Book - The anatomy of the human gravid uterus exhibited in figures (1774)

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Hunter W. Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tabulis illustrada (The anatomy of the human gravid uterus exhibited in figures) (1774)

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Mark Hill.jpg
This early 1774 book by William Hunter shows the anatomy of the human pregnant uterus in figures. It contains beautiful plates of dissections of the pregnant uterus, showing the fetus and placenta. Note this is a very early unedited format of the original text. The typography of the time means that the letter "s" appears as "f" within the text, and there are many other errors in teh original latin terms.

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Modern Notes: uterus

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The Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus exhibited in Figures

William Hunter (1718-1783)
William Hunter (1718-1783)

Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tabulis illustrada

Auctore Gulielmo Hunter, Serenissimae Reginae Charlottae Medico Extraordinario,

In Academia Regali Anatomiae Professor E, Et Societatum, Regiaeet Antiquariae, Socio.;

Birminghamiae Excudebat Joannes Baskerville, mdcclxxiv.

LONDINI prostant apud S. BAKER, T. CADELL, D. WILSON, G. N I C O L, et J. MURRAY.


William Hunter



Sold in LONDON by S. BAKER and G. LEIGH, in York-Street ; T. CADrELL in the Strand; D. WILSON and G. NICOL opposite York-Buildings; and J, MURRAY , in Fleet-Street.

To The King.


This work had no other claim to the honour with which it is didinguifhed by your majesty, than as it illudrates one part of fcience hitherto imperfe&ly underdood, and as it contains the foundation of another part of fcience, on which the lives and happinefs of millions mud depend. It gave me an heart-felt fatisfaciion, to obferve how much this confideration recommended it to royal patronage.

When refped, reverence, and gratitude rife to a certain degree, and the occalion is public and folemn, the freedom of language is restrained : and I Ihould be guilty of an abufe of that gracious condefcenfion, with which I am honoured, were I to attempt to exprefs by words the fentiments of my heart. But, for the fake of thofe, who, placed at a didance from the royal presence, may be more able to ferve the public, than I have been, let me be per¬ mitted to fay, that, although to acquire knowledge, and to communicate it to others, has been the pleafure, the bufmefs, and the ambition of my life; yet, fince I have had the honour to be a fervant in your royal house, I have felt an additional incitement to affiduity, being convinced that an unremitting endeavour to be ufeful to fociety, is the readied, and the mod certain way to the favour of our sovereign.

That the peculiar bleding of this country, the influence of a king who sincerely wilhes to encourage every improvement, a king who takes a part with all his fubjecls in their happiness, and in their didrefs, may be long preferred to us, is the fervent prayer of,


Your Majesty’s

most faithful Subject,

and mod dutiful Servant

William Hunter.



QUOD omnes fere homines, in ftudiis fcientiarum verfati, diu multumque defiderarant, linguam fcilicet per univerfum terrarum orbem cognitam atque perceptam, id nobis ex parte aliqua firppeditat tabularam aenearum fculptura, ad veras rerum formas exhibendas adprime accommodata. Imo hujufce artificii ea eft udlitas, ut in naturae explicatione faepenumero plus valeat quam quaevis _verborum copia, aut vis dicendi. Ouodcunque enim oculo fideli inde fubjicitur (fpectet modo aliquis argumend haud ignarus) animo confeftim arripitur, memoriaeque alte impreffum haud prorfus excidit. Lentior fermonis mora, et vis hebetior.

Proinde ex quo tempore hoc artificium ufibus hominum communiter inferviit, via brevior faciliorque patefacla eft ad inventa quaelibet turn divulganda, turn confervanda; et reram fimul naturahum cognitio, ab exiguis profeda initiis, paulatim eo ufque increvit, ut feculi hujufce, " milium omatiflimi, fummum fere ornamentum jam tandem extiterit.

Caeterarum artium incrementa, aequis faltem paffibus, comitata eft anatomia. - Etenim non pauci recentiorum, viri excelleiitis ingenii atque judicii, labore plurimo, nec minori folertia, corporis humani turn fabricam turn oeconomiam perveftigarant. Ex his plurimi artem hanc graphicam ancillantem fibi adhibuerant; praecipuifque inde repertis fuis feliciter illuftratis, effecerant, ut ars anatomica, hominum generi, ft qua alia, utilis et frucluofa, intelleciu fimul facilior fieret, fimul cultu jucundior.

Reftabat tamen pars una humani corporis, eaque five ftru&urae fuae perelegantis, five muneris officiique ratione, primas tenens, a difciplinae hujus profefforibus non fatis explorata. Reftabat fcilicet uterus humanus. Abfit vero, ut viris hifce egregiis vitio detur, quod rem quafi neglect am habuerint, cujus penitius perfpiciendae copia rara erat et infrequens. Pauciflimis enim contigerit neceffe eft, ut tot cadavera fecuerint, quot ad conditionem uteri gravidi, variis temporibus variam, perveftigandam, nedum demonftrandam,-fufficerent. De aliis itaque filendum, ubi laudare nefas. Quod ad auctorem attinet, anno ille primum MDCCLI. felici ufus eft occafione id in humano corpore explorandi, quod in brutis jam olim quaefiverat. . Mulier quae dam, graviditatis fuae menfibus prope exactis, repentinam obierat mortem. Cadaver, adhuc integrum, cultro fubjectum eft. Operi favit tempeftas. Cera, vafis rite injecta, voto refpondit. Repertus eft pi&or, vir ille in fuo genere adprime folers. Partes lingulae, mulds coram adftantibus, exploratae funt atque excuffae, ut omnis rei veritas firma lads audoritate comprobari poffet atque ftabiliri.

Sub his aufpiciis, aliquot menfium fpatio decurfo, decern primae tabulae perfede delineatae fuerant; partes ipfae idenddem publice expofitae; et ea quae de fingulis animadverfa fuerant ac notata, palam dida. Audoris inde animum fubiit, fe rem difciplinae hujufce fautoribus haud ingratam faduram, fi hiftoriam uteri gravidi anatomicam ederet, his decern tabulis illuminatam. Confilium placuit. Opus in manus artificum, maxima laude florentium, traditum eft; et pecunia colladtia a pluritnis pro more repraefentata.

Alteram interea cadaver in manus incidit, quod quidem, cceli licet tempeftas minus jam anatomiae arnica effet, haud nullo in predo ha¬ bendum fuit; quandoquidem huic aeceptae referantur figurae aliquot, ab hoc inftituto haud alienae, dignzeque adeo vife, quae operi, fupplemend loco, adjicerentur. Dum autem luper his operam navabat fculptor, en tertium cadaver, quam opportune! Etenim illud non mo¬ do quaedam, prius obfcura, luci dedit, fed novis etiam figuris adornandis materiam ap riffim a m fubminiftravit.

Cum a u d nr huic fe accingebat negodo, animo deftinavit decern tabulas, modo diftas, in lucem proferre, jachim quafi aliauod fandamen, cui alia plura, de hac parte anatomiae, poftea adjicere ac fuperftruere fperabat, fi quando per odum ipli liceret hanc rem aldus in veftigare.

The art of engraving applies us, upon many occasions, with what his been the great defideratum of the lovers of fcience, anuniver/al language. Kay, it conveys clearer ideas of mojl natural objects, than words can exprefs; makes ftronger impreffions upon the mind; and to every p erf on corwerfant with the subject, gives an immediate compreherfwn of what it reprefents.

From the time when this art came more generally into ufe, it has been much more eafy both to communicate and to preferve difcovenes and improvements ; and natural knowledge has been gradually rifing, till it is at length become the dijlinguijhing character flic of the most enlightened age of the world.

Anatomy has, at least, kept pace in improvement with the other branches of natural knowledge. Many of the moderns, through much labour and patience, as well as ingenuity and judgment, have thrown conjiderable lights upon the frudture and operations of the human body; and. they have particularly by engravings, made thefudy of that art, in which humanity is fo much interefed, both more eafy and pleafant. Most of the principal parts of anatomy have, in this manner, been fuccefsfully iUufirated.

One part however, and that the mof curious, and certainly not the leaf important of all, the pregnant womb, had not been treated by anatom fs with proportionable fuccefs. Let it not, however, be objected to them, that they negleSled what in fa£l it was rarely in their power to cultivate.. Few, or none of the anatomifis, had met with a fufficient number of fubjecls, either for invefigating, or for demonfirating the principal circumfiances of uterogefation in the human fpecies. But let what cannot be praifed, in others, be Pqffed over in filence. With refpeB to the prefent undertaking, in the year 1751 the author met with the firfl favourable opportunity of examining, in the human fpecies, what before, he had been fiudymg in brutes. A woman died fuddenly, when very near the end of her pregnancy; the body was procured before any fenfible putrefaBion had begun ; the feafon of the year was favourable to diffeBion; the injeSlion of the blood-vessels proved succefsful; a very able painter, in this way, was found; every part was examined in the mof public manner, and the truth was thereby well authenticated.

In the courfe of fome months, the drawings of the firfi ten plates were fnified, and from time to time the fubject was publicly exhibited, with such remarks as had occurred in the examination of the fever alp arts. Many lovers of this fudy approved of the authors propofal to publijh the anatomy of the gravid uterus, iUufirated by thofe ten plates: the work was immediately put into the hands of our befiartifis ; and subfcriptions were received.

In the mean time a fecond fubjebt was procured; which, though the wea¬ ther happened to be very unfavourable, afforded a few supplemental figures, of importance enough to be taken into the work. And before the engravings were finifhed, a third fubject occurred very opportunely, which cleared up fome difficulties, and furnifhed fome ufeful additional figures.

The original plan having been only to publijh the firfi ten plates, as a ground-work for farther improvements in this branch of anatomy, to be added whenever good opportunities Jhould be offered, the author now began to en¬ tertain hopes of being able to give a much more compleat work. He foresaw veftigare. Jam vero majora qusedam animo complech, et etiam fpera fovere aufus eft, fore ut opus aliquod exaedificare poflet, quod ad perfechonem abfolntionemque propius perveniret. Praevidit enim, in Lac urbe, tanta hominum multitudine referta, annorum aliquot ipatio, occaiionem omnia ea qxxm ad gravidum uterum pertinent, obfervandi viro, Loc agenti, haud fortaffe defuturam ; unde fibi facultas dari poflet aliquod quafi fyftema condere, variafque illas mutationes, fingulis graviditatis menfibus proprias, figuris exprimere. Ejufinodi fere eft Loc opus; quod, longo tempore promiffum, tandem aLquando in medium prodit. Ut id fane ad exitum perduci poflet, moras trahere neceffe foit, praeter opinionem diutumas. Ouoties autem auctor feciun reputathas moras operi minime infruciuofas fuiffe, abunde fentit, quo fe confoletur.

Quod autem Loc argumentam illuftrandi uni alicui mortal! tam pulcLra occafio toties obtigerit, in caula fuerunt turn varii cafus, turn amicorum multorum gratiflima fublidia. Tabularum Larum ultima e manu artificis vix excefferat, cum datum fuit delineare embryonem mole minorem, quam quern antea vidiffe auclori unquam contigerat; et Laud ita pridem conceplusin tuba fallopiana, reshaec animadverfione egregie digna, figurarum numerum adauxit. Hae figurae, et li qua alia, ejufdem argumenti, occurrent, vel in tabula his adjicienda, vel cum uteri gravidi defcriptione anatomica, quam auclor fecum meditatur, data occafione, in pubLcum aliquando proferentur. Hactenus quidem ipfi id otii non conceffum eft, quod ad hanc operis partem abfolvendam effet fatis. Ouod fi cafu aliquo improvifo impeditus faerit, quo minus id, quod cupiat, poflit exfequi, perfuafum fibi habet, haud defutorum aliquem, huic muneri obeundo parem. Multi enim fixnt, qui auclorem de Lis rebus pubLce differentem faepe fepius audierint; multi quos file opinionis acfententiae fixae participes fecerit.

FIGURARUM fere anatomicarum duplex eft et diverfa ratio. Ab altera fimplex rei imago, qualis oculo vifa eft, talis delineator. Altera, una cum vifis, etiam excogitata exhibet; nec tam ad oculum artificis, quam ad ingenium memoriamque accommodatur. Prioris generis exempla apud Bidloo extant; pofterioris apud Eujtachium.

Fieri non poteft, quin figura ifta, quae fit exfideli naturae imitatione, et ex rei unius contemplatione enafcitur, in quibufdam faepe partibus indiftincla aut minus perfecla effe videatur. Altera autem, ex ingenio nata, quae autem non fit, nifi per laborem, et obfervationem et experientiam multiplicem, id uno intuitu videndum exhibet, quod fortaffe non nifi ex rerum varietate colligendum fiierat. Porro Laec eft ea, quae et meliorem ordinem, et compendium facilius, et majorem perfpicacitatem admittit. Alteram quidem contemplans oculus, elegantia ac concinnitate naturae obleclatur: in altera, geometrici cuiufdam dxagrammatis, accurati quidem exactique, fed nudi, fed inomati fimxlitudinem agnofcit. Ilia rem quamlibet fpeciatori, tanquam praelentem, fubjxcit, et dat percipere: haec tantommodo defcribentis vice hmgxtur, remque delineatam in animi confpectu ponit. Prior autem po eriori xn hoc praeftat maxime, quod ea, quae revera vifa funt, exhxbens, fpecxem quandam veritatis prat fe fert; et fit propemodum aeque nefcxa faflere, ac xllud ipfum quod aflimulatur. ?

D f. Il ° c . ope £ e ’ quod naturae ipfius fpeciem proponit, alii fortaffe nnlin U T r ^ ^ aufiorem ^Uat van a fpes fua atque

mulU funt apud quo, file nec cenfebitur operam inutftem S“2; P ec lne P te ero gafle pecuniam; apud quos fcilicet figurarum 3? varxetas aliqua in laude ponentur. Contra,

infn»?i ’ r Pars fumptus fupervacanea omnino at udlit^m ^ &lffC Vlde ^ ltUr ‘ Con tendent fcilicet operis hujus utflxtatem ad plures potuxffe pertingere, fi figure omnes in formam

elaborate folffent; „ fl fcul P tu ra manu minus delicata fuiffet

Sno orSL qUOt Ctlam %UKE ’ Utp ° te 3liis non om

finS U folean t t e ^u fi !r ae -’ ^ qUibu$ a§itUr ’ ea mente at P ue confilio nafara Bartftim f ^ <plantU) j Q fleri poteft, explicetar tam vera sterna P noto; habitudo et ft ™ctura) quam forma

SfeefU^r aC nCXUS; ma § nitu< ip illis ahqua concedatur nedelineari noffl U£ amnt ’ com P m ™tes Laud fatis diltinde

dammodo P ar!Sr; QP od 11 ^agnitudo rei propria fculpturae quoe ft 'ha r! ac /i Q11 ^ mens ’ ea utpote quae obfervata dignUuna eft, haud dubxo ehgenda eft pnecipue. His de caufis fiou^e

STSSS: C Pr ° femntUr ’ ad J uftu “ naturae moduxn perfecbe ’ P exceptis, quae in formam natorali angxxftiorem coguntor.

that , in the courfe offome years , by diligence he might procure in this great city, fo many opportunities of ftudying the gravid uterus, as to be enabkd to make up a tolerable JyJlem ; and to exhibit , by figures, all the principal changes that happen in the nine months of utero-geftation. Such is the work which, at length, is offered to the public. ■ The execution of it has indeed taken up more time, than what was atfirjl expected: but it gives the author no fmall faiisfaclion to reflect, that the delay of publication has con¬ tributed not a little to the value of the work'.

That one person should have had fo many opportunities of illustrating this fubjetl, has been owing to fortunate circumjlances, as well as to the qffJlance of many friends. Even fince the laft plate was finifhed, he had an oppor¬ tunity of making a drawing of a younger embryo than he had before seen and he has likewife made fome figures from a very curious cafe, which he lately met with , namely a conception in the fallopian tube. There, and whatever may hereafter occur, he will offer to the public upon fome future occafion; probably in the way of a supplemental plate, or with the anatomical defcription of the gravid uterus, which he propofes to publifh at full length. He has not hitherto had leifure to finifh that part of the work. But if he Jhould be prevented from doing it, by any unforefeen accident, it will be in the power of many gentlemen of the profeffon to do it for him, as he has conftantly explained his obfervations on this fubjecl in his public lectures.

Anatomical figures are made in two very different ways; one is thefimple portrait, in which the objeti is reprefented exaSlly as it was feen; the other is a reprefentation of the objeSt under fuch circumjlances as were not actually Jeen, but conceived in the imagination. Bidloo has given us fpecimens of the firfi kind; Euftachius o/' the latter.

That figure which is a clofe reprefentation of nature, and which is finifh¬ ed from a view of one JubjeSt, will often be, unavoidably, fomewhat indJlinSt or defeBive m fome parts: the other, being a figure of fancy, made up per¬ haps from a variety offiudies after Nature, may exhibit in one view, what could only be feen in fever al objetts; and it admits of a better arrangement.\ of abridgement, and of greater precifion. The one may have the elegance and harmony of the natural objeSt; the other has commonly the hardnefs of a geo¬ metrical diagram: the onejhews the objeti, or gives perception ; the other on¬ ly deferibes, or gives an idea of it. A very effential advantage of thefirfi is, that as it reprefents what was actually feen, it carries the mark of truth, and becomes almofi as infallible as the object itfelf.

With regard to this work, which is a faithful reprefentation of what was attually Jeen, the judgement of the public will probably be divided. Many will approve of the labour and expenfe which have been befiowed upon it and commend the largenefs, elegance, and variety of the figures. Others will think that a great part of the expenfe might have been ffared, and the work thereby rendered of more general ufe, if the figures had been made to a fmaller fcah tf the engraving had been lefs finifhed, and if fame of the figures, which are very Jimilar to others , had been omitted,

Anatomical figures being intended tojhew, as much as possible, the true na¬ ture, that is, the peculiar habit and compofition ofparts as well ax the

Z7ktt r 7 ,f l! Uaii °\ and COnnem ° n Jhould certainly be large oth 'r wife thefmaUer component farts can not be dUlinElh rehrele^ naturalfize of the objeEt be tolerably -fit for aJerur ^ • t f nted; J nd if the coguntur, nee non una atque altera ex rebus minutiffimis, quas auctor idcirco ampliandas curavit.

IdHem etiam de caufis conftat hujufcemodi figuris deberi accurati°nem quandam atque elegantiam. Profedo in pictura fepe fit, ut ocub leviffima adumbratione obledentur; maxime ubi vel ipfum tab . argu ™ eRtum ade o pervulgatum eft, ut vis imaginandi fariffi exotetur id, quodcunque defiierit, ftatim adimpletura fficud iis in tabulis, ubi hominum effigies, aut alia: res, pariter note, exbibentur) ye ubi partes rerum mmutiores aciem pene oculorum fiigiunt, ut ea m tabula chorographica, quae, propter diftantiam fuam, parum cernuntar Sed m anatomia, ut et in rei naturalis hiftoria, argumentum tabula ipectaton vel ommno effe mcognitum ponitur, vel non fatis exploratum; partefque minima, pariter cum majoribus, ftudium di gentiamque requirunt. Operam quidem dare, ut fumma arte elaborentur eae figurarum partes, per quas nihil, aut parum exprimitur, mil quodpnus lit expreffiim, hominis effet vehementer et opera fua et pecuma abutentis, Harum igitur figurarum pars maxima ultra mediocntatem perfecfta eft; aliquot fumma expolitione atque artificio ornate; leviora, vel ea qua: prius fuerant aliqua ex parte ffiuftrata, leviter tacta; ea vero qua: fecunda vice proferuntur, lineis fere extexionbus adumbrata.

Cuilibet homini, cui judicium fit paulo feverius, in prodivi erit id aucfton vitio dare, quod opus hoc haud fatis jufto ordine procefient, nec formam preffam fatis atque concinnam induat. Quod fi ille difficultates, quotquot audorem circumvenerint, contemplatione fueritcomplexus, conammahaecce, qualiacunque lint, animo magis squo excipiet. In phmmi* alus operibus, ad rem anatomicam qua: fpectant, vemam fibi hand facile impetrat vel defedus aliqua ex parte, vel matenes confufe permifteque difpofita. Quivis enim, fi modo laborem pati decrevent, primum quidem exercitatione et experientia mtimam argumenti fui cognitionem adipifci poterit; deinde autem opens cujufdam, perfedi undique ommbufque numeris abfoluti, for¬ mam atque lmagmem ammo effingere ; et denique ex variorum cadaduce“ COntemP atl0ne rCm inftitutam P ro ^bitrio fuo ad exitum per Humani autem corporis uterum gravidum otiofe fecare paucis datum eft. Pauci funt qmbus, in omni vite fpatio, nifi femel, aut eti¬ am fortaffis lterurn hoc foerit indultum. Ponamus quidem talem oc eS°nKT m ; m m mn i n ° atque fdiGem ’ Cultori cui P iam anatomic effe oblatam; neceffe eft ut continuo et fine mora de ratione ille inftituti fixum aliquod certumque deftinet; et uno eodemque tempore duo confiha inter fe non bene convenientia, profequatur. Primum emm ut ipfe rem pemtus perfpedam habeat, cadaver fua manu fecet neceile eft; ita tamen mftituenda eftinveftigatio, ut artifici fimul adltanti, praecipuas partes commode delineandi plena fit copia. Proonorte^ fien P° te \P um confilium, optime fufceptum, immutari oporteat, varnfque rebus accomodan quae de improvifo et prater expecftanonem poffint occurrere. Ut autem id rite perfici poffit, opus

exnS ^ POnS m T ; parteS intCrea aen CXterno ’ inter pingendum, expohte plunmum detrimenti capient;; pnecipue fi vir tabs negotio obeundo prafit cui curse eft, ne fidi quidpiam, aut ex memork de prompti, ipfi rei ventati mducatur, et ut nihil ibi locum habeat, ni“ ““ ‘ Pfi “ obii ™ d °“- « intercedente, at Si audor tot opportunitates, hanc omandi provinciam, fibi profpexiffetfoturas, quot ipfi bona fua fortuna indulferit, figuras ille quidem ahquas emendatiores reddere potuiffet ; alias aliis mehus accommo¬ date, et ita earum fenem m mmorem numerum cogere. Figuras quidem nonnuftas jam dehneatas, duafque tabulas, a°fculptoS prorfus perfedas, apud fe prudens detmuit; ne operis fcilicet moles atque impendmm plus aequo mcrefcerent. Et profedo piures, eadem ratione rndudus, detinuiffet, nffi ipfi men tem fubiiffet, longum fortaffe (° G rf ™f US ’ Pnufquam ahquod figurarum fyftema, hoc fuo minus imperfectum, m Iucem fit exiturum. Potius igitur duxit culpa: in penculum mcurrere, eo quod rem nimis copiofe, quam quod parcius ac neghgenter. tradaverit. • 4 Porcius

Open, ninnae jam magmtudinis, nimiique fumptus, intemam fcetus anatomiam adjicere, fupervacaneum fore vifum eft; pnefertim cum alu ifto munere funt fondi; et cuilibet, id qui de integro meditatT hffic omrna cognofcench atque tradandi haud facile defutura eft occalio!

For the reason already given it Jhoidd Jeem obvious that anatomical figures ought to be lihrunje wellfinifhed. In many Jubjecls of painting, indeed, the slight manner of producing an effcl, vnihout labour, is very agreeable; par¬ ticularly when, either the fibject is fo well known , that a mere hint is enough to the imagination, which eafily fupplies all that is wanting; as, in defigns where human figures, and other well known objects are introduced; or, when the poller parts of objects are not to be feen difiincly, as the objeSts, especially the more distant ones, in a landscape. But in anatomy, as in natural hifiory, thefubjeB is fippofed to be new, or only imperfectly known; and the paller parts are to be Jludied with care, as well as the larger maps. In thofe parts of anatomical figures, indeed, which are mere repetitions, or near¬ ly fo, the labour and expence of finifhing may well be faced. Accordingly in this work the greater part is tolerably weUfinijhed,fome very highly and deli¬ cately ; matters of lefs moment, or approaching to repetitions are executed in a flight manner ; and what is merely a repetition, is commonly put down in bare out-lines.

