From Embryology

Laboratory attendance

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internal link Cell division lecture

external link smh

fertilization link

new sub heading


Early zygote.jpg

Lab 2 Questions

What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy? human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle? progesterone

Lab 3 Questions

1.What Carnegie stages occur during week 3 and week 4?

During week 1 Carnegie stages 7,8,9 occur and during week 4 carnegie stages 10,11,12,13 occur.

2.What is the change in overall embryo size from the beginning of week 3 to the end of week 4?

From the beginning of week 3 to the end of week 4 the embryo grows from 0.4mm to 3-5mm.

3.Approximately when do the cranial (anterior) and caudal (posterior) neuropores close in the human embryo?

The cranial neuropores close on day 24 and the caudal neuropore closes on day 26.

--z3254433 11:14, 22 August 2010 (UTC)

Lab 4 Questions

1.Name the vessels that drain into the sinus venosus?

Anterior and posterior cardinal veins, umbilical veins, vitelline vein.

2.What is the fate of the vitelline artery and vitelline vein? The vitelline venous system gives rise to the liver sinusoids and portal system.

3.Name the 4 layers that constitute the placental barrier? The 4 layers that constitute the placental barrier are: syncitiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, villi connective tissue and fetal capillary endothelium

4.What stem cells are found in abundance, and may be harvested from the placenta for therapeutic uses? Mulitpotent cells are found in abundance in the placenta and may be used to grow virtually any type of tissue or replace any type of cell. They may be used to treat disorders such as: Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, auto-immune disorders, stroke, burn recovery, heart disease, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, lupus, muscular dystrophy.

Further info can be found through the following link:

Lab 5 Questions

1.What is the origin of the gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle? Splanchnic mesoderm

2.At what Carnegie stage does the buccopharyngeal membrane begin to break down? Stage 11

3.Identify the lung developmental stage in late embryonic to early fetal period. pseudoglandular - week 5 – 17, stage 22 above. Formation of terminal bronchioles.

4.In premature infant birth, which respiratory cell type may not have fully developed? Type II pneumocytes.

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Lab 7 Questions

Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

myotubes are multi-nucleated cells which are formed by the the fusion of myoblasts

What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I:

a) Suffered a spinal cord injury- the muscles affected would undergo atrophy.

b) Took up marathon running- the muscle fibres would change to slow twitching fibres.

Lab 10 Questions

1. Development of which endocrine organ is affected by low dietary iodine? Thyroid gland.

2. What are the affects of this deficiency on other non-endocrine system development? Iodine deficiency may cause preventable mental retardation and brain damage.

3. At approximately what week in development do many endocrine organs appear to begin their function?

•Pancreas- endocrine function - from 10 to 15 weeks onward hormone release, exocrine function - begins after birth. •Thyroid- functions from wk10. •Testis- 8 Weeks, mesenchyme, interstitial cells (of Leydig) secrete testosterone, androstenedione. •Testis- 8 to 12 Weeks - hCG stimulates testosterone production.

lab 12 Questions

1. During which trimester does fetal length change the most and when does fetal weight change the most? Fatal length changes the most in the second trimester and fetal weight changes the most during the third trimester.

2. What is the name of the theory that links postnatal health with prenatal development? The fetal origins hypothesis.

3. Which hormone initiates and maintains labour during birth and where does it come from? Oxytocins which is produced in the posterior pituitary.

Peer Review Task

GROUP PROJECT 1: ultrasound Firstly I thought group 1s layout was great and very well organised, I particularly appreciated the external link that were quite interesting and informative. Also the relevant images on the web page helped in my understanding of the topic. I do think that I have learnt something about ultrasonography especially about the history and the science behind the equipment and techniques used. The only thing that I was left wanting to know was the accuracy of the ultrasound for each test.

What would improve this project? nothing really, good job guys.

Group project 2: chorionic villus sampling This group had great images and the page layout was good too especially the tables which simplified the information and made it easier to read. The information presented was very informative, scientific, and all the key concepts were covered on the topic. The project had a very impressive reference list, and it did help in my understanding of this prenatal diagnostic technique.

What could be improved? I did find a spelling mistake under the heading Results and Accuracy were you have written “maybe” instead of “baby”, so maybe proof read the assignment to pick up on any other possible spelling or grammatical errors, other than that well done.

Group 3: amniocentesis I found this project very interesting and it was very well written, by far it had a more scientific feel than the others. All of the images and tables were relevant and informative. I felt that I learnt plenty about the particular diseases that the diagnostic technique could find as there was plenty of detail on this.

What could be improved? Probably some more pictures from sources other than Wikipedia.

Group 4: PUBS This project was very well written and informative yet a little bit simplistic, the images and tables were excellent, and it was good to see that the images had come from a variety of sources. Great assignment I defiantly learnt something.

What could be improved? A few things to improve on could be a some more pictures, possibly a larger referencing list, and giving the assignment more of a “scientific feel”.

Group 5: Foetal fibronectin What I found good about this assignment was that all the information was presented in a clear and organized manner, and did appear to have a teaching element to the project. There was a great amount of research and referencing done although it did lack a bit of a “scientific feel”.

What could be improved? Some extra pictures or tables could be added and also the glossary could probably be placed above the references so that it is easier to refer to it instead of having to scroll all the way down.