr (1982) cites the risk as being 30-50% in the first month, dropping down to 10-15% towards the third month.

Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.
  • Neonatally, the Eustachian tube is orientated horizontally, such that fluid can accumulate. Until a child is seven years of age, the tube is kept more or less at this horizontal orientation.
  • The Eustachian tube of neonates is shorter than in adults and only reaches full length at around seven years of age. Consequently, accumulation of fluid can occur at a faster rate.
  • The hole connecting the Eustachian tube to the pharynx is smaller in neonates than in adults, such that there is less area through which any accumulated fluid can drain into the pharynx.
Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record

Stickler Syndrome is a genetic abnormality which features hearing loss as a symptom

Labrador Session 11

Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria
  • Septum primum
  • Foramen primum
  • Foramen secundum
  • Septum secundum
  • Interventricular septum
  • Endocardial cushions
Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Common Arterial Trunk
  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle
  • Interrupted Aortic Arch
  • Pulmonary Atresia
  • Pulmonary Stenosis
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Transposition of the Great Vessels

Labrador Session 12

Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally
  • Reproductive System (continuation of gametogenesis from puberty)
  • Auditory System (auditory cortex development, Eustachian tube length/width/angle modification
  • Visual System (development of accommodation, visual cortex coding)
Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM

The Guthrie test detects phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism and cystic fibrosis.