Any judicious perfon, who examines this work with care, will naturally think that the plan might have been more regular and more compact: but it is prefumed that he will be lefs dffatisfied with the authors befi endeavours when hefhall confider the difficulties which lie in the way, and render the fubject almost unmanageable. In many other works of anatomy, imperfecti¬ ons, and particularly a want of method, are not readily excufed. For if the author will but take the fains, he may firft of all make himfelf maker of his fubjett by repeated Affections and experiments; he may, at his leifure, lay down a Jludied plan for a compleat and regular work; and with his own con¬ venience he may execute his plan from a variety of dead bodies.

But, opportunities of differing the human pregnant uterus at leifure, very -rarely occur. Indeed, to mofi-anatomjls, if they have happened at all, it has been but once or twice in their whole lives. Upon fuch occafions there¬ fore even when attended with the mofi favourable circumfiances, the anatomijt mufi fix upon a plan, without lofs of time, and at once carry on two Jchemes which are hardly compatible; that is to fay, he mull diffect for his own information, mthe firft place, and yet conduB the inquiry fo as to have good drawings made of the principal appearances: and it is more than pro¬ bable that he muft alter any plan that he might have frofofed, and adapt it to a variety of circumfiances in thefubjeB that could not be forefeen ■ and much time muft be loft, and the farts muft be confiderably injured by long expofure to the air before the fainter; effecially if the work be conduBed by an anatomijlwhowillnot allow the artift to faint from memory or imagination but only from immediate obfervation. . £ 5

faln do hh fhare i ^ the ffimerous opportunities which ham

fatten to hisjhare he might have eafily improvedfome of the figures-, anc by adapting them better to one another he might have comfleated the ferie nU ™ her ' has aBually kept back feveral drawings whichhac 7 iW / plaleS Which had been engraved, that the work migh, Tld Sfl If 7 ^ W ° Uld ^ withheld more, for that reafon, if ht had not thought that it would probably be long before a more berfeB htiL, n

njk the being cenfwred rather for having done too much, than too Utile.

brrifr bECOme t0 ° ^ ° nd ex Peffive, it was thorn proper to omit the internal anatomy of the child, effeciaUy as that -barf %


la artem typographicam firmptus, major foHto fa&us eft, non qrndem™ ob elegantiam, qua opera celeberrinu artificis Joanms BafkerviUs omantnr omnia; fed praedpue chartae, qua ille utitur, atramentique ratione habita. Tabs eft enim chartae hujufce Iaevor, atramentumque tarn cito arefdt, ut folia, literis licet plemffima, tabute cujufque interpofitae nitorem integrum atque illaefum confervatura lint.

Ad fummam, ft auctori ea laus fiierit concefla, quod, in hac primaria parte humani corporis illuftranda, neque opera: fuae, nequeimpenfarum, neque temporis rationem habuerit, voti lane fit compos, nec aliud gratiae fibi apponi poftulat. Harum autem laudum in par¬ tem plurimum merito fuo evocandus eft frater auctoris folertiffimus Joannes Hunter; nam in plurimis cadaveribus fecandis partem ille laborum fuftinuit: cujus quidem viri acumen et diligentia in hujufcemodi perveftigationibus adeo omnium fermone celebrantur, ut de illo li lileretur adjutore, operis ipfius pretio atque exiftimationi parum effet confultum. Artificibus etiam fingulis, quorum ingenii at¬ que induftriae monumenta hie extant, gratias agit quas habet maximas ; prae caeteris autem viro optimo ac peritiffimo artifici Roberto Strange , non modo quod is manu fua tabularum harum duas tanquam aeternitati confecrarit, fed etiam quod, ab incepto operis ufque ad exitum, auclorem amicitia ftabili atque incorrupta dignatus, vel coellilium vel auxilium expetenti haud unquam defuerit.

which render a leaf of his Prejs-Work an excellent prejermtive of the plates i.ihtrh if if blared.

If it be allowed that the author hasfpared neither labour , nor time, nor expenfe in improving an important part of anatomy, this is dlthe merit which he can claim. In moft of the diffeclions he was affiled by his brother Mr John Hunter, whofe accuracy in anatomical refearches isfo well known, that to omit this opportunity of thanking him for that affiance, would be in fome meafure to difregard the future reputation of the work itfelf. He owes likewife much to the ingenious artflswho made the drawings and engravings; and particularly to Mr. Strange, not only for having by his handfecuredafort of immortality to two of the plates, but for having given his advice and afftance in every part with afleady and difnterefted friendfhip.

Table 1


D EC EM priores tabulae mulierem exhibent, nono fere graviditatis menfe exeunte, ann. 1750, fobita morte extinctam. Arteriae a venis. cera diverfi coloris injeifta, diftinctae erant. In hac prima, contenta abdominis, integumentis decuflktim incifis et reflexis, feb confpedum veniunt. Refiipinatum eft acclivi fitu ca¬ daver, ut fuperior trunci pars baud paulo effet elatior, et vifcera mde abdominis clarius contemplanda objicerentur.

Femora et pudenda, utpote partes extemae, earn, quam caeterae, notationem non defiderant. Pudenda vero, in hoc cadavere, ut ex figura concipi poteft, aqua inter cutim intumuerunt.

A A Pars anterior thoracis infra mammas, qua truncus erat tranfverfe difciflus,.figuram aparte fuperiori terminans.

B B Integumentis, mufculis, et peritoneo. decuflatim incifis, ebram anguli duo fuperiores in marginem thoracis cartilaginofum reflexi. CC Eorundem anguli duo inferiores, in inguen, femur, et offis ilium fpinam anteriorem, utrinque reclinati, In angulis illis, ad marginem inferiorem medio femori oppofitum, obferv'are licet partem rugofam et tenfam, qua filum adhibitom fuit,. ea mente, ut, axigulo detracto, uterus et partes- vicinse manifeftius apparerent.

D Incifionis longitodinalis, ad fcrobiculum cordis a mucrohe cartilaginis enfiformis duiftae, extremitas fuperior. .

E Ejufdem ineifionis, ad fymphyfin oflium pubis, extremitas in. ferior. ; ' ' ; - '

E Hepatis ligamentum falciforme, fuperfaciem internam mufculorum abdominis, ad illius vifceris fifTuram, magnum interdobum - et paryum, protenfum. '

G G Arteria et vena epigaftrica, in utrifque mufculorum angulfs infexioribus trans{peritoneum fefe projicientes.

H Hepatis lobus finifter, in parte fumma regionis epigaftrica: fitus. Illius in fuperficie, arteria: quaedam parvae,- ex'fubftantia illius. glandulofa exeiintes, et in peritoneum quo. veftitur diffufte, de. - lineantor. ■

/ Omentum itoregione epigaftrica fitum, inteftinis tenuibus incumbens.' Vafa quamvis cera vividi coloris impleta, ob partis adi. pern cemi vix potueruntt

K- Omenti pars inferior et media, ab utero antea elevata, quae in plicaturas mnltas quam mihimas contracts jacuit et compreffa.

L Omentum a latere dextro, poll partem earn uteri, qua incipit tuba dextra, defcendens.

M Omentum quod iri latere finiftro ante tubam fallopianam,- fee. defeenderat, feorfum pofitum, quo partes ete in confpeiftum. pro¬ dirent.

Jf jf - Duo inteftinorum tenuium gyri, quorum utrique, maxime autem inferior, omenti parte prasdicta teCti fuerant.

0 Uterus, regionem totam umbilicalem et Inpogaftricam pofli dens. Superficies ejus vaforum ramulis tenuibus intertexta: horum pleraque venae. Multa fanguine folummodo impleta, cadavere diutius affervato, paulatim evanuerunt. Situs uteri paulo obliqiius,.et ad latus dextrum. Umbilicus parte qua feat hsec litera aliquanto altior fuit. Forma uteri quodammodo irregu¬ laris; alias ejus partes aliis eminentiores. Id ex eo oritur, partim quod vifceribus vicinis incumbens, praefertim ■ ad fundum, fe ad eorum formam finxerat; partim etiam quod contenta ejus for: mam irregularem pras fe tulerant.

P Tumor ad latus finiftrum uteri, in ea fcilicet parte cui media .placenta interne adhaerefcebat.

Q_ Uteri tumor in latere dextro, ubi foetus nates jacebant, ubi etiam feetum per fubftantiam ejus fatis diftincle tactu fentire licuit.

. Undique circum hanc partem uterus aliquanto depreffus, et facculi inftar aqua repleti, taclum afficiebat.

R R Ligaments rotunda. Siniftrum, propter uteri fitum obliquum,

• dextro longius. Exitus amborum, anguhs inferioribus integumentorum fee. filo deduclis, in confpectum veniebat. Ouas'ftrictura ibi videtur, nihil aliud eft, quam peritonei in forma thecae protrufio, ea ligaments per paululum fpatii fequens, ; quaeque ab eo peritonei proceffu, funem fpermaticum canis vel tauri comitante, gradu tantum differt. SS Tubffi fallopiante. In latere dextro, folum fere tubae principium cemere hcet, parte reliqua poll uterum defeendente. In latere finiftro, tubae media pars fola in confpeiftum venit; tegitur enim ejus principium inteftino ibi.pofito; finemque ejus, vel fimbrias, vafa fpermatica occultant. Ea vafa, in latere fini¬ ftro, fatis aperte confpiciuntur; fpatium illud totum inter ligamentum rotundum et tubam occupant: vas parvum arteria; mag¬ num ei adhaerens vena. Utraque ad uteri latus, in peritonei duplicatione ilia, quae hgamentum latum appellator, procedunt.

Plate I.

The first ten plates were made from the dissection of a woman. who died suddenly, in the end of her ninth month of pregnancy, iniheyear 1750. The arteries and the veins were injected with wax of dijferentcohurs.

This plate represents the object, as it appeared when the abdomen was opened by a crucial incifion, and the four angles of the containing partsturned outwards; the subject lying on its back,, but fo that the upper . part of the trunk was conjiderably higher than the reft.

The thighs and pudenda require no explanation: the latter, of thiefe : were edematous in the fubjedt, as they appear in this figure.

A A The forepart of the chefi, just below the breafls, where the trunk was cut through , and which therefore terminates the figure above.

B B The two upper angles of the integuments , mufcles, and peritoneum, turned back over the cartilaginous margin of the chefi.

G C The two inferior angles, turned down over the groin, thigh, and ante¬ rior fpine of the os ilium, on.each fide. In each of thefe, at Us lower edge and oppofite to. the middle of the thigh, a part may be obferoed to be fir etched and puckered, where a thread was fixed, which pulled th&flap down, iri order more fully to expofe the womb and adjacent parts.

D The upper end of the longitudinal incifon, at the pit of the jlomach, beginning juf at the point of the enfform cartilage.

E The lower end of the fame incifon carried down to the symphysis of the pffa pubis.

F - The umbilical or falciform ligament of the liver, which rims upwards, ontheinfde of the abdominal mufcles, to the fjfurc between the great' and the fmall lobe of that vifcus.

GG The epigastric - artery and vein , projecting through the peritoneum, upon each of the lower angles of the mufcles.

H The fmall lobe of the liver, ftuated in the highejl part of the epi- gaflric. region. Upon , its furface are reprefenied fame fmall arteries, - which emerge from the glandular fubfance, and are diffufed in the peri¬ toneum that covers it.

I The omentum, jpread over the fmall inlefines in the epigaflric region. The veffels of this part, thd inje'clcd, were' hardly vifible', be¬ ing obfeured by fat.

K The lower and middle part of the omentum, which had been pujhed up by the womb, and lay in numerousfmall folds preffed together.

L The omentum, in the right fide, puffing adittle way down behind that part of the womb from which, the right tube begins.

M The omentum, in the left fide, which came down before the fallopian tube, he. and Which was thrown a little afide, that thofe parts might-be seen.

N Two turns of the small intesines; both of which, but efpeciaUy the ■ lower, were covered by the above-mentioned part bj'the omentum.

O The womb, pojfejfing all the umbilical and hypogafric regions. ‘Its , Surface is interfperfed with a number-of fmall veffels , the greatest part of which are veins. They were filed with Elood only, and therefore gra■ dually -difappeared after the fubjedt had been prejerved fome time. Its afilliation is a little oblique, and towards the right fide. The navel was a little-higher than the part upon which this letter is placed. The form of the womb is a little irregular, at fome places projedting more than at others. This feemed partly owing to its being moulded upon the neighbouring bowels, particularly at its fundus ; and partly to its contents ; a whence,

P A fuelling towards- the left fide of the womb,-where the middle of .the placenta adhered; and

Q, fuelling on the right fide of the womb, where the buttocks of the child lay; and where the child could be felt, pretty diftinblly, : through . . its. fubfance. All around this part the womb was somewhat depreffed and felt like a bag of water.

fefe The round ligaments. The left is longer than the right, becaufe of the oblique fituation of the womb. The exit of each was brought to view by. drawing down the lower angles of the integuments, he. - with threads: and the appearance of a friElure there, was occafonCd by., a fheath-like doubling and protrufion of the peritoneum attending thofe ligaments ...- fome little Way; which differed only in degree from that procefs of the peritoneum, which accompanies the fpermatic rope in, or bull.

S S The fallopian tubes. In the right fide, little more than the beginrung of the tube is feen, the ref running down behind the womb. Of the left tube the middle part only is expofed; its beginning at the womb being concealed by the gut which lies upon that part, and the end or fimbriae being covered by the fpermatic veffels. Thofe veffels are pretty . - d.ifttinctly feen in the left fide: they fill up all thejpace between the round ligament and the tube: the fmall veffel is the artery, and the great, to which that clings, is the vein: both of them arepaffingup to the fide of the womb, in that doubling of the peritoneum called, the broad ligament.

Table II


C ONSPECTUS vifcenim abdominis a latere dextro, partibus continentibus thoracis et hypochondrii, ac maxima omenti parte ihblatis.

A A Femora, ubi tranfverfe fcifla, Iinteo cooperta.

B Spina, fupra diaphragma, tranfverfe diffcifia.

C Colhe octavze pars.

DD Integumenta et mufculi, ad partem thoracis pofteriorem, eo loco quo negligenter fejunchxs erat truncus, refeiffi.

E Mulculorum abdominis angulus inferior, in femur, ut in prsecedente figura, devolutus.

F Montis, ut dicitur, veneris pars, una cum mufculis abdominis* devoluta.

G Ad finiftrum latus pars huic refpondens.

H Thoracis margo, ad latus fcrobieuli cordis finiftrum, peritoneo et mufculis inverfis, teifl'us.

I Cartilago inucronata. .

KK Coftas inferiores, partefque caeterae continentes fectione longitudinali fejuncfte, adeo .ut, iis quse feciionemet fcrobiculum cordis interjacefent remotis, vifcera hypochoridrii dcxtri fefe videnda offerrent. "

L Pars ima atque pofierior c.avi dcxtri thoracis. . .•

M Aorta deicendens,. eo loco, quo. cadaver tranfverfe difciflum fuerat, deligata; nec non, colorata cera impleta.

N Oefophagus ibidem deligatus.

0 Superficies, fuperior convexa diaphragmatis ; quod, pleura teclum, in fitu fuo haturali manet., '

P Diaphragmatis centri tendinei pars qua: in dextro latere fit a eft. Q. Venae cavae inferioris trunciis, juxta diaphragmatis fuperficiem

fuperiorejn deligatus.

RR Fl f uist:{c£b£ margo, loco quo reflexa de: fuperficie.'fuperiori

diaphragmatis, faciem internam coftarum contegebat.

SS Pcri tonei fecli margo, loco quo fcilicet a fuperficie diaphrag¬ matic mferiori, membranae in'veftientis more, ad faciem internam mulculorum abdominis curium tenebat.

Superficies inter margines pleurse (RR) et peritonei fSS) connexio eft diaphragmatis ex facie interna coftarum'dirupta.

F I'acies interna mufculi tranfverfi peritoneo tecla.U h l e ? atis Iobus magnus, vel dexter; in bujus .crepidine, ex adverfo hterae U, exiguam videre eft foflulam, quam veficula'iellis hgura: fuse aptaverat, faciei intemae hepatis hie loci appofita ” ' dem atlS ° bUS ParVL,S ^ h yP ochondriu m finiftrum-fefe exten 1 F Drgamentum hepatis falciforme, feu yenft timbilicalis rdiquite ■ loco quo fiffuram hepatis intrat, recifum. 4

R ^°j on ex C2SCO ad hepar furfum tranfiens.

heom imer U e?- a ? P T ndiCUiiS - fuiS adl P° fiS ’ fi niftrorfum currens, Jxepar inter et mteftma tcnuia.

^ Omenti principium vel radix, quod ex intervallo hepat s et inteirmorum tenuium nafeitur


C L'gamentum rotundum in inguen defcendens. c„SS. P ‘ ana ’ 1““ offis ilium retrorfum

e Tub^extremitasfimbriata/Ponelatncm^; •

lum edufta, nempe ut confpiciatur Tio- Jacens ’ kic/pauluet tubam, vafa '

partem uteri anteriorem, cui placenta adb^^T^

adaperto, Idu fcetus nates >' nt eaO nondum

I* ad bui

cartilagmem enfiformem elevamnt^ undeA 9 ^ 18 - ^ Ct exmde dextrum latus oblique tendebat ’ de facle s e JUS anterior in

dil^f q»prop,“tTei:™ m ^ ^

viuofo iujiciendo, i/pdL™ 3g^ S ?£?‘

Plate II.

/t View ofthefame object from the right fide , after the upper abdofl_ mined flap, and the containing parts of the right hypochondrium had been removed , that the whole mafs of the abdominal vifcera might appear in its naturalfiiluation, the fubjelt lying on its back.

A A The thighs, covered with a cloth where they had been cut through,

B Theback-borie cut through above the diaphragm.

C Part of the eighth rib.

D D The integuments and mufcles at the bach part of the chejl, cut 9 rudely through in fevering the trunk at that place.

E The inferior flap of the abdominal mufcles, he. turned down over the

-. thigh, :as in the preceding figure.

F Part of the mons veneris turned afide with the abdominal mufcles.

G The refpeclivepart of ihe leftfide.

. 117 'he margin of the cheft at the left fide of the fcrobiculus cordis, covered by the peritoneum and mufcles, which are turned over it.

I The enfiform cartilage.

KK 7 lie lower ribs and other containing parts, cut down longitudinally, by which'means all the parts, between this Jetlion and the fcrobiculus • cordis were removed', that the vifcera of the right hypochondrium might be expofed to view.

L . The pofierior and lower part of the right cavity of the chefl. .

M The trunk ofthe defending aorta, tied, vp where it was cut, and o ' filled with injection,

- N The oefophagus” tied up at the fame place.

■ O The upper convex furface of the diaphragm, which remains, covered by the pleura in its natural fiiluation.

P That part of the centrum tendinolum of the diaphragm which is in the, right side.

O The trunk of the lower crvz lied, clofe to the upper furface of the dia phragm

RR The cut edge f the pleura, where it was reflected, from the upper furjace of the diaphragm, to line the infide of the ribs.

S S The cut edge of the peritoneum, where it was continued as an in ■ vefling membrane, from the inferior furface of the diaphragm, to the irfide of the: abdominal mufcles.

The furface which is feen between the edge of the pleura (R R) and 1 tha L °J the peritoneum (S S) is the attachment of the diaphragm cut off from the infide of the ribs.

■ ?! , tn fide of the tranfverfus mufcle covered with the peritoneum.

. u The.great, or right lobe of the liver ■ at the lower edge of which,

. over, agavnjl the • letter, U, there is afmall notch formed by the concave ' \r b.adder, which lies up onthe infide of the liver at this place.

V The fmall lobe of the liver, which flretches over into the left hypo'• - ehondnum, and is thereforefieen in f effective: '

W . Fhe falciform ligament, or remains of the umbilical vein, cut off as . it enters the jijure of the liver.

3. colon paffing up from the c^.cu.mdo the: liver .. ■

¥ V rj T,l f coion with its appendieuiae adipo Izz running towards the left

Jute, behvecn the liver andJhiall guts, .

ZZ ; 7 he beginning or ■ root of the omentum, : coming downwards from the vnterjtice of the liver and fmall guts '. . J

aaaa Some turnsofthoje fmall intefiines brought to view by cutting off the omentum a little below the edge of the liver. . • M

b The womb . Upon its furface we can trace, though obfeurely, its veins. Thefe though inje£ted, were diftihguifhable only by their flour . ^wheipthe.fubjefl was flrfl opened: But when this drawing was made

tSBflli "^ ** hadh “ altle dry, and ... the veins projected, as they appear in the figure' 7

c . The round ligament running down to its faffage intoThe <r ro in

Between the round ligament and the tube nrp &„■ n ^ce°

^P^ 0 PeT CkSW l0inS ° J the

-' : the left fide, by “heir dafliLy ^aild^b^ll^ removed . tho fi °f

figure it had when the was finned

Table III


P ARTIS trundinferioris profpectus; oculo' fcilicet a parte finiftri lateris fuperiori, oblique deorfum ita coffineato, ut univerfa vifcerum compages, una cum diaphragmate, in litu fuo naturali appareret.

A Femur finiftrum. Uteri prominentia femur dextrum oculo

fubtrabit. B Clunis finiftra.

C IntegUmentOrum et mufculorum abdominis, lateris finiftri, angulus inferior in inguen et feinur inverfus. • D Integumentorum et mufcuforum abdominis feclio tranfverfa.^ EE Partium abdominis continentium feclio longitudinahs, ab ili¬ um offe furfum ductai- Hac fedione, angulus fuperior partium continentium omnino aufertur, ut- vifcera hypochondrii finiilri in confpectu ponantur. - - FF Partium tboracis continentium pofteriorum fedio; tranfverfa.

G Vertebra tranfverfe fciffa.

H Medulla'fpinalis.

11 Cavorum tboracis partes inferiores pofticm, qu<e,- pulmombus fublatis, vacua; confpici polfunt. ;

KK Diapbragma fuperficiem convexam hepatis compledensL Cartilago mucronata, diaphragmati adhuc adhaerens.

■M Diaphragmatis ’ ad latus dextrum convexitas magna; quae in hoc cadavere, parte huic conftntanea in latere finiftro elatior comparuit. Ibi etiam vafa nonnulla confpiciuntur; quorum ma- jora, venae fcilicet phrenicae; cera impletafunt a vena cava; hinc altius extantia. ■

JV Diaphragmatis fuperlicies, qua pericardia annectitur, quasque cor fuftinct. ’ .

0 Vena cava, ubi per diaphragma traufit, deligata.

P Oefophagus fupra diaphragma dehgatus. Hunc cera lnjecla, dum per arterias fluebat, materia coldrante amifta, in ventriculum

tranfiens, : implevit. >,

<3 Aorta, eodem modo, ubi corporis truncus tranfverfe fuerat feiffus, fupra diaphragma, deligata.

Oefophagus et aorta, una cum fpinm prominentia, cavum fatis magnum in diaphragmatis parte poflica et fuperiori efheiunt. RSTU Diaphragma in hypochondrio finiftro recifum. Ex parte pofteriori, labia [TUj ejufdem fifturae in diaphragmate mutuo recedunt; et ex parte anteriori, anguli (R S) inverfi funt, nempe ut vifcera hypochondrii finiftri in confpeclum veniant. V Hepatis extremitas finiftra.

W Ventriculi extremitas finiftra.

