Talk:Book - Manual of Human Embryology 11D

From Embryology

Table 1



Time of appearance of centre.

Os COX2B Os ilium 56th day (Mall)


Os ischii

Os pubis

Os acetabuli.

Epiphyses: Those of the acetabulum

Crest of ilium Tuberosity of ischium

Patella Tibia . .

Ischial spine Ant. inf. spine of ilium Symphysis end of OS pubis (1 or 2 centres) Diaphysis Epiphyses: Distal end Head Great trochanter . . .

Small trochanter . .



Diaphysis Epiphyses: Proximal end Distal end Tubercle (occas.)

Diaphysis Epiphyses: Distal end — Proximal end. Chief centre —

Epiphysis (distal end)

105th day (Mall)

4th to 5th fetal month

9th to 12th year

Soon after puberty

Soon after puberty. . . Soon after puberty. . . Soon after puberty. . . Soon after puberty. . .

18th to 20th year. (Sappey)

Time of fusion: general remarks.

The rami of the ischium and the pubis are united by bone in the 7th or 8th year (Ouain) ( 12-14 year^ Sappey). In the acetabulum the three hip bones are separated by a Y-shaped cartilage until after puberty. In this cartilage between the ilium and pubis the ' 'os acetabuli "appears betwe^i the ninth and twelfth years. This bone, variable in siae, forms a greater or less part of the pubic portion of the articular cavity. Leche (1884). Krause (1885), and many others consider it primarily an independent bone. About puberty between the ilium and ischium and over the acetabular surfaces of these bones small irregular epiphyseal centres appear. The OS acetabuli becomes imited to the pubic bone about puberty and soon afterwards the acetabular portions of the ilium and ischium and the ischium and pubis begin to become united by bone. The acetabular portions of the pubis and ilium are unit^ a little later. Osseous union takes place earlier on the pelvic than on the articular surface of the acetabulum. The imion of the several orimary centres and the epiphyses is usuaJly completed about the tw^itieth year. Fuses with main bone 20th to 25th year. Fusion begins in the 17th jrear and is completed between the 20th and 24th years (Sappey). 18th to 20th year (Poirier). 18th to 20th year (Poirier).

After the 20th year.

43d day (Mall)

Shortlybefore birth.»« , 20th to 24th year. Ist year 18th to 19th year. 3d to 4th year. (Osse18th year, ous granules soon afterbirth, Poirier) i 13th to 14th year ' 17th year (Quain). 8th year (Sappey) Proximal epiphysis 18th to 22d year I (Poirier). 3d to 5th year The osseous patella reaches its definitive form soon before puberty. 44th day (Mall). About birth | 19th to 24th year (Sappey). 2d year 16th to 19th year.

13th year 65th day (Mall). 2d year

Fuses with epiphysis of the proximal end and then with this to the diaphysis.

20th to 22d year.

3d to 5th year 22d to 24th year.

6th fetal month

10th year (Quain) 7th-8th year ( Sappey)

The chief nucleus is endochondral. A periosteal nucleus appears frequently in the 4-5 fetal month (Hassel wander). 15th-16th year (Quain). 16th-18th year (Poirier). (^ 17-21, average 20 years. 9 13-17, average 16 years (Hasselwander)

  • • Poirier, Traite d'Anatomie, vol. 1. page 227, gives a summary of the literature on the time of the appearance of this epiphysis. The epiphysis has some medico-legal importance, since its presence or absence has been utilized to determine whether a child is bom at term. Schwegel found it to appear between birth and the third year; Casper in the ninth fetal month. Hartmann found it lacking in 12 per cent, of cases at birth and in 7 per cent, of cases present as early as the eighth fetal month.



Cuboid Cuneiform III. Cuneiform I... Cuneiform II.. Navicular

Metatarsals .

Phalanges: Terminal row

Middle row.

Proximal row


Diaphjrsee Epiphyses

Sesamoid bones of the great toe

Time of appearance of coitre.

6th fetal month (Hassel wander).

About birth 1st year. 2d-3d year. 3d-4th year. 4th-5th year.

8th-10th week 3d-8th year....

Diaphyses Epiphyses (distal) Diaphyses Epiphyses Diaphyses Epiphyses

58th day (Mall). 4th year 4th-10th fetal month 3d year , 3d fetal month 3d year

cf 14th year 9 12th-13th year

Time of fusion: general remarks.

