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Ciliary Body Iris Cornea Aqueous Chambers Lacrimal Glands Extraocular muscles
This article reviews some important features of capacitation as well as presenting their findings regarding the role of PLD-dependent actin polymerization in sperm motility during capacitation. They demonstrated the importance of PLD-dependent actin polymerization for developing hyper-activated motility.
|Rac1 and RhoA are Rho GTPases that regulate the invasion of the human embryo through the endometrial stroma. Inhibition of Rac1 expression prevents embryo invasion of the stroma, whereas inhibition of RhoA promotes it. Rac1 also plays a role in human endometrial stromal cell migration.
1. Gestational age refers to the time period between the first day of the mothers last period and birth. Fertilisation age is the time between conception and birth. .
Amniocentesis- involves using a needle to take a sample of amnitoic fluid. It can be used to detect down syndrome and turner syndrome among other abnormalities.
Chorionic villus sampling- a needle is used to take a sample of chorionic villus (placental tissue). It is helpful in detecting down syndrome and cystic fibrosis.
This paper demonstrates the successful use of intrathecally injected mesenchymal cells derived from human umbilical cord blood to partially recanalise a dissected basilar artery. The patient was a 17 year old Korean man with infarction of the bilateral pons, midbrain and right superior cerebellum as a result of the basilar artery dissection.
The paper identifies that human umbilical cord blood contains hematopoietic stem cells, as well as mesenchymal stem cells which express neural makers Tuj1, TrkA, glial fibrillary acidic protein and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases.
As a result of his condition the patient became quadriplegic, was unable to speak, and was unable to move his eyes, as well as a number of other symptoms. His clinical symptoms were visibly improved 5 days after the initial treatment with the mesenchymal cells. After the 27th day of treatment he regained his gag reflex, was able to swallow, had pupil dilation and was able to move his eyes, his soft palate stopped sagging, and the rigidity of his muscle tone reduced enough to allow him to sit in a wheelchair.
1.Provide a one sentence definition of a muscle satellite cell (b) In one paragraph, briefly discuss two examples of when satellite cells are activated ?
Satelite cells are stem cells that are located under the basal laminar of each muscle. When muscle is damaged satelite cells infiltrate the muscle and repair or replace it. They are normal quiescent.
2.In one brief paragraph, describe what happens to skeletal muscle fibre type and size when the innervating motor nerve sustains long term damage such as in spinal cord injury?
blah blah blah etc <ref name=>Schoenwolf: Larsen’s Human embryology, 4th ed/>
- Schoenwolf: Larsen’s Human embryology, 4th ed> Schoenwolf: Larsen’s Human embryology, 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, An Imprint of Elsevier. 2008