XX Lienis margo anterior denticulatus. a Hepatis lobus dexter.

b Ligamentum falciforme, fiffuram hepatis mtrans. c Hepatis lobi finiftri ea pars quae in regione epigaftnea fedem habet. .

dddd Omenti radix dextrorfum de ventriculo et colo, hepar inter et inteftina tenuia, defeendens.

e g ff Omenti radix in hypochondrio finiftro ita difpofita, ut cavum fuum exhibeat. Ea pars, quae marfupii omenti anteriorem par¬ tem facit [ee], quaeque de ventriculo defeendit, ventriculo jam et hepati incumbit replicata : omenti autem pars pofterior, quae colo connectitur [ ff) ante inteftina tenuia in proprio manet fitu. eg- Omenti radix, ventriculum inter et lienem. h h Omenti pars ad latus finiftrum, in fitu fuo naturali, tenuia in¬ ter inteftina et peritoneum faciem internam tranfverfalis abdomi¬ nis integens. . . , c

(Hi Inteftinorum tenuium gyn multo mfenores et frequentiores hac in parte, quam eorum, quae in latere dextro jacent; partim . propter obliquitatem uteri, praecipue autem quod in latere dextro hepatis moles minus fpatii inteftinis permittit. k Uterus. Tempore quo figura haec delineabatur, pars uteri fu¬ perior arefeere cceperat, unde vafa infaraa, magis confpicua fefe exhibebant: minorum pleraque arteriae funt; majora omnia venae. I Ligamentum rotundum. m Tuba. .

n Arteriae fpermaticae ramus magnus, trans ligamentum latum ad uterum repens.

oo Ramorum, venae fcilicet fpermaticae, majorum fafciculus, per ligamentum latum ad uterum afcendentium.

Plate III.

A View, from the left fide and, downwards, of the lower part of the 71 trunk; fo prepared, as to fhew the whole mafs of the bowels, with the diaphragm, in their n

A The left thigh. The right thigh is covered from our view by the projection of the womb.

-B ’ The left buttock.

C The lower flap of the integuments and abdominal mufcles on the left Jide, turned doidn over the groin and thigh.

DD The fection of the integuments and mufcles, made by the tranfverfe ineijion of the belly. EE A longitudinal fectionof the containing parts of the belly, carried up¬ wards from the os ilium, or pofterior extremity of the tranfverfe incijion, parallel to the fpine; whereby the upper flap, of the containing parts is entirely removed, to fhew the vifcera of the left hypochondrium.

F F A tranfverfe feSlion of the pofterior containing parts of the cheft. G The body of the vertebra cut through:

H The fpinal marrow.

I I The lower pofterior parts of the- cavities of-the cheft, which are feen empty, the lungs being removed.

HR The diaphragm, embracing the convex furface of the liver.

L The enftform cartilage left adhering to the diaphragm.

M The great ’convexity of the diaphragm, in the right fide, which in this fubjeti was much higher than the. analogous part in the left. Upon

- this part, fame veJfeU are feen the larger are the. phrenic, veins, which were filled with wax from the - cava, and are therefore prominent.

N The furface of the diaphragm, where the pericardium, isf united with it, and upon which the heart refts.'

O The vena cava' tied, as it paffes through the diaphragm.

P The oefophagus, tied above the diaphragm. It was-filled by the in: jettion, which faffed without the red colour, from the arteries ■into the stomach.

■ O. The aorta, in the fame manner lied above the-diaphragm, where-the

trunk of the body was cut "through. _ , - The oefophagus and aorta,: as well as the profehlion of the fpine,:make .

j d confide-rable notch upon the upper pofterior part of the diaphragm. R-S T U The diaphragm, flit up. in the left hypochondrium. At the pof¬ terior part, the lips of the fiffure in the diaphragm (TU) recede from each other; and forwards, the corners (R S) are inverted, to fhew the. vifcera in the left hypochondrium: viz,

V The left extremity of the liver;

WW The left, or-great- extremity of the-ftomach; .and XX The fpleen: its . anterior edge indented. a The right, or great lobe of the.liver.

b The falciform ligament, entering.the fiffure of the liver.

c That part of thefmall lobe of the, liver which lies in the epigaftric region .V

dddd The root of the omentum towards the right fide, coming dawn from the ftomach and colon, between the liver and the fmall inteftines. ee ff. The root of the omentum in the left hypochondrium ,fo difpofed as to ftiew its cavity . What makes the anterior part of the pouch of the omentum (e e) which comes down from the bottom of the ftomach, is turned up over the ftomach and liver: and the pofterior part of the omentum (ff) which is fixed to the colon is left, in its naturalfttuiation, before the fmall inteftines.

gg The root of the omentum, between the ftomach and fpleen. hhh Partof the omentum in the leftjide, in its naturalfituation, between the fmall inteftines and the. peritoneum which lines the tranfverfalis mujele.

iiii The convolutions of the fmall inteftines,.which are conftderably lower and in greater quantity in this fide than in the right; partly becaufe of the obliquity of the womb, but chiefly becaufe in that fide the liver comes low down, and leaves little fpace for inteftines. k The womb: which had begun to dry at its upper part when this figure was taken; fo that the injected veffels began to appear more remarkably. The fmaller are chiefly arteries; the larger are all veins.

1 The round ligament.

m The tube. •$.

n A large .branch of the fpermaiic artery going acrofs the broad liga¬ ment to the womb.

oo A group of large veins from the fpermatic, mounting in the broad li¬ gament to the. womb.

Table IV


U TERUS, et cohtenta pelvis a parte anterior!: ofla pubis, mm integumentis, et fuperiori pudendomm parte, omnino faerant abfcifla, quo cervix uteri, et vefica fimul urinaria ei praetenfa, oculo inciderent.

A A Femora tranfverfe abfcifla.

BB Mufculorum abdominis, et peritonei, anguli inferiores, in latera reflexi.

C Uterus; cujus in tota fuperficie, perque fubftantiam, vafa cera impleta, et exinde prominentia, conlpiciuntur.

DD Os pubis utrinque lupra foramen magnum ifchii refechim.

EE Ifchii proceflus parvus, eo in loco ubi offi pubis committitur refecius.

F Perinaeum.

GG Labia pudendi: horum pars fuperior, nymphae etiam, et cli¬ toridis extremitas, abfcinduntur.

HH . CaruncuU myrtiformis infighis.

I Vagina. In parte hujus introitus inferiore (nigriore fcilicet in hac tabula), vaginae cavum, tarn retrorfum quam furfum ducens, repraefentatur. Ad literam ( Zj confpicitur vaginae pars fuperior et anterior, quae cum vefica urinaria et urethra . connedhtur, quaeque a. vifceribus incumbentibus deprimitur. Ad puucium etiam orificii hujufce, fufci, ovati, fuperius, urethrae extremitas prominens, meatufque urinarii orifidum confpiciuntur. ■ .

K Clitoridis corpus tranfverfe.difciffum: in medio, duas arteriolas fere conliguas, fcilicet in utroque corpore cavernofo unam, ccrnere licet. ' ‘ •

L L Clitoridis crura et eredtores. Haec, oflibus pubis quibus annectunturfublatis, magis!am, : quamJn fitu fuo naturali, .refporidentia jacent. Sejuncfione aatem; offium pelvis, nempe ut contenla ejus melius poflint cbnf|)ici, extenduntur.

M Veficae urinariae pars fuperior, fimul uterp, pone fito, et caput fetus continenti, fimul oflibus pubis unitis, earn exadverfum. ambientibus', compreffa.

NN Peritoneum reflexum, telaque cellulofa, latera integens pelvis, et ei uteri parti quam offa pubis amplecluntur, circumjacens.

0 Ex peritoneo. et tela cellulofa refect is, margo, eo loco ubi de vefica.urinaria ad faciem internam mufculorum 1 abdominis tegendain, fupra offa pubis, afcendunL PP Ligamenta.rotunda, abdominis intra-cavum.

Q.Q. ' Ligamenta rotunda,; eo in loco ubi ,ex abdomirie' recedentia fefe in mentis veneris lateribus fenfim recOndunt.,

R R Mufculi femoris, offibus pubis exorti, refc-iffi.

Plate IV.


Fore-view ofthe womb , and of the contents of the pelvis; the ofla pu¬ bis -with the mujeles and integuments which cover them , being removed.

A A The thighs cut through.

B B The lower angles , or Jlaps of the abdominal mufcles and peritoneum turned afide.

C The womb. All over its Jurface the injected veffels are Jeen projecting through its JubJlance.

D D The os pubis of each fde cut through, above the foramen magnum ifchii.

E E The fmall branch of the ifehium which joins the. os pubis, cut through.

- F The perinaeum.

GG The labia pudendi. The upper part of thofe, the nymphae and . the extremity of the clitoris are cut off.

H A large caruncula myrtiformis.

I The vagina. Atthelowerpart of thispeffage, the deeper black part of the furface, in thisfigure, reprefents the cavity of the vagina-leading back¬ wards as well as upwards: andwhere thisletter .( l)farids , is feenthe up¬ per or anterior part 'of the vagina which is united to the bladder and urethra, and which is preffed downwards by the yifeera that lie over it.. At the upper point of this dark oval orifice , thetuberous extremity of the urethra is feen, with the orifice of the meatus urinarius.

K The body of the clitoris cut through; in the middle of which two fmall arteries are feen almqft contiguous, viz. one in . each corpus ca, vemofum. : .

LL The crura and ereclores clitoridis. . Thefe lie more horizontally than in the natural fate, the offa pubis, he. which fufpend them , being re; moved: and they, are firelched or lengthened, from the bones of the pel¬ vis being drawn a little afunder that the contents might be better feen.

M The upper part of the bladder , which was compreffed between the . . womb containing the childs head, which lay behind it, and the united ofla pubis which had embraced it forwards.

NN The refilled peritoneum^ and cellular membrane, which lines the

fidesjofi the pelvis, furrounding - that part of the womb . which was em¬ braced by the -offa pubis. .

O The cut edge of the peritoneum and cellular membrane, where thefe afeend from the . bladder■< to line the abdominal mufcles above the offa pubis.

P P , The round ligaments within . the cavity of the. abdomen.

O O The round ligaments after they have paffed emt of the abdomen,

- where they aremfenfibly loft in the files of the .mons veneris.

RR The mufcles of the thigh, which fpring from the offa pubis, cut through. :

Table V


U TERI pars anterior et dextra, cauta mmn ab adhcerentibus fecundims feparata, et in finiftrum latng reflexa. Id eo factum efl confilio, ut pars membrarL* decidu* ac placent*, cum vafis earundem cera repletis, et Ciperficies uteri cui adh*ferant interna, oculis exponerentur. Partes lineis defignatas proxime fequens tabula exbibet integras. Priorem autem hie habet locum linearum de fequenti tabula explanario, ne literae infculpt* nimis illam obfeurarent.

A A Femorum fuperiora.

B B De angulis inferioribus partium continentium abdominis, quod fupereft, in offa ilium reflexum. Anguli utrinque, peritoneo vaiis diftincto integuntur; quod vero, ex parte, praefertim in latere finiftro, ad curium vaforum epigaftticorum retegendum, exfeindebatur.

C C Offa pubis fupra foramina ifehium tranfverie feiffa.

D D Ifehium proceffus afeendentes tranfverie feiffi.

. Offa h*c pelvis, fymphyfi pubis fublata,- laxa evaferunt; et in latere finiftro, ad defeenfum uteri in cavum pelvis 'magis illuftrandum, extrorfuin fuerunt evulfa. j E E Arteri* inguinales.; . ’

FF Venae inguinales.

G G' Arteri* epigaftric*-. ; ■ - HH Ven* epigaftricae * .

/ Arteria obturatoria finiftri lateris, epigaftricae fcilicet ramus. KKK Ligamenta rotunda ex abdomine ad exteriora vaforum epigaftricorum defeendentia.

L L Seciio integumentorum etmufculorum, in utroque inguine, facia nimiram, dum partes pelvis anteriores continences amovebantur. M Perinaeum.

JVW Labiorum pudendi partes im*. '.

0 Hymenis reliquiae.

P Vagina.

Clitoridis crura.

■ R Urethra ex parte fuperiori inlongum expaffa.

SSSS Vefica urinaria, ariteriorem inferions extremitatis uteri portionem ambiens.

T Veficae urinari* cavum, partem ejus antcriorem ab urethra, fur-, fum incidendo, oculis- fubjeclum.

U U Uteri extremitas parva vel inferior, in cavo pelvis; pofita, Ea pars qua; circundata fuerat margin e pelvis, fads evidenter conftricta fuit: quam fuper uterus ftatim. eminentior evafit, quippe partes quae facilius cedunt eiim ibi ampleciebantur.

VVV Uteri facies exterior.

X Vaforum fpermaticorum in latere finiftro chorus.

, TT Uteri fubftantia, ad dextrum latus, ab fundo penitus diffeeia. In hac feiftione vafa refecta occurrunt ; quod autem ad figuram attinet inordinata, quippe cera friabili adimpleta. Venae colons funt lucidioris ac grandes; exiliores arteri*, atque fufeae; fundum verfiis uteri utraeque minores quam in parte inferior!, ubi a lateribus uteri ad placentam tranfibant. Uteri craflitudo cum magnitudine vaforum his in locis proportionis legem quodammodo fervat.

Decidua, five membrana exterior, ramulis venarum ab facie in¬ terna uteri ad earn tranfeuntium diftincla. a Hie decidua vafis referta et opaca, cauta manu fublata fuit. Nulla hie loci, vel in chorio, vel in amnio, venarum, ex injectione cerae, fpecies fuit. Altera enim pars per alteram adeo perlucebat, ut foetus cutein diftinfte cemere liceret. ■' b b Extern* fuperficiei placentae pordo, hie cera extra venas uteri effufa, illic venis ipfis cera impletis, a facie interna uteri ad earn tranfeuntibus interftincla.

c Arteria cera rubri coloris impleta, quae ab utero abrupta fuit, et, femel circumvoluta, in placentam fe immifit. d d Ejus partis uteri, quae deciduam ( 7 JZJ antea obtexerat, fa¬ cies interna. In .hac fuperficie venae quae per deciduam ramos fuos diffuderunt, abrupt* confpiciuntur. e e Ejus partis uteri quae placentam ( b b ) obtexerat facies interna, Haec quidem fuperficies Cera extra vafa effufa fpecimen pr* fe tulit. Ou* autem afpechi primo, extra vafa efiufio videbatur, re vera, venarum complanatarum, cum anaftomofibus frequentioribus, ex utero ad placentam peroblique tranfeuntium, cera adimpletarum, fpecies fuit. Cujus quod fequitur fit fpecimen. f In fubftantia uteri vena. g Ejufdem ven* in placentam continuatio.

k Uteri facies interna hie cavata, et ven* dimidium, qu* curfu peroblique tranlibat, formans.

Plate V.

4 / H E firfi view of the opened womb. Its Jubfance is cut through J~ on the right fde and turned to the left; by which means part of the decidua and of the placenta; as well as the iifide cf that portion of the womb, are expofed in the injectedfiate. AR the parts reprefented in out-lines are feen finifhed in the next plate. "The explanation is given here , that the other might not be obfcured with engraved letters.

A A The upper part of the thighs.

B B Part of the lower comers of the containing parts of the abdomen

turned down over the offa ilium. They are covered by the vafcular peritoneum; which (in the left Jide ejpecially) was partly cut away, to fhew the courfe of the epigaftric vefjels.

C C The ofla pubis cut through, above the foramina ifehium.

DD The afcending procejfes.of the ifehia cut through.

, Thefe bones of the pelvis became loofe, from the loft of the fymphyfis at the pubes ; and on the. left fide they were drawn outwards, to fhew . more fully the defcent.ofthe womb into the cavity of the pelvis.

E E The inguinal arteries,

FF The inguinal veins.

GG The epigaftric arteries.

H H The epigaftric veins.

I The obturator artery pf the left fide, a branch of. the epigaftric.

K K K The round-ligaments, defeending from the abdomen upon the outfide , . ..of the. epigaftric vefjels.

U L The feShon of the integuments and .mufcles in each groin,, which was

made in removing the anterior of the pelvis.

M The perinasum.

NN The lower extremities of.the labia pudendi.

Q The remains of the hymen.

P The vagina.

0 _0_ The crura clitoridis.

R The urethra Jlit on its upper part, through its whole length , and

fpread out. S S S S The bladder fpread round the forepart of the lower end of the womb. T The cavity of the bladder expofed by an incifion through its forepart from the urethra upwards.

U IJ The [mall or lower extremity of the womb, lodged in the cavity of the pelvis. There was a manifeft conjiriclion upon that part of it which was furrounded by the brim of the pelvis; above which the womb fwelled out immediately, being there embraced by more yielding parts.

VVV The outfide of the body and fundus of the womb.

X The clufter offpermatic vefjels of the left fide.

Y Y The fubftance. of the womb cut quite through, from the fundus down¬

wards on the nghtfide. In this fedlion the cut vefjels bear an irregular figure, which was occaftoned by the crumbling of the wax with which they were filled. The veins are of a light colour, and large; the arteries dark, and fmall in proportion. At the upper part of the womb, both of them are fmall in Comparifon with what they are lower down , where they were pafftngfrom the ftdes of the. womb to the placenta: and the . thicknefs of the womb bears fome proportion to the lire of its vejfels in thefe different places. [

ZZ The external membrane, or. decidua, full of fmall branching veins

which pajfed into it rom the internal furface of the womb.

a At this place the vafcular and opake decidua was carefully removed: there was no appearance of injeSled veins upon the chorion, or in the amnion; both of which were fo tranfparent, that the childs Jkin could he feen diftinElly through them.

bb A portion of the external furf ace of the placenta, interjperfed partly with extravufated wax, from the venal fyftem of the womb, and partly with injeSled veins,pafftng into it from the interior furf ace of the womb.

c An artery filled with red wax, which was broken off from the womb. It made one circumvolution, and plunged into the placenta, d d The inner furf ace of that part of the Womb which was in contact with the decidua (ZZ). Upon thisfurface the veins are feeri broken off, which difperfed their branches through the decidua, e e The infide of that part of the womb which covered the placenta (b b).

Upon thisfurf ace there was indeed fome extravafated wax. But the greateft part of what feemed, atfirft fight, to be'extravafation, proved to be injected veins, of a flattened figure with numerous anaftomofes, pafftngfrom the womb to the placenta in a very fronting direction. The . following inftance may ferve as a jpecimen. f A vein in the fubftance of the uterus, g The fame vein continued into the placenta.

h The inner Jwface of the womb hollowed, andforming half of the vein, which paffed here in a very jlanting direction.

Table VI

tabula VI.

jp OE T U S In utero prout a natura pofitus.

Omnes hujus figurae partes, utero et iis quae in eo continentur exceptis, eaedem fere funt cum iis, quae, in tabula praecedenti lineis exterioribus, literifque jamjam explanatae funt. In hoc tantum difcrepant, nimirum hie veEcae urinariae pars fuperior omnino fublata eft, ad foetus caput in parte uteri mferiori exhibendum. Uteri et fecundarum pars anterior, una cum placenta, omnino fiiblata eft. Funis umbilicalis eft-diffeiffus, deligatus, et in marginem uteri refecti finiftrorfum reflexus. Ad

ftmdum uteri membranae inyeftientes .etiam in marginem uteri

quo melius poffint confpici inverfae funt. Caput foetus in uteri parte inferiori, in pelvis feiheet cavo,.ponitur; corpus ejus pnecipue in latere dextro jacet. Pofitio obliqua, yehad'-lmeam diagonalem appropinquans; unde partes pofteriores ahtrorfuin funt et ad matris latus dextrum ; • partes , anteriores retrorlum et ad

latus finiftrum verfte. Pes dexter inter femur Eniftrurn et tibiam occurrit. Corpus, uti infantibus denuo utero exclufis plerumque fit, muco albo pmguiufculb foedatum sfmicet hie mucus, ad dorli partem fuperiorem, ex rugis in . corpore-fetus, niotuque fuo lineis interfeefa, oculis fubjicitur. Repraefentatur quseque pars eodem modo quo primum occurrebat, ne quidem vel digiti articulo deturbato, partem aliquam magis illuftrandi, aut tabulam elcgantioreni reddendi gratia. ; ? •'

Plate VI

TIS reprefents the child in the womb , in its natural jitua

M the parts of this figure, except the womb, and its contents, are nearly the fame as thoje reprejented by out-lines in the fifth, plate, where they are lettered and explained. The only difference is, that here all the upper- part- of the bladder is cutaway, in order to Jhxiv thefituation of the child:s head in the lower part of the womb. - Ml the forepart, both of the womb and of the fecundines, (which included the placenta) is ’ removed. The navdfiring is cut, tied, and turned to the left fide, over, the edge- of the womb. At.the ftrndus the invefiing membranes are-lihawife turned over the edge of the womb, that they might be more apparent. The head of the child is lodged in the lower part of the . -womb, or in the cavity of the pelvis-, and its body lies principally inthe right fide'. ■ ■ Its pofition- is' diagonal or oblique: fo that its pofienor parts are turned forwards and to the' right fide of-the mother, and its foreparts, are direBed backwards and to the left fide. .Its .right foot appears between its leftlthigh andleg.. Its. body.was-covered with a white, greafy mucus, which is commonlyfeen on .childrens at their birth. This is re-,

prefented at the upper-part f of its back, -where it was interfecled with, lines , from, the,wrinkles- and > motion of the child!s body. Every part is

- reprefented juft as it was found; not fo much as one joint of a finger having been moved to Jhew any part more -diftmclly, or to give a more. ■ ‘ fi£ effect.

Table VII


S UB LATO fcetn, paries uteri confpicitur inti m us et pofticiis, membranis fuis adhuc veftitns. Partes lineis adumbrats in praecedenti tabula fe ad plenum dedere.

A Partis uteri projectio verfus interna. Haec nata eft a fpina, vafis magnis, et prscipue ex aorta, quae hie loci in arterias duas iliacas fe dividit. Pars projecta, cadaveris fitu fiipinato adaucta, fuperiorem et pofticam uteri partem in cava duo lateralia retrorfum di¬ vidit. Cavum dextrum, propter obliquitatem hujus uteri, liniftro majus fuit, et maximam foetus partem continuit.

BB Partes duae eodem modo projects, fcilicet ob projectionem mufculorum pfos, vaforumque iliacorum. Obliqua haec juga, uteri cava fuperiora lateralia ab inferiore azygo, in pejve pofito, fecemunt; in parte hujus ima pofteriore oculis iubjicitur C Os tines, paulo ad latus dextrum verfum. Uterus in ftatu laxo, rugofo, uti feetu vacuus apparebat, reprsfentatur. Paries totus intemus membranis fuis veftitus. Per eas venae cera impletae, tales quales in hac figura, diftincte fe videndas exhibuerunt.

Plate VII.

A Fore-view of the cavity of the womb, as it appeared when the Jl child was taken out , and the iraefiing membranes left adhering. The parts which are exprejfed by out-lines are nearly the fame as in plate V. and VI. the Jirfi of which may be confultedfor the explanation.

A An internal projection of the womb, occafwned by thejpine and great veffels, efpeciaUy the aorta which divides at this place into the two iliac arteries. This projection, which is encreafed by the jupinepofition of the fubject. divides the upper part of the womb backwards into two lateral cavities. The right cavity, from the obliquity of the womb in this cafe, was larger-than the left, and contained the greatejl part of the child.

B B Twofimilarprojections occafwned, in thefame manner, by the projection

of thepfonzmufcles, andofthe iliac,veffels. Thefe oblique ridges divide the upper lateral cavities of ihe womb, from the azygos lower cavity which is fituatedinthe pelvis; at the lower poferior part of which isfeen ■ C Theos tines, in this cafe alitde on the right fide. The womb is re' prefented in the hofe rugous fate,, as it appeared when empty; and its whole internal furface is covered by the membranes. Through thefe the injected veins were difinClly feen, as they appear in this figure.

Table VIII


T} ARTE S proxime pofl; gravidum uterum fitae; utero ipfo 1 fede lira amoto, et in pudenda devoluto. Oflk pubis &c. prius foerant abfcifla. ut in tabula quarta.

Femora, partefque caeteras Iineis adumbratas, in tabula quinta jam jam explanata, cemere licet.

AAA Uterus.

B BBB Inteftina tenuia quae fundo uteri arcle circumjacebant,

CCCC Inteftinorum tenuium (cum mefenterio DDD) gyn, qui, poll; uterum, in latere finiftro, fpinam inter et os ilium, fcpraque partem oblique prominentem, e mufculo fcilicet pfoa et vafis iliacis formatam, jacebant.