In the 7th-8th year the posterior part of the talus, the os trigonum, is frequently ossified from a special c«itre (v. Bardeleben). It fuses about the 18th year.

according to v. Bardeleben a second centre of ossincation appears much later than the primary in the navicular, and finally about the time of puberty a medial epiphyseal centre arises. The centre for the 2d metatarsal usually appears first, then come the 3rd, 4th, Ist and 5th. The epiphysis of the 1st metatarsal appears at the proximal end of the bone: the other epiphyses arise at the distal exida of the metatarsals. There may be a distal epiphysis in the first metatarsal also.17 In some instances a proximal epiphysis is formed cm the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal (Gruber). The epiphyses unite with the shafts in the 17-21 year in males and in the 14-19 year in females. (Hassd wander) .

cf 13-23, average 16-21 year. 9 13-17, average 14-17 year (Hasselwander). (5^ 15-19 year. 9 13-16 year (Hassel wander). cf 15-17 year. 9 14-15 year (Hassel wander). The centres for the shafts of the phalanges often appear double, one for the dorsal and one for the plantar surface. The centres for the medial phalanges in each row usually appear before the more laterally placed centres. The ooEitre for the 5th terminal phalanx appears much later than the other centres in this row (Mall). according to Rambaud and Renault the epiphyses arise each from two centres which fuse together. In the terminal phalanx of the ^reat toe the ossification centre of the epiphysis often appears as early as the secona or even the first year. (Hassel wander) . Ossification may begin in the 8th year in females, in the 11th in males (Hasselwander).

>^ Mayet has described two centres of ossification for the proximal epiphysis of the first metatarsal, one of which represents the real metatarsal of the first digit.

Table 2 - of Ossification of the Bones of the Superior Extremity

(Days and weeks refer to the prenatal, years to the postnatal period.)





Diaphysis Sternal epiphysis.

Time of appearance of centre.

Primary centres: 1. That of the body, the spine, and the base of the glenoid cavity. 2. Goraooid process 3. Subcoraooid

Himierus .

Epiphyses: Acromial epiphyses Epiphysis of the inferior angle. Epiphyses of the vertebral border. Epiphjrses of upper surface of coraccid. Epiphysis of surface of glenoid fossa.

Diaphysis Epiphyses: Head Tuberculum majus . . . Tuberculum minus Capitulum Epioondylus med Lateral margin of trochlea. E|Hcondylus lat

6th week 18th to 20th year.

Union of primary and secondary centres; remarks.

8th week (Mall).>* 1st year. 10th to 12th year. 15th to 18th year. 16 to 18th year. 18th to 20th year. 16th to 18th year. 16th to 18th year.

6th to 7th week (Mall) 1st to 2d year. 2d to 3d year. 3d to 5th year. 2d to 3d year. 5th to 8th year. 11th to 12th year. 12th to 14th year.

There are two centres in the shaft, a medial and a lateral. These blend on the 45th day (Mall). Shaft and epiohysis unite between the 20tn and 25th years. The chief centre appears near the lateral angle. The subcoraccid centre appears at the base of the coraccid process and also gives rise to a part of the superior mar|^ of the glenoid fossa. The coraccid process joins the body about the age of puberty. The acromial epiphjrsMtl centres (two or three in number) fuse with one another so(m after their u>pearance and with the spine between the 22d and 25th years ((jjuain); 20th 3rear (Wilms). The subcoraccid and the epiphjrses of the coraccid process, the i^enoid fossa, the inferior anjB^e, and the vertebral margin join between the 18th and 24th years in the order mentioned (Sappey).

The epiphyses of the head, the tuberculum majus Bnd the tuberculum minus (the last is inconstant) imite with one another in 4th-6th srear and with the shaft in 20th-25th year. The epiphyses of the capitulum, lateral epicondyle, and trochlea unite with one another snd then in the 16th~ 17th year join the shaft. The epiphysis of the medial epicondyfe joins the shaft in the 18th year.

1* according to Poirier, Traitd d'Anatomie, p. 138, two centres appear in the eighth week, and unite in the third month to form a centre of ossification for the body of the scapula.





Metacarpals ,


Phalanges First row —

Middle row..

Diapbysis , Epiphyses: Carpal end Humeral end Diaphysis Epiphyses: Carpal end Humeral end Os capitatum Os hamatum Os triquetrum Oslunatum Os naviculare Os mult, maj Osmult. min Os pisiforme Diaphsrses Proximal epiphysis of the first metacarpal Distal epiphyses of the metacarpals.

Time of appearance of centre.

7th week (Mall)

9 8th month, cT 1 6th month (Pryor), 6th-7th year.

7th week.

9 6th-7th year. (^ 7th-«th year ( Pryor loth year.

Diaphyses Proximal epiphyses . .

93d-6th month (^ 4th-10th month. V5th-10th month. ^ 6th-12th month. 9 2d-3d year. cT about 3 yean, 93rd-4thyear. (^ about 4 years. Vat 4 years, or early in 5th year. d about 5 years. 94th-5thyear. (5'6th-6thyear. 94th-5thyear (f 6tn-6th year. 99th-10thyear. cT 12th-l3th year. 9th week (Mall)

3d year. 2d year.

9th week (Mall) l8t-3d year (Pryor).

Terminal row

Diaphyses Proximal epiphyses . . Diaphyses Proximal epiphyses .

Sesamoid bones

llth-12thweek(Mall) 2d-3d year.

7th-8th week. 2d-3d year.