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TGF-B Signalling - Formation of Receptor Hetero-Tetramers

The active form of the TGF-β ligand is a dimer of two molecules combined by hydrophobic interactions and a disulfide bond. This dimer initiates the formation, at the plasma membrane, of receptor hetero-tetramers that contain two type I and two type II receptors. The type II receptors phosphorylate the type I receptors; the type I receptors are then enabled to phosphorylate cytoplasmic R-SMADs, which then act as transcriptional regulators.




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