E Inteftini ilei pars inferior, (cujus mefenterium F) uterum in¬ ter et furcam aortae decurrens ad G Terminationem fuamin caeco.

HHH Caecum in cellas corrugatum. propter ligamenta camofa per longitadinem ejus tendentia.I Caeci hgamentum anterius.

K Appendix Caeci. vermiformis.

L Caecum in colon continuatum.

M Colon cum omento, loco in quo furfuih et finiftrorfum fub hepar afcendit, Iineis adumbratum.

JV Siniftri lateris colon, poll inteftina tenuia in faciem internam offis ilium defcendens.

00 Colon vafa iliaca tranfiens, et in pelvis cayum deCurrens rec¬ tum continuo appellatum. Id fufpenfum cemitur de parte ex. trema mefocoli, fupra vafa iliaca liniftra expanfi. Hoc in loco inteftinum coarclatum fuit, et adipe involutum.

P P In cavo facri, inteftini recti priores gyri.

Q Trunci venae cavae extremitas, quae hie in iliacas fe dividit.

R Vertebrae lumborum infimae facies anterior.

S Subfiantia, ligamenti natura praedita, vertebram inter proxime dictam et facri partem fummam.

I" Offis facri fummi facies anterior.

U Vena facra.

Partes quae literis <?, R, S, T, U, notantur, per peritoneum illis incumbens confpiciuntur.

V Ureter dexter vafa iliaca tranfiens, et in pelvis latus de¬ currens.

W Arteriae dextrae iliacae truncus.

X Venae dextrae iliacae truncus.

T Pfoas dexter.

X. Arteria iliaca externa.

a Vena iliaca externa.

- Ut partes, qua: literis V, W,T, et a notantur, in confpectum venirent, peritoneum illas obtegens fuerat perfeiffum, membranaque cellulofa qua circumjacebat cultro anatomico fublata.

b Vena iliaca interna.

c Ureter finifter per membranam cellulofam poll peritoneum, et ante arteriam iliacam, ad pelvim tranfiens. Quo hie in confpeclum prodiret,’ peritoneum et mefocoli pars inferior fuerant perfeiffa, paululum etiam membranae cellulolae fubla dd Vafa fpermatica dextri lateris poll caecum, peritoneo tecla, defeendentia.

e c Eadem vafa ad terminum fuperiorem ligamenti lati, in uterum, tubam, et ovarium fe diffundentia, ff Tubae dextrae pars.

g' Ovarii dextri pars.

. h Siniftri lateris vafa Ipermatica.

i Tuba liniftra.

k Ovarium finiftram.

Plate VIII.

A View of the parts whichlay immediately behindthe womb, and which Vi wereincontact withit. They were brought to view by turning down the empty womb over the pudendum; the offa pubis, be. having been removed , as in the preceding figures.

The thighs and other parts expreffedby out-Unes,are nearly in the fame fate as in plate V. where the explanation is given.

AAA The womb.

BBBB The fnaUintejlines which lay around, and in contact with the upper part of the womb.

CCCC Thofe turns _ of thefmall inteftines (and DDD the mefentery) which ■ lay behind the- womb in the left fide, between the fpine and os ilium;

. and ahove the: oblique ridge formed by the pfoas and iliac veffels.

E The lower part of the inteftinum ileon, and (F) its mefentery. It paffed between, the womb, and the bifurcation of the aorta to

G Its termination in the caecum, where it was covered externally with an appendicula cpiploica.

HHH The caecum,^ corrugated into cells by its longitudinal flejhy bands, or ligaments.

I The anterior band or ligament of the caecum.

K The appendix caeci vermiformis.

L The continuation of the caecum into the colon.

M The colon and omentum reprefented in out-lines, where this inteftine mounts upwards, and to the left, under the liver.

N The colon in the left fide, coming down, from behind the fmall intef¬ tines, upon the infide of the os ilium.

O O The colon pafjing over the_ iliac veffels into tlie cavity of the pelvis, where its continuation is called rechim. It is here fvfpended by the ex¬ tremity of the mcfocolon which is . expanded over the left iliac veffels. At this part the-gut was contrasted, and involved in fat.

P P The JirJl turns of the rectum in the hollow of the facrum.

Q, The extremity of the trunk of the vena cava, which divides at this

place into the iliac veins.

R The forepart of the lowefl vertebra of the loins.

S The ligamentous fubfiance between the laft mentioned vertebra and the upper part of the facruim

T The forepart of the uppermoft bone of the facrum.

U The vena facra.

The parts which are marked Q, R, S, T, U, are feen through the peritoneum that covers them.

The right ureter,: pajfmgover the iliac veffels into thefide of the pelvis. The common trunk of the right■ Hide artery.

The common trunk of the right iliac vein.

The right pfoas mufcle.

The external iliac artery.

The external iliac vein.

fitting the peritoneum which covered them, and dijecting away the

cellular membrane at that place.

b The internal iliac vein.

c The left ^ureter faffing in the cellular membrane behind the perito¬ neum and before the iliac, artery, to the pelvis. This was brought to vwwbyrnakingu long fit m ^peritoneum, and lower fart of the d d rTdr n ’ an ?. tak ™ f aw /y a f mdl quantity of the cellular membrane.

JcuJal "ft °{ tke risktflde ' “Z down I™ behind the caecum and covered by the peritoneum.

' at u PP er end of the broad ligament, diffufing

themfelves into the womb, tube, and ovary. ' JJ J &

ff Part of the right tube. 7

g Part of the right ovary.

h Thefpermatic veffels of the left fide.

i • The left tube. k The left ovary

Table IX


"PELVIS a latere ad plenum confpecta, una cum contends X ejus, partibufque condguis; per medium fcilicet divila, ut offium flexurae, etfitus partium intemarum oculo facilius exhiberi poffent. Imperfecta eft htec figura ad pubem,' extrorfiim pariter atque introrfiim. Partes quae hie deficiunt, cultro feparatae hint, dum cadaver ad aiiquas tabularum praecedenrium pingendas parabatur. Defectum autem abunde fupplebit tab. XXII, in hunc finem delineata.

A Femur dextrum a parte mteriori.

BBBB Lumborum vertebrae quatuorinferiores. Has inter cemiturfiibftantia Hgamentofa, extans, inaequahs, circa medium praefertimubi molliffima eft, et facile tumefeit, ft quando fecia fiierit, et in aqua macerata.

CCCC Vertebrarum earundem proceffus fpinales..

D Vertebrarum lumborum canalis, in quo reliquiae quaedam caudae equinae, obfeure Meet, confpiciuntur.

E E Mufculoram lumbos extendentium partes inferiores.

F Lumborum membrana adipofa et cutis.

GGG Sacri offa tria fuperiora.

H H Sacri offa duo inferiora, primumque coccygis-, firmiter coalita. ■ - • ■

I Coccygis os fecunduin, quod, ope mediae cartilaginis, ad priniurn facile movetur. - ■ K Coccygis offa duo inferiora in unum coalita,. parique ad fecundum mobilitate praedita. ’ "

L Sacri fpinal- M Sacri canalis.

JV MufcuJorura abdominis . et integumentomm anguli inferioris pars, in oflis ilium fpinam reflexa.

0 Vena inguinalis magna epigaftricam emittens, quam etiam arteria ejufdem nominis cdmitatur.

P Femoris mufeuli, ex offe pubis orti, quique in offe eo fejungendo faerant perfeiffi.

O Os pubis fupra foramen magnum diffeiffum.

R Idem os, ubi ramo parvo ifehii committitur, diffeiffum. In loco quo litera P occurrit, lincis punctis adumbrata repraefentatur partis ejus offis pubis, quae abfeiffa fuerat, figura. Nota * iifdem lineis adumbratam fymphyfin bftendit.

S Pars camofa anum inter et os coccygis.

T Anus omnino apertus.

U Recti pars inferior hac fe&ione expofita. Inhac figura videas, inteftinum idem ab ano furfum progrediens oculo dum perfequeris, id fe retrorfum deflexiffe, nempe ut ad faciem intemam offis coccygis veniret.

V Hie rectum ad latus finiftrum fe deftexit, folamque membranam fuam cellulofam in hac fectione cernere licebat.

W W Rectum fectione apertum, ubi ante coccygis os primum, facrique offa tria inferiora, decurrebat.

X Hie rebum omnino in latere dextrojachbat, nec id aperuit feiffura.

T Rebum diffeiffum, ubi. de latere dextro ad. os fecundum facri decurre¬ bat, et in flexuram coli figmoideam curfum fuum tenebat.

X. Vena cava. ' a Arteria iliaca dextra:

b In hoc loco vena iliaca Gniftra fuerat diffeiffa: cera autem, qux injeba fue¬

rat, utpote friata,jam delapfa. Vena haudfatis elate fe inconfpebumdedit: c Perinad febio.

d Labii dextri, ad partem inferiorem, facies interna.

e Nymphae dextrae, ad partem inferiorem, facies interna.

/ Coarbatio, hymenifve reliquiae, ubi incipit vagina.

g Meatus urinarii extremitas.- h h Vaginae cavum.

i In hoc loco vagina et rectum funt coalita.. Rebum vagina denfius. k Vaginae pars anterior, cum urethra et vefica urinaria Conjunba-.

11 Os uteri in vagina, ad os coccygis yergens. ;

Quamvis in hoc cadavere fundus uteri. dextrorfum inclitiatus fuerat, os uteri tamen dextrum fe tenebat, ut cultnim. anatomicum has. partes fecantem fageret.

mm Ad os tincae, uteri et vaginae fubftantia coalita. n n Uteri in duas partes aequales febi margo pofterior. o o Uteri febi pars anterior. Sebio haec nequaquam per medium uteri fe

habebat, fed ad latus dextrum haudpaululum ; etenimut figurae przecedentes commode poffent delineari, cadaver hoc modo neceffe habui difponere. p Os uteri intus.-—:— q Uteri paries intemus membranis fuis veftitus.

Fundus uteri in hac figura non repraefentatur; turn quoniam id a‘ propofita ratione alienum duxi, turn quoniam uterus adeo fiaccidus et tener tunc temporis erat, ut in ntu fuo naturali, ad arbitrium et ufurh piboris, minime pOtuerit retineri.

Membrana:, tempore quo tabula haec delineabatur, ipfas fe ab utero fere prorfus fejunxerant. In parte fuperxori, decidua, ubi fe ab utero receperat, venulis abundavit; juxta os uteri, vix u llu m horum vaforum vefligium apparuit. r Meatus urinae.

/ Ve£c$ urinariae pars inferior, uteri cervicem inter et vagina:, partem fuperiorem fita. Omnis veficae portio poll fymphyfin pubis fita jamdudum abfeiffa fuerat. Melius autem mihi vifum eft, figuram vel curram dare, quam aliquod ingenio excogitamm pingere.

Plate IX.

A Full Jide-view of the pelvis with its contents, and adjacent parts, Jl_ cut down through the middle, to Jhew the turns of the hones, and the ftuation of the internalparts. This figure is imperfect at the pubes, both, externally and internally; the defedhe parts havingheencut away, in pre¬ paring the JubjeB for fome of tke precedingjigures. But what is wanting inthefe, may he jeen in plate XXII, which was intended as afupplement to this.

A Theinfideof the right thigh.

BBBB The bodies of the four bwermojl lumbar vertebrae.

Betweenthefe the ligamentousfubfancesare reprefentedprominent, and unequal, efpecially near the centre, where they are fofleft and mojl difpofed to fwell whenfoaked in water, and cut through.

CCCC The fpinal proceffes of the fame vertebrae. ;

D The canal of the lumbar vertebrae in which fome remains of the cauda equina is indiflinctly feen.

E E The lower part of the extending mufcles of the loins.

F Theadipofe membrane and Jkin of the loins. GGG The three fuperior component bones of the os facrum.

H H The two lowermojl bones of the facrum, and the firf.of the coccyx,

. - firmly anchylofed. ...

I Thefecond bone of the coccyx, moveable on thefirfl by means of an

intermediate cartilage. .. '

K The two lajl Pones of the coccyx grown, into one, and moveable on . thefecond Pone by the intervention of a cartilage.

-L The fpine of the facrum.—-M Thefpinal canal in the facrum.

N - Part of the lower flap' of the abdominal mufcles and integuments, turn- ; ed over the fpine of the os ibum.

0 - The great inguinal vein, fending off the epigq/lric, which is accom¬ panied with the artery of the fame name.

P .; The mufcles of the thigh which arofe from the os pubis, and which were cut through when, that Hone was removed. :

O The os pubis cut through above the foramen magnum.

R - The fame Pone cut tprough . at its conjunSlioh with thefmall branch of the tfehiurn. , ;

Where iheletterP fands, is reprefented, in dotted out-lines, the figure of that part, of the os pubis which was cut off, and the mark is upon thefympjiyfs tnfhefame,out-lines.

S Theffefhy,part between the os coccygis and the anus.

T _ The -anus, coriftderably opened. ■ ■ U -. The lower part of ike re&tm laid open,by theifsBion. .. In tracing

The gut from the anus upwards, we fee from, this figure that it takes a bend backwards, to get at. the injide of the os coccygis.

V . Here the" refill m made . a turn to the left fide:,. and its furrounding

cellular membrane only was feen in the feBion. .

WW The rectum laid open by the feBion, where- it runs before thefirfl bone of the coccyx, and the three bwermojl pieces of the facrum.

X Here the rccium lay intirely in the right file, and was not opened by the ficlicm.

Y . Tke rectum cut through , by the feBion, where itpajfed.frqm.the rightfide, acrofs the fecond bone of the facrum, andwascontinued into tkefigmbideflexureofthe colon.

Z, The yena cava. ——-it The right iliac.artery.

b Here the left iliac, vein was cut through: but the brittle -wax with-which it was' filled.hadfallen, out, and the vein was. feen indiJlinBly. c The fedioy, of the perinaeum. d The infide of the lower part of the right labium,

e The infide of the lower.part of the right nympha.

f The JlriBure at the beginning of the vagina, or remains of. the hymen,

g The extremity of the meatus urinarius. —hh The cavityof the vagina, i The compound fub/lan'ce of the vagina' and rebum, the 'latter of which is con¬

siderably the thickefl.

■ k The forepart of the vagina united with M^urethra and bladder.

II The mouth, of the womb in the vagina’, direBed towards the os co’c'cygis.

. .. Though the bottom of the wombi in this cafe.^was direBed towards the right fide ,

its mouth lay fo much on the rightfide, lhat it was not touched in making the middle feBion of all the parts.

mm The fubjtance of the womb and Vagina blended, at the os tineas, n n The edge of the biffeBed womb backwards.

o o The edge of the womb forwards. This feBion was not in the middle, but con¬

siderably on.the right Side. It had been made to prepare the JubjeB for fome of the ~ preceding figures. . .

p The mouth of the womb internally. q The infide of the womb lined with the membranes.

The bottom of the womb is not reprefented in this figure; both becaufe it was not very material here, and becaufe it was become fo flaccid and tender, that it could not be well kept out, in its naturalflirtation, before the painter.

The membranes were almoft entirely feparated from the womb, of themfelves, when this figure was made. In tke upper pari the decidua was full offrnall veins, even where it parted of itfelffirom the womb ; but near the mouth of the womb, hardly any fuckveffels appeared.

. f The lower part of the bladder, placed between the neck of the womb and iheupper

partof the vagina. The upper part of the bladder, whickwasfltuated behind the fymphyfis of the pubes, had been cut away before thisfeBion was made; and we chof to leauethe figure imperfeB, rather than venture to delineate from fancy.

Table X




U TERI pars anterior et extima, prout fe videndam praebuit, omnino ficcata, exhibens faciem vaforum uterinoruxn, qualem ilia prae fe ferant, eo loci ubi placenta utero adhaeret.

Vena cera flava implete, ab arteriis, magnitudine, colore lucidioii, anaftomofibus pluribus, facile dignofcuntur. Arteriae em'm, minores, pauciores, flexuofe, coloris magis luridi bic lo¬ ci flint. Arteriae omnes convolute ; pauciores autem videbantur, quia multi earum ramuli, cera flava, venis prius injeda, impleti fiierint. Hujus exemplum unum eft ad literam A.

Venas profundius litas, per uterum liccatum ccniere non licuit; indiftincfte igitur, nulloque ordine, ita uti.vifae funt, delineantur.

F I G. II.

Facies interna placentae, cujus vafa per funiculum umbilicalem cera funt repleta.

A Cannula aenea in arteriarum alteram umbiliealium iiiferta, per quain utraque arteria cera viridi implebatur. . , B In vena cannula, per quam cera caerulea illi injeda fuit,

CC Amnion, in parte quadam placentae, laxum reliclum.

DD Placente, qua amnion fublatum eft, fuperficies intima chorio. produdo cooperta. Hoe in loco-rami primi vaforum umbilicalium conlpiciuntur. Arteriae colore lucidiori facile poffunt dignofci.

Hie arteriae quidem lucidiores,. ut in figura, apparebant; tunicis fcilicet earum pellucidis colorem cerae injedae viridem lucidiorem tranfmittentibus.: In funiculo autem umbilicali aliter fe res habet; quippe vena, in medio pofita, undique glutinofa'funiculi fubftantia fuit inteda; unde: cera caerulea ad livorem propius accedens vifa eft..

E Deciduae pars in margine placente relida, inque faciem ejus internam reflexa; nempe ut fuperficies ejus exterior, utero quae adhaeferat, vafis pa rvul is-(cera flava per venas uteri impletis) referta, poflit exhiberi.

Placenta cera flava ubique. turgida, quae fubftantiam ejus cellulofam adeo implevit, ut in facie interna ubique per chorion tranfluceret. Cera ubique quafi in grana abiit, quod inde cava naturalia impleverat, indicium eertum exhibens : ft eriim placentam, vafis effufa impleviffet, in maffas majores, irregulares formatam, fe ad confpedum dediflet. Cera in hanc fpongiofam, five cellulofam partem, injeda, placente eraflkudo naturaliduplo major evaferat.


Mulieris, die fecundo poft partum extindae, uteri fuperficiei internae pars.

Decern his tabuhs jam delineatis, eas ftatim in lucem edere propofui; et fimul hancce tertiam figuram, quafi fupplementum, addere, utpote folum quod tunc tempbns potui. Difcrimen exhibet inter fuperficiem uteri ( A, B , C ) cui membranae adhasferant, et fuperficiem (D, E, F) cui placenta fe immiferat; illam quidem hevem .et unius formae; hanc autem orificiis magnis venarum refertam. Ubi primum hffic prificia fub. examen venerant, omnia grumis coagulati fanguinis referta comperi, in cavum uteri nonniliil extantibus. Utero vero aliquamdiu in aqua macerato, coagula haec magis albida evaferunt; noiniulla exciderunt; et aliqua etiam extrada funt, ut-venarum orificia’clarius monftrari poflent. Ita fe res habuit, cum figura haec delineabatur.


View of the outfide of the forepart of the womb , as it appear¬ ed when quite dry; exhibiting a fpecimen of the uterine vejjels, at the part where the placenta adhered.

The veins were filled with yelhw wax , and are readily difiinguified by the largenefs, light colour, and frequent anaftomofes, from the ar¬ teries, which are here fmalkr , lefs numerous, ferpentine, and of a darker colour. The arteries were all convoluted; but they did not appear to be . fo numerous, becaufe many of the branches were filled with the yellow wax, which had been thrown into the veins. This is feen, in one in¬ fiance, at the letter A.

The deeper-fealed veins could not be diflinStly feen through the dried . - , fubfiance of the womb, and are therefore reprefented with the fame ob fcurity.and. conjufion which appeared in the objeft itfelf,


The' infide of the placenta,^ which was injeSted by the umbilical veffels after, it was taken out of the womb..

A A brafs-pipe tied into one of the umbilical arteries, by which the two arteries were filled with green wax.

B A pipe in the vein, by was filled with blue wax.

C C The amnion left loofe upon one part of the placenta.

D D The internalfurfaee of the: placenta, where the amnion was remov¬

ed, covered by a continuation, ofthe chorion: upon this are feen thefirfi branches of the umbilical veffels. The. arteries are fufficienily dfiinguijhable by their lighter colour.

They appearedfo from being filled with a lighter coloured green wax, and from the tr'anj'parency of their coats: but on the navel-firing it was the contrary; becaufe the vein, being the mofi. central, was covered with a greater thicknefs of the gelatinous fubfiance of the firing, and' therefore did not allow the, darker-colomed. blue. wcCx to be fo jwellfeen.

E ... Part of the decidua left at the edge, and turned over the infide of the ■ - placenta, fo as iofhew its outerfurface (which had adhered to the Womb) (full off nail veffels, injebled with yellow wax from the uterine veins.

. , The body of the placenta was uniformly filled with the yellow wax. This had fo compleatly filled all the cellular fubfiance of the placenta that upon:the infide it appeared every where through the chorion. And . ...the. wax)was. every .where, granulated; fo that it had plainly

■ .filled natural cavities ■ for if it had filled, the fubfiance of the' placenta by common exlravafation, it would have formed itfefinto irregular and large maffes. From this injection of the Jpungy or cellular part, the placenta had acquired at leaf double its natural thicknefs.

F I G. III. - Aportion of the internalfurface of the womb,from a woman who died two days after delivery.

When ihefe ten plates were finifhed, I intended to have publi/hed them immediately; and this, third figure was added, as the only [applewent which I could give at that time. It Jhews the difference between the furface of the womb (A, B, C,) where the membranes had adhered, and thatjurjace E, F,) to which the placenta had been.fixed. The firfi was much morefmooth and unform; the latter was full oflarge venousorifices. At the firfi examination,all thefe orifices were found filled up with plugs oj coagulated blood, which projeEted forrie way into the cavity of the womb. The part beingfieepedfome time in water, they became whiter, and many of them fell out, or were, pulled out, to Jhew the orifices of the veins more clearly. In this fiate the. dr awing.was made.

TAB. X. Fig. I. Aj/t&r/sfuirj a///A?7j/r et&T&mas,/mnc& ferazAtuAzmvr/xrurdtcxafay eaAtcA&ndfucamz,dadorexm/ uA&rAmrrtdm/, jMoAem,/ m'zz , fertmAeo Arcl, uA&AiAAiAm&z, utero a/A/ue-reT. Fig. It. SAaaxj mfoma- AAAacmfoz, dadOy/iex'^umcu/edm/ ewiAtAzca/mi/c&m, t xiMi6 re/tAe& Fig.m. .jAAaAa^ m/v/dm AdAua fuktA/lariurdvOjcfartcfo, exA/AeA/ia/rtem/xu/utr^xied m/Amov u&rt/.

TAB. XI. a/f-a/uz, mulie/rz, w/mo yra,iwu6z&j wi£#zj&/uz.?norr/urym< aforvna/ & medio Gm^yiicdwr'

ff/sn/j, luritoram, ,*efo,. flua jn/xcbl av,i twry/da,. putryite, ad/iartem, mfertarevn,. rf

ivrv/t'o//?' utero x/m aryswulSP/awtfonzyiar/X i//c-uM/ttye^a

Table XI


A B alia muliere, nono graviditatis menfe haemorrhagia uteri. na e medio fublata. Confpicitur uterus, et ofla pubis juxta naturam fita. Vafa, injecla cera, turgida; quaeque ad partem inferiorem et cervicem uteri dignofcuntur effe ampliffima, arguunt placentam parti illi adhaefiffe.

A Fundi uteri pars media et fumma.

B Uteri pars quae fcilicet in cadavere fuit ex adverfo umbilici.

C Symphyfis offium pubis.

D Membrana adipofa ad fundum veficae urinariae.

E E Os pubis utrinque, ad locum fere quo offi ilium committitur, perfciffum.

FF Utriufque oflis ifehii ramus parvus, ad locum quo offi pubis adjungitur, perfciffus.

GGG Contenta pelvis omnia, antrorfum offibus pubis obtecla.

H Infra hanc literam meatus urinarii orificiinn.

