From Embryology


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This is an internal link: Cell Division Lecture

This is an external link: SMH

Sperm meets egg

New sub heading

Now I can edit a subheading section


Early zygote.jpg

Lab Questions

1) What factor do the synctiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy?

They secrete hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum to support the ongoing pregnancy.

2) What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle?

It secretes progestogen to maintain the endometrium of the uterus thus preventing the continuation of the mestrual cycle.

Lab 3 Questions

1) What Carnegie stages occur during week 3 and week 4?

Stages 7-13

2) What is the change in overall embryo size form the beginning of week 3 to the end of week 4?

wk3:0.7mm diameter wk4: 3-5mm length

3) Approximately when do the cranial (anterior) and caudal (posterior) neuropores close in the human embryo?

Cranial neuropore closes at about 24 days and caudal neuropore closes at about 26 days

Lab 4 Questions

1)Name the vessels that drain into the sinus venosus?

Vitelline, placental vessels and common cardinal vein

2)What is the fate of the vitelline artery and vitelline vein?

Vitelline artery will contribute to adult GIT arteries and vitelline vein would contribute to the adult portal system

3)Name the 4 layers that constitute the placental barrier?

syncitiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, villi connective tissue and fetal capillary endothelium.

4)What stem cells are found in abundance, and may be harvested from the placenta for therapeutic uses?

hematopoietic stem cells

Lab 5 Questions

1) What is the origin of the gastrointestinal tract smooth muscle?

Splanchnic mesoderm

2) At what Carnegie stage does the buccopharyngeal membrane begin to break down?

Carnegie stage 11

3) Identify the lung developmental stage in late embryonic to early fetal period.

Embryonic development of the lungs begins in stage 14 (branching of bronchial tree). The development of the functional alveoli begins from stage 22 until late fetal.

4) In premature infant birth, which respiratory cell type may not have fully developed?

The type 2 alveolar cells which are responsible for surfactant secretion maybe not be fully developed by premature infant birth.

Lab 7 Questions

1) Briefly; what is a myotube and how is it formed?

A myotube is a single unit of a muscle fibre. It is formed by the determination of myogenic progenitor cells follow by the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes.

2) What changes would I expect to see in the muscle fibre types in my legs if I: a) Suffered a spinal cord injury

Muscle Atrophy occurs

b) Took up marathon running

The fast fibres will change and become slow fibres

Peer Assessment

Group 1:

The website has a very clear structure making it easy to read. The contents are adequate for providing a basic overview of ultrasound to the general public. There is a good balance of text and pictures providing examples of various types of ultrasound images. I think it is a great idea to tables to present the different types of transducers used in ultrasound as it makes it very easy to spot and compare the different. From an academic point of view I find the website very educational, however from a practical point of view the site did not mention any cost or preparation required for the test.

What I think could be improve is adding a summary of the benefits of ultrasound and a table of when, over the course of pregnancy, should ultrasound be used with respect to its uses for prenatal diagnoses.

Group 2:

This project provides a clear understanding of the key information regarding CVS, such as how it is carried out, the risks and benfits of CVS, what it is used for as well as future research. I have find the pictures to be of a great help in explaining the procedure of CVS.

One think I did notice was that, it didn't state that the test was invasive until you figure it out when you look at the pictures in the procedures. I think stating that in the introduction would make it clearer for readers to follow on with the information this projects provides having that knowledge in mind at the start.

Group 3:

This project is very informative and did a good job in stating what the test is about and explainning how it is carried out. I really like the uses of sub-headings making it very easy to follow. However I feel that there are too little information in the accuracy of the diagnosis although the percentage is quite high, using only one study to support the accuracy does not seem to be convincing enough.

What I think could be improve would be looking up a meta-study which compares the studies done on amniocentesis to provide more information about its accuracy and how reliable it is with respect to the various disorders which it can detect.

Group 4:

Overall it is a good page. It's order muddled me up though. I think keep the History first then the procedure and so on an so forth. There are too few references which do not adequately support the claims that you make (not that I'm doubting you). You pictures are fantastic; as well as your table. The glossary is slightly short as there are some words that I had to google to find the meaning of. Other than that Good job guys!! --z3252083 12:36, 22 September 2010 (UTC)

First off, all the key features of the test seems to be present and the information regarding them are quite good too. Through it is a bit confusing to follow, discussing when the test should be done then the history and then explain what the test is about makes it difficult to follow.

What could be improve is probably have the history first, then explain what PUBS is (the procedure) then talk about when it shouldl be perform would make more sense to me. Also there seem to be an overlap between the advantages and disadvantages of the test with the reasons for and aganist the test, you might want to consider merging them together.

Group 5:

Reading through the information is quite easy, the headings and sub-headings makes it very clear to follow. Having questions as sub-headings makes it very user friendly to read and understand the fetal fibronectin test. However the history and development of the test is lacking. Also is the test specific for pre-mature birth detection only? please specify. The introduction also is a bit confusing where it say "Fetal fibronectin is a protein based plasma that acts as a form of glue attaching the amniotic sac to the uterine wall. Fetal fibronectin is commonly present between 22 to 35 weeks of pregnancy. It is released into the upper vagina towards the onset of labour. If the test finds fFN between this period, the woman will have a chance of going into labour" - what period are u talking about? when I read it, it seems to be prefering to 22-35 weeks of pregnancy as it state before, but it was mention that it was commonly to find fFN during that time, does that mean that it is common for women to have pre-mature births?

What could be improve would be providing a brief history of this test and fix up the introduction so it won't be confusing to the reader.