From Embryology


--Jenny Huang 23:38, 28 July 2010 (UTC)

Cell Division


The egg and sperm



Early zygote.jpg


--Jenny Huang 23:36, 4 August 2010 (UTC)

Search Pubmed

Search Bookshelf Prenatal Diagnosis

Search Pubmed Now: Prenatal Diagnosis


--z3224500 23:13, 11 August 2010 (UTC)


--Jenny Huang 23:18, 18 August 2010 (UTC)

Lab 2 Questions

  1.  What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin

  2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle? 

It produces Estrogen and Progesterone

Lab 3 Questions

  1.  What Carnegie stages occur during week 3 and week 4?

Carnegie stages 7-9 occur during week 3 spanning days 15-21 and carnegie stages 10-13 occur spanning days 22-30.

  2. What is the change in overall embryo size form the beginning of week 3 to the end of week 4?

From the beginning of week 3 the embryo is about 0.4mm and by the end of week 4 3-5mm.

  3. Approximately when do the cranial (anterior) and caudal (posterior) neuropores close in the human embryo? 

The anterior neuropore closes during carnegie stage 11 and the posterior neuropore closes at carnegie stage 13.

Lab 4 Questions

  1.  Name the vessels that drain into the sinus venosus?

The vitelline vein, umbilical vein and the cardinal vein drain into the sinus venosus.

  2. What is the fate of the vitelline artery and vitelline vein?

The vitallene arteries contribute to the GI tract arteries and the vitallene veins contribute to the adult portal system.

  3. Name the 4 layers that constitute the placental barrier?

The 4 cellular layers are in order : the syncitiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, villi connective tissues and fetal capillary endothelium

  4. What stem cells are found in abundance, and may be harvested from the placenta for therapeutic uses?

Haematopoetic stem cells


--Jenny Huang 23:22, 25 August 2010 (UTC)

Lab 5 Questions

  1. What is the origin of the gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle?

The GIT smooth muscle is derived from the Splanchnic mesoderm that forms the smooth muscle, connective tissue, blood vessels and contributes to organ development.

  2. At what Carnegie stage does the buccopharyngeal membrane begin to break down?

the buccopharyngeal membrane begins to break down during carnegie stage 11 opening the gastrointestinal tract to the amnion.

  3. Identify the lung developmental stage in late embryonic to early fetal period.

During the late embryonic stage of lung development budding of the lungs from the trachea starts at around carnegie stage 22.

  4. In premature infant birth, which respiratory cell type may not have fully developed? 

Alveolar cells (type II) may not fully develop that are responsible for secreting surfactant.


--Jenny 23:24, 1 September 2010 (UTC)


(for 15 September, I forgot to sign on) --Jenny Huang 10:37, 19 September 2010 (UTC)

Lab 7 Questions

  1. Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

A myotube is a nucleated muscle fibre that is non mature and developing. It is formed by the fusion of myoblasts.

  2. What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I: 
   a) Suffered a spinal cord injury 
   b) Took up marathon running

Group Project Assessment

Group 1

Very informative page, nicely organised. Tables where very concise and clear, not cluttered. The technical aspects of ultrasound were covered really well, as well as the images accompanying them. Images were described in depth alongside the thumbnail.. however it wasn't too clear if there was a student drawn image on the page. Abnormalities were covered really well also, the information was easy to understand yet still being scientific in the language. I also liked how there were useful links throughout the page that relate to their topic. Things that could be improved would be on the Current Research heading, could be longer. References were good, with a nice glossary.

group 3

Layout was nicely organised, with logical flow and simple to understand. History was covered well, and prodedure was explained very thoroughly and was quite scientific yet simple about the information on what happens in the lab, ie. karotyping. I liked the student drawn images, they were quite informative and supplemented the text really well. Risks was covered in depth, and was interested to know about the psychological effects. Abnormalities were interesting, I found that the pie chart and the picture very eye catching, made it more interesting to learn about the topic. The table was neat and to the point, with added links which was helpful. The current research could be expanded upon though. Good references but missing glossary.

Group 4

Very good use of images. Very eye catching. Impressive student drawn figures, I thought it was very well done, shows the effort put in it and very informative and labelled very well. I liked the comparison with other prenatal techniques, showed that they have researched other techniques as well as their own. Procedure was covered nicely, although abnormalities detected could be elaborated upon with images to supplement the text, as I felt it was a little short, but nevertheless it was simple and easy to understand. CUrrent research should also be expanded upon. References were ok, I think more in text citations would be better, and a more longer glossary is probably better.

Group 5"

Simple, good organisation and what I like about it is that they referenced a lot of their text to backup their information which i thought was very scientific. The drawn picture was nice, but overall the page needed more images and pictures to understand the topic better. A table may have been a good choice to convey some information to make it more interesting, but it is still simple so not a very big deal there. So overall, more images, and I think more longer information under some headings would provide more extensive knowledge on the topic. References are very good, with an alright glossary.

group 6

Good headings, but an error I noticed in the contents section was that the subheadings were all lumped under the "introduction" heading. History was a little brief, though I really liked the drawn images, it seemed like effort was put into drawing and labeling, and very informative. I thought information was scientific and explained alpha fetoprotein very well in a molecular point of view which meant they had done good research on the topic. More images would have made it more interesting in the abnormalities section, and also maybe a table that was implemented on the page would have been good because the thumbnail pictures of the tables were a little hard to see without clicking on them. But overall, good organisation, and good references.


--Jenny Huang 23:33, 22 September 2010 (UTC)


--Jenny Huang 12:27, 6 October 2010 (UTC) (For September 30, forgot again, sorry)


--z3224500 22:56, 6 October 2010 (UTC)

Lab 10 Questions

  1. Development of which endocrine organ is affected by low dietary iodine?

The thyroid gland.

  2. What are the affects of this deficiency on other non-endocrine system development?

Iodine deficiency can cause stunted growth and mental retardation. CHildren are incapable of normal movement, speech and hearing.

  3. At approximately what week in development do many endocrine organs appear to begin their function?

They begin at approx. week 10


--Jenny Huang 08:00, 15 October 2010 (UTC)(october 14th)


--Jenny Huang 22:19, 20 October 2010 (UTC)

lab 12 Questions

  1. During which trimester does fetal length change the most and when does fetal weight change the most?

fetal length changes most during the 2nd trimester and weight changes mostly in the third.

  2. What is the name of the theory that links postnatal health with prenatal development?

Fetal Origins Hypothesis

  3. Which hormone initiates and maintains labour during birth and where does it come from? 

Oxytocin, which is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland in the mother. The fetus also has a role in producing oxytocin.