I Ab hac litera furfum ad meatum urinarium vaginae principium;

infraque hanc literam aditus ad reclum K Strato intimo ani fphincleris circumtectus.

Labia pudendi, perinaeum et'anus hie non habent locum; in fitu enim fuo relicla erant in cadavere, quippe illud externemutilum. et. deforme reddere non liceret.

LL Tubas.

MM Fimbriae.

jV Jf Ligamenta rotunda.

0 Ovarii pars.

P p Vaforum fpermaticorum utrinque ad uterum afcendentium fafciculus.

QQ_ Vafa hypogaftrica, in latere uteri, ad conjunctionem cum fpermaticis afeendentia.

R Uteri venae magnae in loco cui placenta interne adhaerebat.

Plate XI.

TPROM a JecondJubjecl, viz. a woman who died of a finding in the JO ninth month of pregnancy. It reprefents a fore-view of the womb , with the offa pubis in the natural filiation. The filiation of the large veffels, which were injected. Jkerws, that the placenta was attached for¬ wards, and to the lower part of the womb.

A The middle and higheft part of the bottom of the womb.

B That part of the womb which, as it lay in the dead body, was directly

oppofte to the navel.

C The fymphyfis of the offa pubis.

D The adipofe membrane upon the fundus of the bladder.

E E The os pubis of each Jide, cut through near itsunionwith the os ilium.

FF The fnall branch of each os ifchii, cut through near its conjunction with the os pubis.

GGG The whole contents of the pelvis coveredforwards by the offa pubis.

H • Immediately below this letter isfeen the orifice of the meatus unnanus.

I From this-letter upwards to the meatus urinarius is feen the begin¬ ning of the vagina;. and immediately below this letter I is feen the paf fage into the redum, furrounded by

K 'The ihners IJratum- o/hfefphinfter ani.

The Labia, perinaeum and anus were left in the body, that it might not be disfigured outwardly, ■

LL The,tubes.

MM The fimbriae.

NN The round ligaments,

O ' Part of the ovarium.

P P The group offpermatic veffels, on each fide, approaching the womb.

O a The hypogafiric veffels mounting upon the fides of the womb to join

the fpermatic.

R The great veins of the womb in that place to which, internally, the placenta was attached.

Table XII


A B eadem, qua praecedens, mullere, exhibet apertum plane a parte poftica uterum cum vagina, quo fitus foetus, parfque inferior placentae, fub foetus capite, indicarentur. Placenta fcilicet orificio uteri intemo accreverat, eoque lub finem graviditatis dilatato, feparata eft: unde haemorrhagia, et mors.

A A Tubae fallopianae.

'B Ovarium liniftrum; cujus ad extremitatem inferiorem videre eft

C Corpus luteum extans.

D Ovarium dextrum.

E Vaforum Ipermaticorum ad uterum alcendendum fafciculus.

FFF Subftantiae uteri fecdo.

G Vaginae per incilionem apertae et expaffae facies interna.

HH Os uteri.

I Placentae partis inferioris facies externa, in lobos partita, quae quondam cervici et ori uteri interne adhaeferat ; tempore autem parturiendi inftante, partium illarum dilatatione fejuncta fiierat, unde neceflario haemorrhagia.

KK Membranae de margine placentae exeuntes, capitifque foetus partem inferiorem ampletftentes, perfciflae. Spatium, quod inter cervicis uteri partem interiorem, et fecundas, vacuum occurrit, in cadavere fanguirie coagulato refertum comperi.

Situs partefque foetus explanatione non egent.

Plate XI.

77 ROM thefame Jubjeti , a view of the womb and vagina/atfy openJC ed on the back part , to fhew the filiation of the child , and of the lower part of the placenta at the infide of the mouth of the womb , under the child!s head , and detached from the womb ; the occafwn of the fatal hemorrhage.

A A The fallopian tubes.

B The left ovarium, at the lower end of which isfeen

C The projecting corpus luteum.

D The right ovarium:

E ' The group offpermatic vejfels approaching thefdes of the womb.

FFF The fedtion of thefubfance of the womb.

& The infide of the vagina, which is laid open by a longitudinal incifon , andfpread out.

HH The mouth'of the womb.

I The external, lobuldtedfurfaceof the lower part of the placenta; which

had originally fuck to the infide of the neck and mouth of the womb; but ‘ as parturition approached,-the dilatation of thefe parts occafoned a feparation, which was necejfarily followed by an hemorrhage. .

K K The membranes cut through where they were coming out from the border

. . of the placenta, and.enclofng the mof depending part of the childs head.

The vacant fpace which is feen between the infide of the neck of the womb, and the fecundines,. was full of clotted blood in the dead body.

Thefituation, and thefeveral parts of the child' require . no explanation.

tTb “xn. aj et^mTs, ims/ior*; mAJet /itiortA as/mr^/iM^o^wn. cmrova^uz,,

aJ^uo Vrtii'./farjyu* t^rtir- ffY^s^Wj ar/utim;Atiowti,or. Maavftosa^ ort/Z^

,aMo ultimo acorooorot eofu *W fiwm_gr*™Msto Mtfafr.fatiA wibdwv t ^gqyfae<f&. { ^

Table XIII


A Tertio cadavere, nono graviditatis menfe. Uteri confpectus ab anteriori, cum vagina et vefica urinaria. Pariete hujus anteriori, cum fecundis ei adhaerentibus, incifo, et in fundum ejus reclinato, fitus foetus erecii confpicitur. Vafa uteri, cera ' prius injecta, turgida fuerunt.

A Vefica urinaria in fitu fuo naturali, refpectu babito ad uterum. B Vaginae pars fuperior et extima, quae fub fympbyfi oifium pu¬ bis jacet, quaeque ibi cum urethra connecritur.

C Vaginae cavum in confpeciu pofitum, cum labia partefque aliae extemae fuerant abfciflae, quo fpecimen hoc e cadavere eximiretur.

DD Vafa fpermatica, ad uteri latera afcendentia.

E E Tubs; quarum extremitates, feu fimbrjae, fub racemo vaforum fpermaticorum, occultantur.

F In uteri latere dextro, vena magna, ab ariaftomofi venarum. hypogaftricae fcilicet et fpermaticae, ortum fuum ducens.

G G Ligamenta rotunda.

HH Uteri pars anterior, cum portione placentae quae ei adhaerebat, incifa, et in fundum uteri reclinata, ut foetus in confpectum prodiret.

Ill Uteri fubftantiae, et membranarum inveftientium, feciio.

KK Eadem fectio per placentae fubftantiam dufta, quae uteri parti anteriori in latere dextro adhaerebat. ■ Ex figura inverfa latus dextrum finiftrum fit.

L Funis umbilici, a fcetu ad placentam tranfiens.

TfR OM a thirdfubjea, in the ninth month of pregnancy. A fore-view T of the womb (with the vagina and vefica urinaria) in which all the inclofing parts were cut through , and turned up , to fhew the fituation of the child , with its head upwards. The vejfels of the womb had been previoiifly injected.

A The bladder , in its natural fituation with refpect to the womb.

B The upper and. external part of the vagina, which lies under the fymphyfis of the offa pubis, and where the urethra is united with it.

C The cavity of the vagina expofed, where the labia and other exter¬ nal parts had been cut off\ in taking this part from the dead body.

D D The fpermatic vejfels , paffng up towards the fides of the womb.

. EE The tubes, of which the extremities , or fimbriae, are concealed be¬ hind the group of fpermatic vejfels.

F The great vein on the right fide of the womb, formed by the anajlo - mofing hypogajlric and fpermatic veins.

GG The round ligaments.

HH The forepart of the womb, with that part of the placenta which adhered to it, cut up, and turned back over the fundus ofthe womb, to bring the child to view.

Ill The feStion of the fubjlance of the womb, and of the mvefting mem¬ branes. KK The fame fection carried through thefubfiance of placenta, which,

in this cafe, was fixed to the forepart and right fide (which is the left in this inverted figure) of the womb.

L The navel-firing paffng from the child to the placenta.

Table XIV

tabula XIV.

A Ouarto cadavere, nono itidem graviditatis menfe. Fafciculx fibrarum mufcularium, in parte interna uteri, triplidfigura exbibentur. . :

Hac parte uteri per aliquot dies in aqua macerata, decidua jam tenera abftergebatur.


- Uteri inverfi, et in latus paululum reclinati, facies pofterior

A ^Uteri os relaxatum; fupraquod, paulo obfcurius licet, cervicis rugae, ramorum adinftar difpofits, cemuntur.

B B Uteri pars angufta, margine pelvis antea circumcmcta. _

CC Seta in orificio utriufque tuba; quam circum fafciculi bbrarum ad mufculos pertinentium, in orbes, eodem centra termina¬ tes, fe difponunt. .

D Hie fafciculi, in Orbem difpofiti, uterum cingunt.

E Uteri fundi pars media, qua ordines hi duo fibrarum, tubas cinnentium, inter fe coeunt, five fe invicem contmgunt.

F Interftitium triangulare, tres inter ordines fibrarum prsdictarum, ubi mutuo inter fe coeunt, diverfumque ordinem et curfum tenent.

F I G. II.

Plate XIV.

T?R 0 M afourlhfubject, at rune mo'aths. This Jhews the difpofition JP of the mufcular fafciculi on the irfide of the womb, in three dif¬ ferent views. The fart was fieeped in water fome days, wTwreby the decidua was made tender, and then bnfhed off.

The inner furfdee of the pqjierior part of the-womb, turmd a little to - one fide. A The relaxed mouth of the womb, over which are f aintly feen the branch¬

ing rugae of the neck of the womb.

B B The narrow part of the womb, which was embraced by the brim, of

the pelvis.

G C A brtftle put into the orifice of each tube, round which the fafciculi of mufcular fibres are ranged into concentric circles.

D The fafciculi going circularly round the body of the womb.

"E The middle of the fundus of the womb,. where the two orders of cir - cular fibres, which furromd the tubes, meet, or become reciprocally

tangents. ■

F The triangular interftice between the three orders of circular fibres, where they are allblended, and take a variety of direStions.

Ejufdem uteri, forma minuta, confpe&us ,a latere.

A Uteri os.

B Seta in orificio tubae. .

C Fibrarum, fine ordine difpofitaram, ftratum, faciem internam fafciculorum, qui in circulum fieduntur, obtegentes.


Ejufdem uteri partis anterioris facies interna.

A Os uteri; fupra quod rugae anteriores, in ramos abeuntes, fe in confpeclum dant.

B Superficiei cui placenta adhaeferat pars media, ubi fibrae fafeias fine ullo ordine formabant; quas inter, venarum prificia, in pla¬ centae partem fpongiofam curfum tenentium, paffim occummt.

Adcervicem uteri, fibrae mufculofe, in fafciculos collectae, nul¬ ls conipiciuntur.

A fde-view of thefame womb, in miniature.

A The mouth of the womb.' _

B A brijlle in the orifice of the tube.

C • An irregular ftratum of fibres, upon the irfide of the circular fafciculi.


The inner furf ace of the anterior part of the fame womb.

A The mouth of the womb: over which are feen the anterior branching rugs.

B The centre of the furf ace to which the placenta adhered, where the fibres formed irregular, interwoven bands; in the interfiices of which were the orifices of the veins which went into the fpungy part of the placenta.

At the cervix no diflinElmufcularfibres appear on the internal furf ace of the womb.

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/lemze/vnY&f . Fig. y. CorftM ^WtMns tm Ov/vrio ,Y/i

.J'Mn/rr/cn. \fu//rx \S'a//o/i/t,

>‘m., gu/rjfMetorfom/ Y/Wr/6///z&J?wr.~5yr. (ji’/Ze/r/b Sf'wru/itm.

Table XV


Quinto cadavere, nono eti am geftationis menfe. fyftema arteriofum uteri quintuplici figura exprefliim.

Mulier haec, poll partum neutiquam difficilem, in anfmi deliquium indderat, caufa quidem adftantes latente; Boris autem duabus a partu nondum lapfis, illam mors abftulit. Arteriae cera rubri coloris impletae.


Facies uteri inverfi, quo prsfertim loco placenta adhsferat.

A Pars media fuperficiei, cui placenta adhsferat, in fundi parte poftica, et paulo ad latus finiftrum fits.

B B . Arteriae convoluts quamplurimae, quarum extremitates, quo loco per deciduam ad placentam decurrerant, ruptae funt.

CC Orificia venarum uteri (vulgo finus appellata) quae per deciduam ad placentam decurrerant: haec multo plura quam quae in figura reprsfentantur; minora prsfertim innumera. Ex venarum illarUm curfu, uteri fcilicet fuperficiei parallelo, aere non prius inflato, orificia vix poflunt confpici. Earum igitur flatu diftenfarum maxima pars delineatur, nimirum ut.umbris infertis, magis confpicuae evaderent, et curfus etiam ea¬ rum obliquus, nec non orificia ramorum inter fe coeuntium, in confpec D Uteri fuperficiei pars cui membrans adhsferant. Vafabujus partis, om¬ nia quam minima. Pars etiam ipfa laevior, quam ea cui Placenta fe immiferat. Faciei deciduae externae perfeciam quandam fimilitudinem prs fe

E Uteri interns lamells pars, cultro anatomico fublata, et reclinata, ea mente, ut confpicerentur

F Uteri fibrarum fafciculi, quorum.maxima pars circulos confieiunt.

G Oris uteri dilatati margo, veficulis glutinofis diftincius.

H Cervicis uteri, ad partem poilicam, rugs pennats, qus vulgo valvuls appellantur. ■

I Vagins inverfs pars.


Arteris partem uteri ejufdem anteriorem perreptantes. Uteri facies externa jam ficcata fuerat, et inde pellucida adeo fadla, ut arteris inconfpectum diftincle venirent, pariter ac li in fuperficie extima difperfs fuiflent. Uterus hie duodecim fuit poilices longus: unde facile patebit, quantum- mole contrahatur in hac figura; quantum etiam in figura tertiaetquarta, qus ad eandemnormam delineantur. Pars hsc dum are. feebat, in lohgitudinemquam latitudinem magis diftenfa fuit; quapropter uterus, in hac, et in figura proxime fequCnti, longior eft quam ex natura.

A Peritonei refecli margo, eo loci, quo, ab utero ad veficam urinariam refleriitur.

BB Tubs.

C Ovarium finiftrum. — D Ovarium dextrum. Vid. fig. V.

EE Ligamenta rotunda; quorum in finiftro eft arteria magna flexuofa, ab ramo fpermatics, per anaftomofin conjunctze cum hypogaftrica, tranfmiffa: in dextro aliquot funt minores.

F Truncus arteris finiftrs hypo'gadries, ad Cervicis uteri latus afeendentis.

G Truncus arteriae finiftrs fpermatics, in ligamenti lati duplicationem tranfeuntis. , - ■ « 

Arteriarum diftributionem in utero explanare haud opus eft. Curfus enim earum flexuofi, anaftomofefque plurims, per fe fatis patent.


Eundem exhibet uterum a parte poftica vifu-m.

BB. C. D. EE. Vid. fig. II. — - F Arteria hypogaftrica dextra.

G G Arteris fpermatics ad ligamenta lata excurrCntes.

HH In ea parte uteri cui placenta adhsferat arteris flexuofs conferts.

Si arterias in hac figura, cum iis in figura prsCedenti conferamus, eas multo majores, magifque convolutas effe, in latere eo uteri, cui pla¬ centa adhsferat," cernere licebit. In utero gravido, curfus fanguinis maxime in placentam dirigitur. - ' ~


Fundum exhibet uteri, parte poftica furfum verfa.

B B. Tubs.-■ D Ovarium finiftrum.

C Ovariumj dextrum. - H H Vid. fig. III.

F I G. V.

Ovarium dextrum et tuba ejufdem uteri.

A Tuba. — B Tubs ligamentum, mefenterio quodammodo refpondens. C C Tubs orificium externum, fimbriis folia referentibus circumdatum.

D Fimbris a latere utroque orificii tubs, per ligamentum, ad ovarii extremitatem extemam, continuats.'

E E Ovario jam aperto, arteris flexuofs, per fubftantiam ejus fparfs, confpiciuntur.

p p Hac in parte corpus luteum, per medium divifum, in ovarii fubftantia cemitur. Nulla confpiciuntur vafa in centro, quod colore eft albido. Circa centrum illud undiquaque, fubftantia ejus vafeulis abundat.


TpiVE Jigurts.from a. fifth Jhbject at the fill time, to explain the orJ- terial JyJlem of the pregnant womb.

This woman , immediately after a natural labour , grew faint, as was faid, without an apparent caifte; and died within the/pace of two hours. "The arteries were injected with red wax.


The womb, inverted.

A The centre of the Jurface to which the placenta had been fixed ; which was at the back-part of the fundus, and a Utile on the left fide.

B B Innumerable convoluted arteries, with broken extremities, where they had pajfed through the decidua into the placenta.

C C C The orifices of thofe uterine veins, commonly called finufes, which had paffed through the decidua to the placenta. Thefe orifices were much moire numerous than they are reprefented in this figure. - The fmaller efpecially were innumerable. The pajfage , or direction of thefe veins, was abnofi parallel to the furface of the -. womb; fo that their orifices were fcarce perceptible, without-being inflated. Mofi of them are reprefented in that fate; both that they may be morediflincl, by havinga little jhade, and that their oblique dire&ion^ and the orifices of their communica¬ tions, or anajlomofing branches, may be feen.

- D Part of the furface of the womb where the membranes had adhered. This was furnifhed with very finall veffels only; and was much fmoother than that part to which the placenta had adhered. In every refpehl it was like’the, outer furface of the decidua.

.E Part of the inner lamella of the womb, raifed by diffeHion, and turned to one . fide,: to fhew ? .

F Thefafciculatedfibres of the womb, mofi of which, atthis place, were nearly cir' cular. ,

G The border, formed by the dilated mouth of the womb, and Jludded with gelali ■ nous veficles.

VI The branching rugs commonly called values, at the pofierior part of the neck of the womb.

I Part of the inverted vagina.

F 1 G. II.

A fore-view of the outfide of the fame womb, after it was dried, and become fo tranfparent, that the arteries could be feen difiinWy,MS if they had been difperfed on its. outer furface. The objed-was twelve inches long; from, which it will be un '- derfioqd, how much the fcale. is-reduced, in this, aswell as in the third and fourth figures, which are delineated to the fame-proportion. In drying, the preparation was unavoiddblymore jlretched in its length, than in itswidth; whence in this , and in the following figure, the womb is more oblong, than it is naturally.

A The edge of the cut peritoneum, where it was refleded from the womb to the bladder.

B B The tubes. — C The left ovary.

D The right ovary. See fig. V.

E E The round ligaments. In the left there is one large ferpentine artery, fent down from an anqjlomofing branch of the fpermatic and of the hypogafiric-. in the right there are feveral fmall arteries.

F The trunk of the left hypogafiric artery, mounting upon the fide of the neck of . the womb. . . '

G The trunk of the left fpermatic artery, pajjing into the duplicature of the broad ligament.

The dflribution of the arteries upon the womb requires no explanation. Their ferpentine courfe, and frequent anaftomofes are apparent.


A back-view of the fame fubjed. BB. C. D. EE. See fig. II.

F . The right hypogafiric artery.

G G The fpermatic arteries pajjing into the broad ligaments.

HH The crouded ferpentine arteries in that part of the womb where the placenta adhered.

By comparing the arteries in this figure, with thofe in the preceding, we fee that they are much larger, and more convoluted, in that fide of .the womb to which the placenta is fixed; the great current of blood being towards the placenta.

F I G. IV.

A full view of the fundus of the fame womb; the back part being upwards.

B B The tubes. -D The left ovary.

C The right ovary. -H H See fig. III.


The right ovary and tube of the fame womb.

A The tube. — B The ligament of the tube, analogous to the mefentery.

C C The external orifice of the tube, furrounded by foliage-like fimbris.

D The fimbris continued from each fide of the orifice of the tube, all along the ligament, between that and the outer end of the ovary.

EE The ovary cut open, with ferpentine arteries interfperfed through its fubfiance.

F F' Here, inthefiibfiance of the ovary, the corpus luteum isfeen,fplit through the middle. Ho veffels appear at its centre, which is of a white complexion: but all around that centre, itsfiibfiance is very vafcular.

Table XVI


A Sexto cadavere, octavo menfe, uterus a latere dextro vifus, atque ita injecia cera praeparatus, et fcalpello anatomico denudatus, ut vaforum ad eum acceflus, eorumque primae r amifi cationes quam clariffime appareant. A parte poftica, adhuc peritoneo laevi coopertus eft uterus. In parte autem anteriori, qua placenta interne adhaerebat, ftratum externum uteri fubftantiae cultro anatomico fublatum fiiit.

A A Cervicis uteri, nullo modo dilatati, facies exterior. Os uteri literae inferiori A oppolitum; ab qua parte deorfum, pars vaginae, adipe tecta, relinquitur. ;

B B In uteri fuperficie ftrictura, ubi margine pelvis antea fuit circumdatus.

C C Tuba; poll quam ovarium oblitefcebat.

DD Ligamentum rotundum, cultro anatomico diffechim; nimirum ut vena, ex parte inferiore tortuofa, binaeque arteriae convolute, ex vafis Ipermaticisomnes ortum ducentes, in confpeclumvenirent. E Arteria bypogaftrica.

F Vena hypogaftrica.

Vala haec ramos quam plurimos ad vaginam dimittunt, et per latus uteri afcendunt, nimirum ut per anaftomolin cum fpermaticis fuis propriis coeant. Partem utriufque trunci, adminiftratione infuforia neceffario deftructam, ingenium picloris fupplevit. Arteria fpermatica.

Vena spermatica.

Vafa htec dum aduterUm accedunt, ramos quam plurimos, antrorfum ad tubam, et retrorfum ad ovarium mittunt; deinde, ad uteri latus adventantia, per anaftomolin cum hypogaftricis coeunt. Rami praecipui utriufque, hie, ad lundi uteri partem anteriorem, cui placenta adhaerebat, cUrfum tenent.

11 Peritonei, pofticam uteri fuperficiem tegentis, margo.

Plate XVI.

JTROMajixihfviject, at eight months. A full view, from the right fide, JL of the womb,fo injected and diffected, as to fhew the approach, and frfi general branchings of theuterine vejfels. The back-part of the womb isfill covered by the fmooth peritoneum ; butat thej,'ore-part, to which the placenta adhered internally, the outer ftratum of thefubftance of the womb was removed by dijfection.

A A The outfde of the neck of the womb , which was not in the leaf di¬

lated. The os uteri was oppofte to the lower letter A; from which downwards, there is a part of the vagina left, covered with fat.

BB A fricture on the womb, where it was furrounded by the brim of the pelvis.

C C The tube; behind which the ovary lay concealed.

DD The round ligament differed, to Jhew a vein in its 'middle (twifted at the inferior part) and two convoluted arteries: all from the fpermatic vejfels.

E The hypogaflric artery.

F The hypogaflric vein.

Thcfe vejfels fend down numerous branches to the vagina, and mount upon the fide ofthe. womb * toanaftomofe with the reflective flermatics. By fixing pipes, for the injection, and tying up thefe vejfels, apart of each trunk was lofl, and thenJupplied by fancy.

G The fpermatic artery .

H The Jpermaticvein.

Thefe vejfels, in their approach to the womb, fend up numerous branches, forewards to the tube, and backwards to the ovary ; then, pafling to the fide of the fundus uteri, they anafiomofe with the hypogaflric. The principal branches of both, in this cafe, go to the fore fart of the fundus uteri , where the placenta was attached.

11 The edge of the peritoneum which covers the pofleriorfurface of the womb.

Table XVII


I DEM uterus a fronte. Primo, five extimo fubftantiae ftrato fiiblato, vaforum diftributio majorum, eorumque verfiis placentam (quae hie paifi anteriori et fiindo uteri adhaerebat) progrefius, mefius confpiciuntur.

A Vaginae extremitas famma, incifione aperta.

B Uteri orificium contraetum. '

C Uteri cervix nondum dilatata.

D D Ligamepta rotunda.

EE Tubae: ovariis pone abfeonditis.

