Movie - Abnormal Chick Heart 2
Removal (at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 14/15) of neural crest that normally contributes to the heart outflow generates heart abnormalities visible in this later embryo (stage 17) movie. Early abnormal cardiac looping can generate heart anomalies such as tetralogy of Fallot or double outlet right ventricle. This full movie of abnormal embryonic chicken heart, blood flow through the heart can be seen in a series of realtime samples of the embryo over an extended (10 hour) time period. The movie is a lateral view of the embryo (head and body) with the heart loop seen on the right and dorsal aorta on the left. In the neural crest-ablated embryo, the outflow limb is displaced ventrally/cranially and turned rightward so that both inflow and outflow limbs are visible from the right side.
Original movies by Dr ML Kirby, showing normal and abnormal heart development following neural crest ablation, republished with author permission.