F F Fafciculus vaforum fpermaticorum, ad latus uteri afeenden G G Fafciculus vaforum hypogaftricorum, ad latus cervicis uteri accedentium.

HH Trunci vaforum fpermaticorum et hypogaftricorum, ex. anaftomofi communes, ad uteri latera decurrentium.; In fundi parte anteriori, arteriae et venae, curium verfus placentam tenentes, confpiciuntur: vafa minora, rotundiora, magifque convoluta, ar¬ teriae funt; majora, et planiora, venae.

Plate XVII.

ROM the fame fubject. A direct fore-view of the womb, after the outer ftratum of its fubflance had been differed off, to fherw toe difiributixm of the larger uterine vffels in their way to the placenta; which, in this cafe, adhered to the fore-part and fundus of the womb.

A The upper extremity of the vagina laid open.

B The orifice of the womb, contracted.

C The neck of the womb, not Jlretched.

D D The round ligaments.

EE The tubes: the. ovaries being concealed behind them.

F F The group of fpermatic vffels, mounting up towards the fides of the fundus of the womb.

,& & The group of hypogajlric veffels, coming to the fide of the neck of the womb. -HH ' The common, or anqfiomofing trunks of the fpermatic and hypogafirie veffels, running along the fides of the womb. On all the fore-part of the

' i fundus are feen the arteries and veins, faffing towards the placenta , the fiddlier, rounder, and convoluted veffels are the arteries ; the larger . andflattened veffels are the veins.



TT 1 JUS D EM uteri fundus, eodem modo praeparatus, ut am■ j pliffimorum vaforam, venarum praeferdm, placentae ex adverfo objectarum, crebrae inter fe commiffurae contemplandae proflarent.

A A SecHo perfundum uteri tranfverfe ducla; inter

AAB Uteri parietem pofleriorem, in ftatu fuo naturali, (fcilicet, peritoneo laevi coopertum) et

A AC Uteri parietem anteriorem, ubi ftratum fubftantiae ejus extimum fublatum eft, ut vafa, ex adverfo placentae lita, conlpici poflent. Vafa majora et planiora, ut in figura praecedenti, venae funt.

D D Tubae. Poll, live infra eas, ovaria iftiufmodi fitum habebant, qui ilia conlpici non fineret.

E E Ligamenta rotunda, deorfum, paulo ante tubas, curium tenentia.

In hoc cadavere, uteri paries anterior pofteriori tumidior fiiit; ita ut ft uterus a vertice deorfum per tubas tranfciflus buffet, pars anterior, altera major extitiffet. Re vera tamen, inter eas difcrimen haud tantum' fiiit, quantum in hac tabula- videtur; quippe uterus, paulo oblique oculo fe offerens, plus fuperficiei anterioris, quam pofterioris, exhibebat.

Plate XVIII.

ROM the fameJubject. The very fundus, or upper part of the womb , which was previoufly differed to Jhew in the preceding figure as well as in this, the plexus of large veffels, efpecially the veins , oppofte to the placenta.

A A The tranfverfe fedion acrofs the fundus of the womb\ between

AAB The pojlerior fide of the womb left in its natural Jlate; that is, co¬ vered with the fmooth peritoneum, and

AAC The anterior fide of the womb at its fundus, the cuter ftratum of its fubflance being removed, to Jhew the veffeh oppofite to the placenta.

The larger and more flattened veffels, as in the preceding figure, are

D D " The tubes. The ovaries lay behind; that is, below them in this atti¬ tude, and farther from the eye of thefpeclator,fo as to be hidden.

E E The round ligaments, going downwards, a little before the tubes.

In this cafe, the anterior fide of the womb made a greater fwelling, or was more Jlretched than the pojlerior; fo that if the womb had been . vertically cut down through the two tubes, the anterior portion would have_ been larger than the other. Yet the difference was not fo confiderable, as may be imagined from a view of this figure, becaufe the obfeEt was placed a little obliquely to the eye, which thence took in more of the an¬ terior, than of the pojlerior furf ace.

Table XIX


DEM-uterus; ejus facie anterior! incifa et in fundum revoluta, i lbe fi s fecundis, per quas caput foetus, obfcurfos licet, cemitur. Hie igitur vifui fefe offert cum fuperficies externa pla¬ centae, dimidiatze quidem, turn pars fuperficiei intemae uteri, ei refpondens, una cum vafis quae inter uterum et placentam intercedunt. Partesnteri exteriores lineisfolummodo expreffe firnt.

A Vaginae extremitas fuperior incifione aperta.

B Uteri orificium contrachim.

C Uteri cervix nondum dilatata.

DD Iigamenta rotunda.

EE Tubae; ovaria, pone iis fita, oculum fugiunt.

F F Vafa fpermatica.

G G Vafa bypogaftrica.

HHH Uteri, fubftantia incifa.

Ill Uteri paries anterior a fecundis feparatus, et fupra fundum uteri reflexus.

K Chorion, amnion tegens. Per membtanas illas pellucidas foetus caput confpicitur.

LLL Decidua, qua uteri parieti intimo adhaerebat. Vafa quaedam parva, in earn ex. utero tranfmiffa, confpiciuntur.

M ATM Uteri fuperficies interna, parti huic deciduae refpondens.

XX Superficies externa partis illius placentae quae ab utero avulfa ’

0 0 Superficies uteri interior huic refpondens.

PP In uteri fuperficie interna arteriae convolutae, quae ad placen¬ tam antea tranfierant, jam vero diruptae, dum uterus a placenta feparabatur.

<9 f) Arteriae in placentae fuperficie illis refpondentes.

R R Venae ex placentae fubftantia excurrentes; in ea fcilicet parte fuperficiei ejus diruptae, qua ad'uteram tranfibant.

S S Venae in facie uteri interna, venis proxime dictis refpondentes. T In angulo, fuperficiem externam placentae inter et fuperficiem intemam inverfam uteri, arteria convoluta, ab utero in placen¬ tam continuata, confpicitur.

V Vena, arteriam proxime diciam juxta polita, et illi refpondens, ex placenta in uterum continuata.

PLATE XIX Jff ROM the fame Jubject. A fore-view of the womb. Its fubfianee JJ is cut through, and turned up over the fundus, to fhew a part of the membranes , through which die childs head is obfeurely feen. and about half of the placenta; together with the correfponding internal fuface of the womb, and the veffels pafjing between the womb and the placenta. The external parts of the womb are reprefented in out-lines only.

A The upper extremity of the vagina laid open.

B The orifice of the womb , controlled.

C The neck of the womb, not Jlretched.

D D : The round ligaments.

E E The tubes; the ovaries concealed behind them.

F F The fpermatic veffels.

GG The hypogaftric veffels.

HHH Thefubjlance of the womb, cut through.

Ill The fore fart of the womb raifed up from the fecundines, and turned

over the fundus.

K The chorion covering the amnion; through which tranfparent mem¬ branes the childs head is feen.

LLL The decidua where it adhered to the inner fuface of the womb, in which are feen fome fmallveffels fent into it from the womb.

MMM The correfponding inner furface of the womb.

N N The outerfurf ace of that part of the placenta from which the womb


O O The correfponding internal furf ace of the womb.

PP Convoluted arteries upon the inner furf ace of the womb, which had paffed to the .placenta, and were broken through in feparating the womb.

OQ, The correfponding arteries on the furf ace of the placenta.

RR Veins emerging from the fubfiance of the placenta, and broken through at its furface, where they were puffing into the womb. .

S S The correfponding veins on the infide of the womb.

T In the angle between the outer furface of the placenta, and the in¬ verted inner furf ace. of the womb , is here feen a convoluted artery, con¬ tinued from. the womb into the placenta.

V A correfponding vein, hear that artery, continued from the placenta to the womb.

Table XX


TDEM denuo uterus, fed omnino apertus, ut foetum in fitu A naturali oftendat. Circa fimdiim quaquaverfus . fubftanda ram placentae quam uteri incila confpicitur.

Uteri partes exteriores, lineis leviter adumbrate, eaedem.funt, quae in ptecedenri figura, et in tabula decima feptima ad ple¬ num flint expreflk.

AAA Utero per medirnn divifo, dimidii inferioris fubftantiae fectioad earn partem fcilicet qua membranae adhaerebant.

BBB Uteri dimidii fuperioris fiibftantiae feftio, ad partem qua pla¬ centa adhaerebat.

CCC Placentae fectio; illius cava fpongiofa cera flava, ex Uteri arteriis, et cera rubra, ex venis impleta.funt.

DDD Gyri nonulli funis umbilicalis,'brachia inter et criira foetus

politi. ; ;

EE Seciioni uteri fuperimpofita. funis umbilicalis extremitas, ad partem illam placentei quae, foetum praejacebat, excifa,. :

Foetus iconem explanare fupervacaneum foret.


L A fore-view ofthe womb, fully opened, to fhew JL me cnuain rn>,J-ftuation. All around, at the fundus, thefubflance of the placenta, as well as that of the womb itfelfisfeen cut through.

- The external parts of the womb, flightly fetched ^outlines arethe fame as in the preceding plate, and were fully expreffed in plate XVII.

AAA Thefeciion ofthefubjlance of the lower half of the womb, where the membranous part of the fecundines adhered.

BBB The fection ofthefubjlance of the upper part of the womb, where the

GC C^ThlfeZionof the placenta: the fpungy cavities of which contained both fome of theyeUfw wax, from the arteries of the womb, and of the red wax, from the'veins. - . . 7

D D D Some turns of the navelfiring, lying between the arms and the legs of

i: E E ^Theen'dofth'enavel-firing laid over thejedion of the womb. Itwas cutoff from its attachment at-thatpart of the placenta which lay beforethe child.

The parts of the child require no explanation.

714 />. XX., dmaa TMmj, J/xty omrnno afiXrfaj, ul , / Yd/y/mmyjrf/x/

nafimzAtfmw;^ws/u^b suJjtizM&aitams

j'Mt/MiM at aim T/t&ro, mbix-tb ar/u/ua/w'. rjg ' ® ' htj&r„:*„*,i 9 @Ty%u-.

Table XXI


A Septimo cadavere, feptimo gravid itatis menfe. Aperto cruciformi indfioneutero, etreclinatis rite comubus, per membran as foetum confanentes, foetus ipfe aquis inuafans conJpicitur. Reliquae partes nudis lineis diftin&e flint.

A A Femora.

B Mons veneris, ad partem qua abdominis incifio longitudinalis definit.

C Scrobiculus cordis, qua abdominis incifio incipit.

DDDD Partium continentium abdominis anguli quatuor refiexi, ut vifcera plene paterent.

EE Omentum, in latere dextro abdominis.

FF Colon, ad latus finiftrum abdom in is tranfiens.

GGG Inteftina tenuia, uteri latus finiftrum verfus, quorum gyri nonulli, tempOre quo cadaver primo apertum fuit, ante uterum jacebant.

HHHH Uteri, cruciformi incifione aperti, anguli quatuor, a fecundis fubtus pofitis liberati et refiexi, ut contenta ejus in confpechim prodirent.

I Uteri fuperficiei intimae pars exigua, cui placenta adhzeferat, minus quidem complanata, magis autem fangume imbuta quam pars ilia quae membranis veftita fuerat.

K Lobi parvi placenta: fuperficies parti proxime dicta: refpondens. L Membranae liquorem amnii continentes, quae ad partem uteri inferiorem, propter cadaveris declivem fitum, foetus partes fuperiores e confpectu fere tollunt; ad fundum autem uteri fubfidentes, foetus partes fatis diftmcte in confpectu locant.

M In hoc angulo, uterum inter et fecundas, pictor id expnmere voluit, qu.od in cadavere fatis manifeftum fuit, fcilicet, uteri et fecundarum fubftantiam inter fe mutuo continuatam: dum au¬ tem hanc partem feparabamus, tenera ilia interneclens membrana, decidua, in duas lamellas abiit; quarum hzec utero, ilia chorio adhaerebat. '


T?R 0 M a Jevenlli JiAjeB, at Jeven months. The womb operwi by

£ a crucial incifion, and the four comers carefully footed, and turned afdefrom the jecundines, fo as tojhew the child, and w , through the enclofng membranes.

The adjacent parts of the jubject are reprefented m out-lmes.

A g A The mons veneris, where the longitudinal incifum of the abdomen

C ^TUpit of the Jlomach, where the longitudinal incifwn 'of the abdo D D D D Thefour angles of the containing parts of the abdomen, inverted, to expofe the bowels.

EE The omentum, in the right fide of the abdomen.

F F The colon pajjing towards the left fide of the abdomen.

GGG The fnall defines on the left fide of the womb ; fame turns of which, when the body wasfirft opened, ^before the womb. _

HHHH The four angles of the womb, (which was opened by

cifton)feparatedjromthe fubjacent feamdines, and inverted, to e^ofe

I ^Tplpartof the inner furf ace of the womb to which the placenta had 'adhered, more unequal and more bloody than what had been lined

K ^ ^Thdcorrefboriding furface ofa fmall lobe, or extremity of the placenta.

L The membranes containing'the liquor amiui, which, at the lower part of the womb, from the declivity of the object, cover the upper parts of the child from our view; and towards the fundus uteri collapj J

. as to Shew the parts of the foetus not indiftinStly. M In this angle between the womb and fecundines the ar t ft

voured to exprefs what wasvery apparentm the object, viz. the contimi ty of the fubjtcnice of the womb and of the fecundines-; inparting.which the tender connecting medium, the decidua, feparatedmto two layers, one of which clungto the womb, and the other to the chonon.

Table XXII


I DEM cadaver. Contenta pelvis, quo fitu difpofita font, ex - JfRO M the famefubject,fhezmng the fituation of the contents of the

dirplici patet figura: in altera, Iineis nudis exprella, vaginam pelvis. In the figure which is exprffed by out-lines , the vagina

integrant vides; in altera, magis elaborata, dextro vaginae latere is whole; hut in the more jinifiedfigure, its right fide is cnt out, and

diflecto et devolnto, os uteri in confpectum prodit. turned down to fhewthe mouth of the womb.

A Femoris finiftri facies interna.

B Nates finiftra.

C Abdominis pars anterior.

D Mons veneris.

E Labium finiftrum.

F Labii dextri pars.

GGG Cutis et membranae adipofe feclio, eo confilio facia, ut in la¬ tere dextro, partes continentes pelvis removerentur.

H Offis facri fuperficies cartilaginea, qua offi ilium dextro commifla fuerat.

II Os Pubis dextrum, prope fymphyfin, tranfverfe fciffiim.

KK In pelvis parte pofrica, mufculi extemi fecli.

LL Mufculi in facie offis pubis externa etiam fecli.

M Clitoridis crus dextrum, ubi ifchio, quod hie fublatunaefl, conneftebatur.

N Vaginae fphincler.

0 Mufculus tranfverfalis perinaei.

P Ani fphincler.

Q_ Tumor ex utero in cavi pelvis parte fuperiori.

R Vefica urinaria, fere vacua, parte anteriori uteri et latere fu¬ periori vaginae compreffa,

Literae fequentes ad lineas adumbratas fpeclant.

SS Vaginae facies externa fitu fuo naturali vcficam urinariam. in¬ ter et

'IT Rectum.

VV Mufculi, levator ani fcjlicet et coecygeus lateris dextri, cultro anatomico a pelvis contends feparad, et in fuperficiem recifam devolud.

t, lter$ fequentes ad figuram magis elaboratam fpeclant.

Totius vaginae fubflantia ex uteri cervice et vefica urinaria exciia et in redum devoluta, ut os uteri in confpeftum prodi T Oris uteri labium anterius.

X. Fjusdem labium poflerius.

Vagina ad hunc modum aperta, os uteri,.nimirum adminiculo fuo jam a latere fublato, dextrorfum propendebat.

A The infide of the left thigh.

B The left nates.

C The anterior part of the abdomen. .

D The mons veneris.

E The left labium.

F Part of the right labium.

GGG Thefection of thejkin and adipofe JubJlance, which was made to remove the containing parts, on the right fide of the pelvis.

H The cartilaginousfurfaceof the facrum, by which it was joined to ike

\ right os ilium.

11 The right os pubis, cut through near the fymphyfis.

K K .. The external, rriufcles, on the back part of the pelvis, cut through.

LL The mufcles which lie on the oulfide of the os pubis, cut through.

M The right crus clitoridis, where it was fixed to the ifehium, which is removed.

N The fphiucter vaginae.

O The tranfverfe mufcle. of the perineum.

P The fphincter ani.

. Q, The fuelling formed by the womb, in the upper part,of the cavity of

the pelvis.

R The bladder, almofl empty, compreffed between the anteriorpart of the womb and. the upper fde of the vagina.

' • The- following letters, refer.only to the. figure of out-lines, viz.

S S The outfide of the vagina m its natural fituation between the blad¬ der and reduin.

TT The rectum.

VV .. The levator ani and coccygens mufcles of the right fide, by dif . feition turned down from the contents ofthe pelvis, over the cut furface.

The following letters .relate only to the more Jinifhedfigure, viz.

XX The whole fubflance of the vagina, in the right fide, cut from the neck of the womb and bladder, and turned down over the rectum, to fhew the orifice of the womb.

Y The anterior lip of the orifice.

Z The pojlerior lip of the fame.

Whenthesrefare. was thus opened, the lateralfupport being removed, the os uteri pujhed out towards the right fde.



O CTAVUM cadaver, fexto geftationis menfe. Uteri ac membranamm parte anterior! ftiblala, exhibetur foetus cam parte placentae et funiculi umbilicalis. Uteri vala cera impleta fuerant.

A Vefica urinaria, refpecbi babito ad uterum, in fitu fuel natu¬ ral!; modice diftenditur, et ramis quibufdam majoribus venarum bypogaftricarum circumtegitur.

B Vaginae partis poflicae facies interna.

CC Vala hypogaftrica ad cervicem uteri decurrentia et ramos ad veficam urinariam et vaginam tranfinittentia.

D D Vafa fpennatica, duplicationem ligament! lari intranria.

EE Tubae.

FF Fimbriae. G G Ligamenti lati lamella pofterior: anterior cultro anatomico -lublata fiierat, ut vala fpermatica, ad fundum uteri afcendentia, oculo plenius occurrerent.

HH Ligamenta rotunda. In finiftro, arteria praecipua, convoluta, a fpermatica defcendens confpicitur.

Ill Uteri fubltanriae totius et mcmbranarum feclio, qua uteri et fecundarum paries anterior, ad eorum contenta exhibenda; fublatus fuerat.

K Funis umbilicalis, prope locum ubi in placenta definit.

Placenta uteri parti pollicae, verfus fundum,; adhaerebat. Funis umbilicalis, primo deorfum, fuper humerum liniftrum-,-deinde furfum, pone corpus infantis, ad finem fuum in placenta tranlibat. ,


R 0 M the eighth Jiibject, at Jix months. A fore-view of the womb, -which was injected: the anterior part, both of the womb and of the membranes , having been cut away , and the liquor amnii taken out to fhew the foetus, with apart of the placenta and of the nonel-flring.

A The bladder, in its fituation with refpect to the womb. It is modera¬ tely difiended, and is covered with fome large branches of the hypogaftric veins.

B The infde of thepofierior part of the vagina.

C C The hypogafiric vejfels, going into the neck of the womb, and fend¬ ing branches to the bladder and vagina.

D D Thefpermatic vejfels, going into the duplicature of the broad ligament.

E E The tubes.

F F The fimbriae.

GG The pofierior lamella of the broad ligament: the anterior had been removed by diJJeSkjpn, to give a clearer view of thefpermatic vejfels, in their afcent to the fundus of the womb.

HH The round ligaments. In the left isfeen a large convoluted artery, coming down from the fpermatic.

111 ThefecUon of the whole fubfiance of thewomb, and of themembranes, by which the forepart of the womb and of the fecundities was removed, to expofe their contents.

K The navelfiring, near its termination in the placenta.

The placenta adhered to. the pojlerior part of the womb , towards the fundus. The navel-firing pajfed Jirfi downwards, over the left Jhoulder, and. then', upwards, behind the body of the child, to its ter¬ mination at the placenta.

Table XXIV


y^B eodem cadavere.


Placenta uteri fando et parti pofticae adhaerefcens ; fubftanria ejus fpongiola, injecla per vafa uterina cera, turgefcit.

Pleraeque partes lineis adumbrate, in tabula praecedenti ad plenum funt expofite.

A Velica urinaria.

B Vagina.

CC Vala hypogaftrica.

D D Vafa fpermatica.

E E Tubae.

FF Fimbriae.

G G Ligamenta lata.

H H Ligamenta rotunda.

Ill Uteri et membranarum feclio.

K Funis umbilicalis.

L L Placenta utero adhaerefcens.

Nulla pars cerae, in vafa uterina injeclae, ad ramos vaforum illorum quae funem umbilicalem conficiunt, tranfierat; vala ilia fanguinem folummodo continentia, obfcure defignata erant, ubi ex fane umbilicali in faciem intemam placentae fe immittebant. Cellulae autem in placentae parte fpongiofa, omnes eodem inodo cera, vel coerulea in venas uteri injecla, vel rubra in arterias infafa, turgefcebant. Hanc rem indicat figura fecunda.

M Membranae ex margine placentae exeuntes, et uterum undique invellientes.

Placentae margo hicpaulo elatior eft, et magis confpicuus, fubftantia ejus fpongiofa cera diftenfa.

F I G. II.

Portio aliqua placentae tranfverfe fecta, ut fubftantia ejus fpon¬ giofa appareret, ejufdemque cera adimplete craflitudo.

A Placentae fuperficies interna.

B Placentae fuperficies externa.

C Membranarum portiuncula, ex margine placentae, cera injeda turgefcentis, et in figuram rotundiorem adaudae, exiens.

Cerae coeruleae, primumper venasuteri injedae, maxima pars ad fuperficiem ejus internam propulfa faerat; ceraque rubra, poftea per arterias injecla, in partibus exterioribus reftabat; per totam autem ejus fabftantiam, colores hi duo plus minufve commixti funt.


Arterias exhibet illius partis membranae deciduae, quae parietem uteri anteriorem inveftiverat.


Venae ejufdem partis deciduae.

Figurae hae duae feparatim, aliqua ne fieret confalio, delineate funt.


ROM the famefiibjed.

F I G. I.

The placenta, adhering to the fundus and back-fart of the womb: its fpimgy fubjtance is filled by the injection of the uterine veffels.

Mofi of-the parts in out-lines were more fully reprefented and explain¬ ed in the preceding plate.

A The urinary bladder.

B The vagina CC The hypogajlric vejfels.

DD Thefpermatic veffels.

EE The tubes.

FF The fimbri;c.

BG The broad ligaments.

H H . The round ligaments.

Ill The feilion of the womb and membranes.

K. The navel-firing.

L L The placenta, adhering to the womb.

None of -the-wax, irijelded into the veffels of the womb, had pajfed - - into the branches of thofe veffels which compofe the navelfiring; and as they: contained only fome blood, they were not difiinStly marked, where they fpread, from the navel-firing, over the internal furface of the pla¬ centa. But the cells, or interfiices in the fpungy part of the placenta,

- -were'Uttiverfaily loaded with wax; either the blue, which was injeHed ■into the veins of the womb, or the red,,which was thrown into the ar¬ teries.. This is illufirated by Fig. II.

M The membranes, coming out from the edge of the placenta, and in vefling the womb all around.

The edge of the placenta, in this cafe, was much more elevated and diftintd, its fpungy fubfiance being diftended.


A fedion of half of the placenta, principally to fhewwhat thicknefs it had acquired, by itsfpungy cavities being filled with wax.

A Its internal furface.

B Its external furface.

C A final portion of the membranes, going off from the edge of the pla¬ centa, which was thickened, and rounded, by the injeded wax.

Mofi of the blue wax, which was firfi injeded by the veins of the womb , was driven on towards the internal furface; and the red wax, which ' was afterwards injeded by the,arteries, was lodged principally in the outer

parts; but the two colours were, more or lefs, blended through the whole.


The decidua, from the fore-part of the fame womb, with the convo¬ luted uterine arteries, which are difperfed through it.


The fame part of the decidua, with the uterine veins, which ramify through it.

Thefe two figures were drawnfeparately, to avoid confufion.

Table XXV

N ONUM cadaver, quinto menfe. Apertus omnino uterus, ac foetus inde exemptus ; quo fabtilius judicium feratur de fcetu ipfo, de partibus ejus fecum iuvicem comparatis et dimenfis, nec non de conditione cervicis uterinae quae fiib hoc tempus obtinet.

Foetus ipfe, fiinifque umbilicalis illuftratione non egent.

AAA Vulnus per membranas facfam, quo foetus eximiretur; unde intemae faciei placentae pars, circa finem funis umbilicalis, cernitur.

BBB Amnion et chorion collapfa, et decidua reflexa (quae nondum caeperat deciduae ipfx adhaerefcere) exteme cooperta.

C C Tubae.

D D Ligamenta lata.

Literas fequentes alteri figurae feparatim infculptas invenies.

E Decidua, omnem illam partem uteri, quam placenta non occupaverat, inveftiens.

FFFF Subftantia cervicis uteri, ab altero latere ad alteram fecia.

G Pars fuperior, anguftior, et laevior introitus- cervicis uteri, ubi decidua manifefte continuata fait in membranam ejus intemam.

H Pars inferior, latior, etrugofa, ejufdem. / Facies interna pofterioris labii oris uterini, veficulis, glutine repletis, bullata.

K Facies interna vicinae partis vaginae.

L L Portiunculae hae duae membranarura fluitantium, exhibent, imperfecte quidem, partes duas cuticulae vaginam inveftientis, quae, in cadavere, de quo agitur, diftincie admodum, feparabatur ufque ad ipfam oris uteri prominentiam.

Plate XXV.

ROM the ninth Jubjed, m the fifth month. The womb fully opened, and the foetus taken cad; to Jhew the exaft dvraenfians arid proportions of the child, and the fiate of the cervix uteri at this period of utero-gefiation.

The child and its Navel-firing require no explanation.

AAA The opening made in the membranes for the extradion of the child, through which is feen the infide of the placenta around the termination of the navelfiring.

BBB The coUapfed amnion and chorion, covered externally with the deci¬ dua reflexa, which had not as yet contracted an adhejion to the decidua.

C C The tubes.

D D The broad ligaments.

The following letters are engraved on a fiparate figure in out-lines.

E The decidua, lining that part of the womb where the placenta did not adhere to it.

FFFF The fechon.Jrom fide to fide, of thefubfiance of the cervix uteri.

G The upper, narrower, and fnaller part of the pafage in the cervix uteri, where the decidua was evidently continued down into the inner membrane of that pajfage.

H The lower, wider, and rugous part of that pajfage.

I The infide of the joferior lip of the os uteri ,fiudded with jmaU bags

K ^ & The infide of tile adjacent fart of the vagina.

L L The twofmad pieces of footing membranes, reprefent, though very imperfectly, two portions of the cuticular lining of the vagina; which, in this Juhject, was feparated diftinctly and evidently as far up as the projeStion of the os uteri.

Table XXVI


D ECIMUM cadaver, quinto graviditatis menfe. Exhibetur flatus uteri retroverfi F I G. I.

Apertum crucial! incifione abdomen, contraction autem for¬ ma exliibitum, cum vefica urinaria praeter morem diftenta.

A Incifio longitudinalis a fcrobiculo cordis inciplens :

B Qua ad montem veneris definentem.

C C Partium continentium anguli fuperiores, fuper hypochondria reflexi. ■DD Anguli inferiores utrique, fupra fpinam ofljs ilium reflexi,

E Vefica urinaria, ifa urina fanguinolenta diftenfa, ut fundus, ejus ad diruidium fpatii, umbilicum inter et fcrobiculum cordis, porrigeretur. '


Vefica urinaria, forma pariter munition-, per medium;divifa,: et ad imam partem aperta, ut. fitus oris uterini, hie praeter naturam furfum fpeclanss, apparent.

A A Pars dimidia vefica fuper fpinam offis ilium utrinque reflexa. ■ _

B Incifionis, a vertice duebe, qua vefica urinae aperta fiiit, finis anterior.

C - Unus retfii .inteftini circuitus, qut in confpe&um prodnt ad ejufdem finem pofteriorem.

Duas inter has literas B , C, veficte pars ima tumore, qui urLiyerfuBtt pelvim occupavit, elevata fuit: hie quoque, faila crucial! inciflbim parva, inter et paulo ante fines ureterum, os uteri in sconfpeflum verift, pone fitum, ut in hac figura, et paulo elatius quam pars fuperior fymphyfeos . ofiiuin pubis. . ' _ ' . .


Contenta pelvis omnia a parte poflica; inter quae, uterus retroverfus maximum locum habet.

A Re<5lum, ubi in eavum pelvis tranfibat, deligatum:.,

BBB Margines pofteriores feblionis velicas a vertieefdublas-.

C C Rectum, uterum inter et bifa, facrum el coccvgis, campreflum.

DD Peritoneum, quod, ad finiftrum rebli intefiinilatus, pelvim-inveftiveraf^ope catheteris, hanc partem inter et uterum immiffi, 'elevatujn-.

EE E Pars peritonei, parti modo deferiptae refpondens, ad dextnim re&i inteftini latus, perfeifla, et.inargo ejus F fepofitus. G Uteri facies anterior, -retrorfum verfa.

H -Tuba afeendens ab uteri fundo, qui fcilicet ad partem pelvis infimam devoluta fuerat.

I Ovarium ante- tubam pofitum.


Uteri portione, ac decidua parte fublatis, foetus per pellueidas membranas, chorion nempe et amnion, confpicitur.

. ,A Os uteri furfus verfum. Circum undique confpiciuntur partium va¬ ginae conti gua rum interiora, BB Uteri fubftantia divifa.

C Facies externa partis alicujus deciduae. Membranahascdenfa, opaca, et arteriis parvis, injeda ab utero cera impletis, abundavit.

D Facies interna alius partis membranas ejufdem. Qua parte ablata fu¬ erat decidua, per chorion pellucicfum et amnion confpicitur feetus, cujus caput dependet, et collum fune umbilicali Circum-cingitur.

Lineae albas fuper chorio leviter adumbratae, vaforum tenuium, qute inde in deciduam tranfeunt, reli'quias reprefentant.

Cum haec tabula delineabatur, liquor amnii fanguine exudante infectus fuerat. Membranarum autem pellucidarum facies convexa figuram fads difiinctam, forma quidem contractam,feneftras,lucem admittentis.dedit. Tubarum et ovariorum figuram huicce tabulas inferere fupervacaneum


R OM the tenth Jubjeci, in the Jifih month, Jhewmg the dreumJlances of a retroverted womb .


Shews, in miniature, the abdomen fully opened by a crucial incifion, and the bladder enormoufly diftended.

A The beginning of the longitudinal incifton at the pit of the Jlomach. B Its termination in the mens veneris.

C C The upper angles of the containing parts, turned over the hypochondria.

D D The lower.angles; each turned oyer thefpine of the os ilium.

E The bladder, Jo diftended with bloody urine, that its fundus reached half way between the navel and the pit of the Jlomach.


Drawn in miniature to the fame fcale, Jhews the bladder cut down through its middle; arid opened, at its lower part, to Jhew the fitudtim . . ' of the os uteri. . ,

A A Half of the bladder,on eachfide, turnedover the fpine of the os' ilium/

B The anterior extremity of the vertical incifton by which the bladder was open , ■ cd. C One turn of the rectum which was J'een at thepoflerior end of the fame incifion. . :

Between thefe two letters, B, C,the depending fart of the bladder was raij'ed up by a tumor which poffeffed the whole cavity- of the pelvis: and here,- a /mail - crucial-iricifion. having been made, between, and a little-before the ends of the ureters,.the os uteri' was feen, as in this figure, fituated behind, and a little- higher than the upper part of the fymphyfis of the offa pubis.


A back-view of the whole contents of the pelvis, confiflingprincipally of the retroverted womb.

A The rectum tied, where it faffed down into the cavity of the pelvis.

B B B The pojlerior edges of the vertical fetdion of the bladder,

CG The rectum, where it was preffed and flattened, between the womb and the facrum and os coccygis.

D D The peritoneum, which' lined the pelvis on the leftfide of the re&um, raifed up by a large catheter, introduced :betweenitand the-womb.

EEF The correfponding part of the peritoneum on the right fide of the rectum,

Jlit down, and the edge F turned off. • ’ .

G . The anterior furface of the womb, turned, backwards.

H The tube, coming up from the- fundus uteri, which was turned down, into the lowefl.part of the cavity of the pelvis..

I The ovarium, placed before the tube.


The womb opened, to Jhew thefecundities and their contents.

A The os uteri, turned upwards. All around it, is feen the infide of the adja¬ cent parts of the vagina.

B B The fubjtance of the womb, cut through '. '

C The external furface of part of the decidua. This membrane was thick arid

opake, and full of fmall arteries, which were injeBed from the womb. D The internal furface of another part of the fame membrane. .Where the deci¬ dua was removed, through the tranfparent chorion, and amnion, is feen the feetus, with its head depending, and the funis round its neck.

The white,. loofe lines on the chorion are the remains of the filamentous veffels, which pafs from it into the decidua.

The liquor amnii was become bloody, by tranfudalion, when this figure was drawn; and the convex furface of the tranfparent membranes, reflected a diftinS miniature piciure, of the window which gave light.

It was thought unneceffary to introduce the tubes and ovaria.


J TNDECIMUM cadaver, menfe quintoineunte. DusfiguTX - Arteriae et venae cera diverfi coloris implets fiint.

fig. I.

Uterus a tergo vifus, una cum vagina eo confilio incila, ut fla¬ tus cervicis orifque uteri oculo objiciretur.

A Clitoris.

B B Nymphs,

C Proxime hanc fupra literam, orificium urethrae confpicitur.

,DD Vagins pars extrema inferior, rugis afpera.

E E Ejufdem pars extrema fuperior, altera lsvior, praecipue a par¬ te poflica.

F Uteri orificium, interminum vaginae fuperiorem fe proiiciens.

G G Tubs.

HH Fimbris.

11 Ovaria.

KK Vaforum fpermaticorum fafciculus, per ligamenta lata, ad ova¬ ria, tubas, et fundum uteri afcendentium.

F I G. II.

Utero omnino aperto, membrana decidua reflexa, chorio fuper extenfa (per quas membranas foetum videas) et cervicis orif¬ que uterini facies interna apparent.

A, BB, C, DD, EE, F, GG, II, II, KK , vide fig. I.

L Cervicis uteri’facies interna rugofa, per gluten pellucidum cernitur,

MM Subftantia tam uteri quam deciduae perfciffa.

JVJV Decidua reflexa, membranas pellucidas invefliens, alba, opaca, flriata, diftentu adeo tenuata, ut in locis plurimis fere pellucida videretur: decidus, qus hanc obtegebat, adhsrefcere nondum csperat.

0 Arteria convoluta, per deciduam reflexam, a margine placents excurrens.

P Vena huic fimilis. .

Vafa foetus fub cute repentia, fanguine adeo diftincle adimpleta funt, ut profeclo vaforum cadaveris, cera injecla turgentium, imaginem prs fe ferrent.

Funis umbilicalis pars altera foetus collum ambibat, talum finiftrum altera. .


W 0 figures from the eleventh Jubjed, in the hegaming of the fifik month. The arteries and veins were injected with wax of different colours.


A back-view of the womb, with the vagina Jlituptofhew the fiate of the cervix and os uteri.

A The clitoris.

B B The nymphs.

C Immediately over this letter is the orifice of the urethra.

D D The lower end of the vagina, which is rugous.

E E The upper end , which is more fmooth, efpeciaUy behind.

F The orifice of the Womb, projecting into the upper end of the va¬ gina.

G G The tubes.

HH The fimbris.

I I : The ovaries.

KK The bundle of jpermaticveJfels,paJingup, in the broad ligaments, to the ovaries, tubes, and fundus of the womb.


The fame womb fully opened,Jhewing the decidua reflexa upon the chorion, (through which the child appears,) and the injide of the neck and orifice of the womb.

' A, BB, C, DD, EE, F, GG, HH, 11, KK, fee fig. I.

L The rugous infide : of the hecU of the womb , feen through the tranfparent cement.

MM Thefubfiance, both of the womb and of the decidua, cut through.

N N The decidua reflexa, covering the tranjparent membranes, in white and opake Axis. It was become Jo thin, by extentioh, as to be rendered almofi tranjparent in many places. It had not as yet contracted an adhejion with the decidua which covered it.

O A convoluted artery, branching through the decidua reflexa, jrom the edge of the placenta.

P A vein of the fame kind.

The cutaneous vejfels of the child were as diJiinCtly filled with blood , as if they had been injected. •

One turn of the navelfiring was round the child’s neck, and another was twistied round the left ankle.



F I G. I.

I DEM uterus quem exhibet figura fecunda tabulae praecedenfis, fed inverfus ( i. e. fundo decliviori); ut, contentis fuo pondere a cervice fundum verfus devolutis, margo placentae clarius diftinguatur; ac decidua, quae ibidem ab intemo uteri pariete in extemam cborii fuperficiem reflexa, nomen deciduae reflexae alfumit, melius conlpiciatur.

Partes lineis adumbratae in tabula praecedenti modo expofite funt atque explanatae: fcilicet A, BB, C , DD, EE, F, GG, HH, II, et KK, in figura prima; atque L et MM in figura fecunda. NNN Decidua craffa, faciem intemam uteri, ubi placenta non ad¬ haerefeebat, inveftiens.

000 Placentae margo, ubi lamina interna deciduae a facie interna uteri, ad faciem membranaram extemam, inflexa fuit atque continuata; quo in loco efficit

P P Deciduam reflexam, eo magis attenuatam, quo longius a margine placentae diftat.

Hie patuit, deciduam non eodem modo, quo caeterae membranae, trans aditum in cervice uteri fe porrexiffe; fed per paululum fpatii intra bunc aditum, more inveftientis membranae, effe continuatam; tandemque fenfim evanuifle, aut cum glutine illo, quod vice caementi fungitur, effe confufam.


Ejufdem uteri facies interna, qualis apparuit,placenta jam feparata.

A, B B, C, D D, EE, F, GG, H H, 11, K K, Vide tabulae praecedentis figuram primam.

L, MM, Vide ejufdem tabulae figuram fecundarn.

NNN Pars deciduae, undique circa placenta marginem, etiamnum utero intus adhaerefeens.

0 :Gentrumfuperficieiorbiculate, in uteri parte anteriori, cuiplaceiitahoc in cadavere adhaerefeebat. Haec arteriis venifque abundabat, quae fcilicet utero ac placentae communes fuerant, quafquae neceflario perrupi, duas has partes dum feparabam. Arteriae quidemparvae erant, convolute, colorifque magislucidi, utadliteram P; venae aulem perrupte fpeciem macularum fufeamm, vel foraminum, magnitudinis haud exiguae, prae fe ferebant, ut ad literam Q.

Linea inaequalis quae fuperficiem hanc fcabram, cui placenta adhaerefeebat, ambit, extremum marginem placentae a membranis abfcilfae defignat; eadem etiam indicat locum quo deciduae lamina interna reflexa fiierat, circum undique, in faciem chorii extemam.



r 'HE womb, from, the fame fubject, turned upfide down, that the weight of its contents might carry them towards the fundus ; to Jhew the border of the placenta, where the decidua is reflected from the infide of the womb, to the outfide of the chorion, at which loftplace it makes the decidua reflexa.

The harts reprefented in out-lines were feen and explained in the pre¬ ceding plate,viz. A, BB, C, DD, EE. F, GG, HH, II, and KK, in the JirJlfigure,and L, MM, in the fecond.

NNN The thick decidua, lining the infide of the womb , where the placenta was not attached. . .

OOO The edge of the placenta ; where the inner layer of the decidua was continued, by inflexion , from the infide of the womb to the outfide of the membranes ; at which loft place it conftitutes PP The decidua reflexa, which becomes thinner, in proportion as it is farther diflant from the edge of the placenta.

Q Here it was-evident that the decidua was not, like the other membranes, extended acrofs the paffage in the neck of the womb , but was con¬ tinued a little way down that paffage, and there, infenfibly loft, or blend¬ ed with the glutinous cement.


The irfide of the fame womb, after the placenta had been feparated.

A, BB, C, D D, EE, F, GG, HH, II, KK, See the JirJl figure of the preceding plate.

L, MM, See the fecond figure of tke preceding plate.

NNN Part of the decidua all around the edge of the placenta, left adhe¬ ring to the infide of the womb.

O The centre of the circular furface at the forepart of the womb, to which the placenta, in this cafe, adhered. It was full of arteries and veins, which had paffed between the womb and placenta, and which we broke through in feparating thefe two parts: the arteries were fnall, and convoluted, and of a lighter colour, as at the letter P; the broken veins had the appearance of dark fpots, or holes, of fomeconfiderable fize , as at the letter O.

The irregular line, which furrounds this rough furface to which the ' placenta adhered, points out the extreme border of the placenta, whick was cut off from the membranes, and where the inner layer of the . decidua, all around, was rejleEled upon the outer furface of the cho¬ rion.

Table XXIX


T R E S figurae ad idem exemplar depictae; quibus adjiciuntur duas aiiae, taiiquain appendices.

fig. I.

Ovum utero exemptum, faciem placentae externam reprefentans, lacmiafque marginem ejus undique ambientes, membrame fcilicet deciduae reflexae dilaceratae reliquiasl Haec figura cum figura fecunda praecedentis tabulae congruit, faciem ovi exhibens, quod ifti utero intus adhaeferat.

AAA A Decidua reflexa, undique a margine placentae, ad chorion integendum, exiens. . ’

BB Limbus, marginem placentae circum-ambiens, ortus fcilicet ex fectione deciduae reflexae, ubi ilia feparata fuit a decidua,’ aiit, fi ita loqui mavis, a facie uteri interna.

Circulus, limbo ifto circundatus, faciem extemam placentae exhibet, quae /utero adcreverat. Has partes dum feparabamus, arteriae venaeque plurimae dilaceratae. funt, quarum. pars:-altera utero adnexa eft, altera placentae. Arteriae quidem, ut in figura praecedenti, parvae, convolute, et colore funt lucidiori, ut ad literas CCC; venas autem maculae latae ac fufcae reprefentant, ut ad lit'eram D.


Partis membranae deciduae facies interna, ope vitri optici amplior vifa, ut textura ejus propria, cribrum baud male referens, explicari poffet.


Ovarium, corpufque luteum perfciffa. Corpus luteum, etiam. ad hoc temporis, cavatum effe manifefte apparuit,

F I G. IV.

Figura addita.

Pars aliqua membranae deciduae, pertinentis ad partum legitin nm menfibus fcilicet novem rite exactis.


Alia figura addita.

Portio aliqua uteri et.fecundarum, nono menfe, ita dilpolita, ut earum partium ftrata diverfa diftincte confpiciantur. Arterus cera rubra, venis flava eft injccla.

AAA Uteri fubftantia difciffa.

BB Placenta ei adhaerens, propc marginern perlciiia,.

CC Decidua ea in parte utero adhaerens. .

D D Decidua in ilia parte ab uteri facie interna elevata, chonoque

E ^h^rion, fupra faciem internam placentae cqntinuatum, ubi fe F Pa AmSon elevatum a chorio, cui non, nifi per gluten ahquod molliffimum, adhaefit.


y 'HR EE figures from thefame fubjeft, and two fufplemerdal.

The ovum taken out of the zuomb,Jheunng the external furface of the placenta, and the ragged edge aE round, where the decid u a reflexa . was tom through. This figure correjponds with the fecond figure in the preceding plate, fheioing the fnface of the ovum which was attached to the irfide of that womb.

A AAA The decidua reflexa going off, all round, from the edge of the pla¬ centa, to cover the chorion.

B B B The edge, formed all round the brim or border of the placenta, by cutting the decidua reflexa where it came off from lAedecidua, or, in other words, from the infdedf the womb.

The round furface, enclofed by that edge, is the outer furface of the placenta, which had, adhered to the womb. Infeparating thofe two parts, many arteries and veins were, torn through, one part of each re¬ maining with the womb, and the other with the placenta. The arte¬ ries, as in the preceding figure, are fmall, convoluted, and of a lighter colour, as at the letters CCC; the veins make broad dark[pots, as at the -letter D.

F I G. II.

The internal furface of a portion of the decidua, confiderably magni¬ fied, to fhew -its peculiar cribriforme or lace-like, appearance.


The ovarium and corpus luteum cut through; the latter oftkefe,

even at this time, had lan apparent cavity.


A fupplemental figure.

A portion of the decidua, from a common delivery at nine months; . its veffels filled with red blood.


Another supplemental figure.

Part of the womb and fecundities, at nine months, fo dijpofed as to ex¬ hibit diflinStly the different ftrata of thofe parts. The arteries had been injeSled with red wax ; the veins with yellow,

AAA The fubftance of the womb cut through.

BB The adhering placenta^ cut through, nearits edge.

C C The decidua, at that part left adhering to the infide of the womb.

D D The decidua, at this part raifedfrom the infide of the womb, andadhering to the chorion. , . ,, ,

E The chorion, which is continued upwards over the infide oj the pla¬ centa, where it cannot be feparated.

F The amnion, rafedup from the chorion, to which it adhered by a ’ tender gelly only .

Table XXX


A Duodecimo cadavere, quarto menfe decurrente. Uterus a parte antica apertus, vafis cera repleds. Praecipue hie notanrla occurrunt, fuperficies placentae externa; vafa ex utero fe immergentia in placentam ; cervicis uteri externa, qualis facies, fit, et, refpectu ad veficam urinariam urethramque habito, quern fitum obtineat.

Placentae fuperficies, feefione uteri fubftantiae circumdata, adeo refert praecedentem, fcilicetfig, I. ut explanatione minime indigeat. A A Vafa fpermatica.

B B Fimbriae, five tubarum partes extremae.

CC Ovaria. Horum finiltrum corpore luteo nonnihil auchim fuit. D D Ligamenta rotunda.

E Cervix uteri contracla. • h' j

F Facies interna portionis iftius veficae, quae vaginae fubjeaa adhaeret. Utroque in latere,’ et hac litera paulp fuperiiisy xernitur orificium urethrae.

G Urethra univerfa omnino aperta.


7?R OM the twelfth fubject, in the fourth month, Jhewsthe injected £ womb, opened on its fore part, to given full view of the external f U rface of the placenta, with the vejfels puffing into it from the womb. It jhews likewife thefate of the cervix uteri externally, and its relation , to the bladder and urethra.

The furface of the placenta, furrounded by the fiction ofthefubfance of the womb, is Jo much like that of thefirf figure in the preceding plate, that it requires no explanation.

AA The fpermatic vejfels.

BB The fimbriae, or. ends of the tubes.

C C The ovaria. The left was enlarged by the corpus luteum.

I) D The round ligaments.

The- cervix uteri, in a contracted fate.

F The infide of that portion of the bladder which adheres to thefubjacent

l vagina/ . Ort each fide, and. a little-higher than this letter, is feen the -orifice of the .ureter.

G : The urethra opened in its whole length.

Table XXXI


RES figure ab eodem cadavere.


Uteras a parte poftica ita apertus, nt facies membranse deciduae externa, ac flatus cervicis uterinae vifui exponantur.

Literas tabulae buic explanandae accomodatas omnes praeter //, K et L, in figura fecunda videas.

A A Vafa fpermatica.

B B Fimbriae.

CC Ovaria.

J) Vagina univerfa, quaquain longum extenditur, omnino aperta.

E Os uteri in vaginam fe protendens.

p Via rugofa, per cervicem uteri duceris, unde gluten illud confolidans jam exciderat. q G Seciio fubftantiae cervicis uteri.

HH Seciio fubftantiae uteri, unde

11 Pars pofterior totius fubftantiae uteri de decidua fublata et in

fundum uteri revoluta cernitur.

K Decidua, adhuc membranis adhaerefcens, fuperficiem fuam fcabram externam exhibens, unde uterus fuerat feparatus. Membrana ham vafxs, cera impletis, venis maxima de parte, abundavit. Plurimis autem in locis, cera, vafis effufa, haec vifu mdiftincia reddiderunt. ' . , . ..

L Membranae pellucidae, amnion fcilicet et chonon, decidua reflexa tenuiffima et pellucida obteciae, in aditum cervicis uteri, ubi decidua ipfa deficit, viam fibi facientes.

F I G. II.

Plate XXXI.

e J~ > HR EE figures, from the famefubfeti.


Idem uterus; poftquam fcilicet inverfa pars uteri fuerat abfciffa,

abto, ea mere u, foetus, in l.quore — nataus,

fatis eftmanifeftus.

F I G. Ill Corpus luteum ovarioin fruifco

le fit ejus cavum, fob hoc ^ lutd ^ varii finiftri, ibi.

A back-view of the womb.Jo opened as to expofe the outer fuiface of the decidua, and to fhew thefiate of the neck of the womb.

The letters for explanation, except II, K, and L, are feen m

fig- H AA TheJpermatic veffels.

B B The fimbriae.

C G The ovaries.

D The vagina laid open in its whole length.

E The os uteri protuberating into the vagina. , r

F The rugous paffage through the neck of the womb, from whtch the vtfi

cous cement had , by this time, fallen out. _

G G The feclion of the fubfiance of the cervix uteri.the decidua, and turned over the fundus of the ,

K the decidua kf, upon uPtfin vafated, which occafwned indiftinclnejs. , i j Q n co 1



r , .ff nft the inverted portion of the womb had been cut

rt£»“S 'riltZlp, requites no onplanu tion..

fig. III.

n, corpus lu.euru, in

nnd iecond figures.




F IGURiE dust, a decimotertio cadavere, tertio menfe prorliis exaclo.

y' W 0 figures from, the thirteenth fubject, at full three months.



Uterus a parte antica apertus, unde foetus cervicilque uteri flatus in cordpechim prodeunt.

A A Ligamenta lata.

B B Ligamenta rotunda.

CC Tubae.

DD Fimbriae.

E E Ovaria.

F Vagina omnino aperta.

G Oris uterini labium pbfterius.

HH Via per cervicem uterinam.

Ill Se&io fubftantiae uteri, portione quadain ovali excifa, ut contenta ejus fub examen venirent.

K Membranae perfcilfae.

L Faciei intemae uteri pars.

M Pars ifta deciduae, quae inde feparata fuit. Prope hanc literam cernitur foramen quoddam, (locus nimirum ubi decidua deeft) vise quae per cervicem uteri ducit, exadvorfum fitum.

N Decidua reflexa, nec non chorion et amnion, perfcifia.

0 Placenta pard pofteriori uteri adhaerefcens.

Foetus, cum collo fune umbilicali bis circundato, abunde patet.

F I G. II.

Uteri, placentae et membranarum fecundum longitudinem fectio, cum foetu juxta fito, funiculo autem umbilicali nondum didufto.

A A Vaginae facies interna.

BB Os uteri perfciflum. .

C C Cervix uteri perfcilfa.

D E Via quae, per cervicem ducit, cujus, in parte pofteriori E, rug® penniformes confpiciuntur.

FFFF Seciio fundi uteri, ubi conceptus fedem habebat.

G G Sedio placentae, quae retrorfum adhaeferat, ubi uterus,.de quo agitur, praeter morem craflus vifus eft.

H H Placentae fuperficies interna, amnio et chorio obtecia.

/ Uteri fuperficiei interioris pars.

K ' Pars parva deciduae, inde feparata.

LL Deciduae facies interna, five cavum ipfam inter et deciduam reflexam.

M Angulus prope marginem placentae, ubi deciduae lamella in¬ terior fuper chorion reflecftitur, nempe ad deciduam reflexam faciendam.

FT Deciduae reflexae facies externa; five cavum, membranam illam inter et deciduam.

0 Margines fecii deciduae reflexae et chorii, quae inter fe intime connectuntur. P Margo amnii feclus.

A fore-view of the womb opened , to Jhew the child, and theJlaie of the cervix uteri.

A A The broad ligaments.

BB The round ligaments.

C C The tubes.

DD The fimbriae.

E E The ovaries.

F The vagina laid open.

G The pojierior lip of the os uteri.

HH Thepaffage tkrough the cervix uteri.

Ill The feclion of the fubftance of the womb,, where an oval piece was ta¬

ken out to Jhew its contents.

K The membranes cut through.

L Fart of the internal Jurface of the womb.

M That part of the decidua which was feparated from it. Near this letter is the Hole, or deficiency of the decidua opposite to the passage through the cervix uteri.

N The. decidua reflexa, chorion and amnion cut through.

O The placenta, adhering to the pojierior part of the womb.

The foetus, with two turns of the navel-firing round its neck, requires ■ no explanation.


A longitudinal fiction of the womb, placenta and membranes; with the child near it, butftill attached by the navel-firing.

A A The infide of the vagina.

B B The os uteri cut through.

C C The cervix uteri cut through,

D E The paffage through the cervix; in the pojierior part of which E, the penniform rugae are confpicuous.

Fhefittion ofthe fundus uteri, in which the conception Was lodged.

GG The feclion of the placenta, which adhered backwards, where this womb Was remarkably thick.

HH The internalfurface of the placenta., covered with the amnion and chorion.

I. Part of the inner furf ace of the womb,

Z Afmall part of the decidua feparated from that infide of the womb.

LL The internalJurface of the decidua; or the cavity between the deci¬ dua and decidua reflexa.

M The angle, near the edge of the placenta, where the inner layer of the decidua is turned over the chorion to form the decidua reflexa.

IN she outfide of the decidua reflexa; or the cavity between that mem¬ brane and the decidua. .

O The. cut edges of the decidua reflexa and chorion, which are inti¬ mately connected.

P The cut edge of the amnion.

J'A,-R mcxTT . 6%tj/K,a,i&cmo forio torfom#

' oimcid Tic:. 11. c-fi/mb jeamdwms /on^cdm&my, amv ■



^~^VA tria abortiva, fex figuris exprefla.

F 1 G. I.

Ovum norne circiter hebdomadal abortivum, ab ifta Lilbpf parte quae membranacea eft adfpectum. Decidua lacerata eft, et aiiquantulum revoluta, ut decidua reflexa Levis et opaca in conIpectum prodiret.

A A Decidua ab utero feparatae Facies externa fcabra.

B Facies externa portiunculae cujufdam placenta, cujus reliqua pars fedem ftiam exadvorfum habebat.

CCCCC Decidua-facies interna cribriformis, qua primis menfibus graviditatis membraiiis inclufis non adharefcit.

DDDD Decidua margo laceratus, qui in marginem EEE membra-, na ejufdem curium fuum tenuerat.

F Decidua reflexa-per faciem extemam chorii diffula.

G G Angulus partis reflexa, ad marginem fcilicet placenta, ubi lamella interior decidua in chorion refiectitur, fimili fere modo quo lamella interior pericardii refleclitur ad fuperficiem extemam cordis obtegendam.

Ii Extrema pars decidua ad cervicem uteri.

F I G. II.

Ejufdem fectio a vertice ad imum ufque.

AAA Seclio placentas, quam fuperficiei fuperiori et pofteriori uteri adhaefiffe fupponendum eft.

B B Decidua partis anterioris feclio. .

€ C Decidua; partis pofterioris fetftio.

D Pars extrema deciduae ad cervicem uteri.

E E - Amnii cavum, in quo foetus, ope funiculi tenuiffimi umbilicalis, a facie interna placentae fufpenditur.

F . Setftio trium membranarum, Fcilicet amnii, chorii et deciduae reflex*, qu* non folum funt contiguae, fed et fibi invicem adhaerefcunt.

G G Angulus ad marginem placentae, ubi lamella interior deciduae in fa¬ ciem externam chorii refledHtur.

H Hie tres iftae membran* paululum fejunguntur, ut fitus earum, refpedlu habito ad placentam, manifeftius appareat.


Ovum odlo circiter hebdomadarum abortivum. Pars quaedam exigua deciduae exfeiffa eft, et furfum reflexa, ut cavum inter earn et caeteras membranas cerneretur.

A Decidua pars, exigua exfeiffa.

B Conceplus pars ubi deeft decidua, exadverfum fcilicet aditui per ute* ri cervicem ducenti.

C CC . Deciduae- fuperficies externa. .

D Decidua reflexa obtegens chorion et amnion, quae membranae fe protendentes cavum decidu* adimplent.

E Partis fuperioris placentae facies externa.' .

F I G. IV.

Idem ovum, decidua jam incifionedecuflatim aperta, angulis quatpor revolutis deciduaaque reflexae portione rotunda cultro fublata et devoluta, nempe ut vafcula in fuperficie externa chorii in confpe£tum prodirent.

A , B. Vide fig. III.

CCCC Facies interna quatuof angulorum in quos decidua cruciah incilione fuerat divifa. _ - - ,-.,c

DDD Decidua reflexa caeteras membranas inyeftiens.

EE Angulus ad placentae-marginem, ubi lamella interior deciduae protenditur fupra faciem extemam chorii, nomenque deciduae reflexae obtinet.

F Decidua:- reflex* portio rotunda, ex facie externa chorii cultro anatomico fublata et devoluta. ■ G Chorion cum vafis fuis hirfutis expofitum. Vafa ifta deciduae reflexae te adhaerebant, et eorum nonniilla una cum membrana ilia abfeifla funt.

F I G.


Ovum eodem fere tempore abortu feparatum, conftans ex chorio folo, cum vafis et contends ejus; quippe decidua, vel pars fecundarum uterina, in utero remanebat.

AAA Vaforum hirfutorum rami majores et frequentiores, ex quadam parte fuperficiei extern* chorii emergentes, et cum decidua, vel parte uterina, ad placentam conficieiidam fe commifeentes.

BB Chorii ea portio qu* poftea membrana uniformis et pellucida evadit;

vafis paucioribus, fubtilioribus, fluitantibus, qu* in decidua-reflexa evanefeunt, abundat: per earn confpicitur embryo.

C Veficula umbilicalis in facie externa amnii per chorion confpecta : lilum exalbidum (reliqui* arteriae et ven*) ab ea ad umbilicumembryonis tranfit.


Idem ovum apertpm. Membranis antic* parti inlidentibus a placen. ta abfciflfis et reflexis, diftinfle confpicitur embryo.

A Veficula umbilicalis, ex qua

B B Reliqui* arteri* et ven*, filoalbo fimiles, adumbilicum embryoms tran feunt. Inteftinorum gyri quidam in principio funis umbilicalis includuntur.


QIX figures of three different abortions.


An abortion , of about vine weeks, feen on that fide which is membra¬ nous. The decidua is torn, and turned fomewhat afide, to fhew the

finooth and opake decidua reflexa.

A A The rough, externalfiurfiace of the decidua, which exfoliated from the womb.

B The outfide of a firnall portion of the placenta, the refi of which was fituated on the back-part of this object.

CCCCC The internal cribriform furface of the decidua, which , in thefirfi months of pregnancy, does not adhere to the membranes which it enclojes.

DDDD The lacerated edge of the decidua which had been continued into the edge EEE of the fame membrane.

,F The decidua reflexa fpreadover the outfide of the chorion.

G G The angle of reflection at the edge of the placenta, where the inner layer of the decidua is turned over the chorion ; much in the fame manner as the inner lamella of the pericardium is reflected , to cover the outer furface of the heart.

H The termination of the decidua at the cervix uteri.


A vertical feftion of the fame.

AAA The fe&ion of the placenta ; which , we mufi fuppofe , had adhered to the upper and back-part of the womb.

BB The feBion of the anterior portion of the decidua.

C C The fettion of the poflerior portion of the decidua.

D The termination of the decidua at the cervix uteri.

EE The cavity of the amnion, in which the embryo hangs by a fender navel ' f ring, from the infide of the placenta.

F The feBion of the three membranes , which are not only Contiguous, but adhere

to one another, viz. the amnion, the chorion and the decidua reflexa.

G G The angle, at the edge of the placenta where the inner layer of the decidua is rejldled over the outjide of the chorion.

H - Here ihofe three membranes are a little feparaled, to fhew their courfe at the placenta.


An abortion-of about eight weeks. A fmallftrap of the decidua is cut out, and turned up, to fhew the cavity between it and the other membranes.

A The cut pip of the decidua. .

B The part of the conception where there is no decidua; viz. eppofite to the paflage through the cervix uteri.

CCC The external furface of the decidua. D The decidua reflexa covering the chorion and amnion, which projetf and fill up the cavity of the decidua .

F The outfide of the-upper, part of the placenta.

F I G. IV.

The fame, when the decidua had been opened by a crucial incifion, and the four angles had been turned off, and then a round piece of the decidua reflexa differed off, and turned to one fide, to Jhew the loofe veffels on the outfide of the chorion.

A, B. See fig. III.

CCCC The infide of the four angles or flaps into which the decidua was reduced by a crucial incifion.

DDD The decidua reflexa, covering the other membranes. .

EE The angle, at the edge of the placenta where the interior lamella of the de¬

cidua is continued over the outfide of the chorion , forming the decidua reflexa.

F A round portion of the decidua reflexa diffeftedfrom the outfide of the cho¬ rion and turned afide. G The chorion, with its fhaggy veffels, laid bare. Thefe veffels adhered firmly to the decidua reflexa, and, parts of them, were cut off with that membrane.


An abortion of the fame age, confifting of the chorion only, with its veffels and contents; that is, without the decidua, or uterine part of the fecundines.

AAA' The larger and more crouded branches of the flaggy veffels which float from the external furface- of one part of the-c horion, to mix with the decidua, or ute¬ rine part, to form the placenta.

B b That portion of the chorion which afterwards becomes the uniform tranfparent membrane. It is covered with fewer and more delicate floating veffels, which lofe themfelves in the decidua reflexa. The embryo isfeen through it.

C The veficula umbilicalis on the outfide of the amnion, feen through the cho¬ rion; with a whilijh thread, (the 'remains of an artery and vein) leading from it, towards the navel of the embryo.


The fame opened. The membranes, which were at the fore-part, being cut from the. placenta, and turned up, the embryo is dplinftly feen.

A The veficula umbilicalis, from which B, the remains of an artery and vein, in the form of a white thread, pafs to C, the navel of the embryo, with fame turns of the inte/lines lodged in the beginning of the navel firing.





O VUM, fcilicet chorion, cum omnibus ejus contends, quintam, ut licet conjicere, circiter hebdomadam. Liters, antea ufitatze, ad dignofcendas partes, minime defiderantur. Macube quse maxime fafcas funt, fanguinis coagulati reliquias parvas repraefentant. In medio, globi inftar, confpicitur amnion, per quod foetus indiftincte apparet. Ovum ipium baud paululum mole faa complanaium expaffumque fait, coram piclore in patella dum jacebat.


Idem ovum prseparatum, magna fatis parte chord abfciffa, amnioque cum foetuindufo, ut partes circa unibilicum ejus confpicerenLur, in latus reflexo, vitri optici ope, ut partes minores magis diftincte poffent confpici, amplificatum fait. Vafa hirfata fluitantia, ex facie externa chorii exeuntia, per fe fads patent. . r ;

A A Spatium inter chorion et amnion. Hoc refertum erat gelarina tenera, adeo pellucida ut vix cerni poffet; unde arteriae venaeque ramofae, fanguine rubro impletae, in facie interna placentae diftincte per earn confpiciebantur.

B Amnion liquore pellucldo colorifque experte, puriffima'velud aqua' fontana, diftendebatur; per quem foetus partes minores apparebant.

C Veficula umbilicalis humore diftenfa: neque amnio ilia, neque'chorio connexa fait; gelatina autem tenera circumdata, umbilico fetus per arteriam et venam, quafi per pediculum, adnexa; quibus quidem vafis tanta inter fe vicinitas fait, ut vas unum fanguine rubro impletum, et ramos in veficulam umbilicalem folam emittens, viderentur. Caput foetus trunco ejus longius fait; brachia et ciura non nifi perpaululum emicuerant; vifcera abdominis nondum faerant veflita; pars eorum magis fafca hepar fait: fane umbilici nondum ortO, foetus faciei internae chorio et amriii, quae eo loci contigua erant, medio abdomine, adne&ebatur.


Ovum integrum, quartae hebdomadse,utlicetconjicere. Ovi pars fuperiOr, lador et plana, facculus fait, textura tenera, per deciduam folam formatus: huic ad angulos faperiores. foramen dentatum utrinque fait, ubi tubas intraffe conjicere licebat; et ad ovi partem inferiorem portio crafltTanguftaque ex membranis omnibus contentifque corum conftitit.

F I G. IV.

Ejufdem ovi, feetione a Venice ad imum dudia aperti, facies interna.. Ovum totum adhtic: fundi uteri formam triangularem retinebat.

Pars lata fuperibr, deciduae faciem internam faviorem, cribro limilem, oftendit; et pars angufia inferior, omnium membranarum feflionem cavumque in confpe&u ponit. Foetus primordia omnino foluta faerant. Amnion a chorio fejundiafaerat, et in cavo e-Jus fluitabat. Exduobus ab eodem centro circulis albis, interior eft chorii fedlio; cujus in facie ex¬ terna firatum.-. fpongiofam, cui vafa ex chorio fe immittunt, cernitur : circulus albus, exterior-,'ad'partem iuferiorem< deciduam, placentam obtegentem, et ad partem fuperiorem deciduam reflexam repraefentat.

F I G. V,

Ovum, integrum tertiam circiter hebdomadam.

A A . Seta in cavum ovi trajedla per foramen, ad utrumque angulum.fupe. riorem, quod fcilicet tubte fallopian^ extremitatem effe conjicere licet. BB Easdem fetae per foramen majus exeuntes ad angulum inferiorem, quod cerviei uteri exadverfatn effe ponimus.

C Hydatis, mobs admodum exigua:, per deciduam fefe projiciens, et ftlamenta gracilia ramofa ex faperficie faa emittens: chorion effe, vix'dubitandum.

F I G.. VI.

A A, BB, C. VidefigV' 1

Mamfeftum eft deciduam;hocce in ovo, membrankm fuiffe denfam, texture glutinofae, qua toti cavo triangulari fundi uteri, tanquam vellimentum, adhafferat; conitabat etiam tubas in facie ejus interna fuiffe lerminatas; chorion inter duplicem ejus membranam fitum fuiffe, yel fubftantia ejus circundatum; parique paffu cum mcremeuto chorii, procedente uteri geftatione, cavum decidua: coarctaffe, lamellam ejus mteriorem (live deciduam reflexam) diftendens, donee tandem deleto cavo, lamella ilia interna faciei interiori decidua fuiffet c< FrOgreffus hie, de quo agitur, mutationis planius intelligetur, li prox figure inter fe conferantur, ordine earum inveffo, primo fcilicet nonam, dei] octavam, et poflremo feptimam.

Status ovi (qualem fcilicet animo licet concipere) in utero ; ubi chorion, decidua reflexa obtecium, per piurimum fpatii

A A Decidua iec'iio, ubi certo temporis ] membrane, fpongiofum yel nothuni ch B In hoc loco, decidua partem placent;

m.— D Cat-urn, yel fpati

ffu, lamellam extemam d vulgo dicta, confectffet. riuam diclam confeciffet.

, --• ■ — <uhnion inter et chorion.

r A d ; Cldu:E : vel faauum membranam illam inter et deciduam rel

  • iuba in feciem mtemamdecidua: fefe aperientes.

G Cervix uteri nullam partem ovi continens.

„ , , fig. VIII, et IX.

Duahangura, m hoc fere folo ab ultima differuut; nimirum chorii ctdua cavum projecuo eo minor eft, quo ovum atate minus.


F I G. I.

i Conception, viz. the chorion with aU its contents, fuppofed to. be about Jl five weeks. The parts will be underfiood without Utters of reference. Some of the darkefi Jpots reprejent the littU remnants of clotted blood. In the middle the amnion is Jem like a round ball, through which the feetur appears indiftinclly. The whoU object was confiderably flattened and Spread out; by its own weight, as it lay in a little di/h before the painter.

fig. II.

The fame conception, prepared by cutting away a confiderable part of the chorion, and turning afide the amnion with the enclofed foetus, that the parts about the navel might be Jeen. It is'confider ably magnified, to fiew thefmall parts more diflinffiy.

The Jhaggy floating vejels, which Jhoot from the outer furface of the chorion, require no explanation. _ A A The fpace between the chorion and amnion.- This was filled with a tender jelly, Jo tranjparent as to be almofl invifibU; whence, the branching arteries and veins, filled with red blood, upon the inf de of the placenta, were diftinSlyfeen through it. .'

B . The. amnion diflended.with a liquor as tranjparent and void of colour as the

dearcjl water; througkwhich-the .minute parts of the foetus were di/linSlly Jeen.

C 27if? veficula umbilicalis, diftended' with a fluid. It was neither attached to .the amnion nor the chorion; Jurrounded with the tender-jelly; connedled, as by a pedicle, to the navel of the foetus by an artery and a vein; which lay Jo clofe together, as to appear like one . vejfel filled with red blood, and difpeifng its branches on the veficula umbilicalis alone..

The head of the foetus was longer than the trunk; the arms and Ugs had Jhot out but a little way: the abdominal yifeera were not covered: the ' darker part ofthefe was the red liver: there being no navel-firing, the foetus was at¬ tached at its abdomen to the infide of the amnion and'of the chorion, which were contiguous at that place. ■


An entire conceptionJuppofed to be in the fourth week. The broad and flat . . upper part of the object was a bag of. ‘ a' tender texture, formed of the decidua

only, with a ragged perforation at each -of the two upper angles, where the tubes were fuppofed to. have,entered; and the thick and narrow portion, at the lower part of the objedl, conffied of all-the. membranes and their contents.

F I G. IV.

The infide of the fame objeld, laid open, by a vertical JeBion .. The whole con. ception retained fill the-triangular fhape of the fundus uteri. The broad up¬ per part Jhews the jmoolher and cribr forme internal, furf ace of the decidua; and the narrow part below Jkews tiiefe3.iqn.and cavity of all the membranes. The rudiments of the foetus were diffolved. The amnion had Separated from, and lay loofe in the cavity of the chorion. Of the two, concentric, white circles, the interior is the JeBion of the chorion ; upon the outfide of which is Jeen the ' ftratum of fpongy fubflance into which the veffels Jhoot from the chorion. The outer white circle reprefents, at its lower part,. the decidua covering the pla¬ centa; and, at its upper part, the decidua reflexa.


A compleat conception, of about three weeks.

AAA briflle pajfed into the cavity .of the conception, through' a hole at each of the upper angles, which was fuppofed to be the termination of the fallopian tube.

BB The fame trifles coming out 'through a larger hole at the lower angle, Jup ■■ pofed to be oppofte to the cervix uteri.

C A Jmall hydatide, projeBing through the fubflance 6f the decidua, which had fender branching filaments floating from the furf ace, fuppofed. to be the cho F I G. VI.

The fame conception, after a confiderable bortion oj its fore-part had been cut out.

A A, BB, C. See fig. V. . It plainly appears that, the decidua, in this cafe, rvas a thick membrane (of a gelatinous texture) which had lined.and adhered to the whole triangular cavity of the fundus uteri; that, the tubes terminated an its internalJurface; that, the choriou was lodged in its duplicature, or was Jurrounded with its fubflance; and that, in proportion as the chorion would, have been extended, in the progrefs of geflation, it would have encroached upon the cavity oj the decidua., fir etching its interior lamella (or decidua reflexa) till at length the cavity being obliterated, that interior lamella would have come into contact with the infide of the decidua. This progreffwe change will be more clearly underfiood by comparing the three fol¬ lowing figures in the inverted order, viz. IX, VIII, and VII.


The more advanced ftate of a fuppofed conception in the womb; when the chorion, covered by the decidua, reflexa, is firetched a great way out into the cavity of the decidua. A A ThefiHion of the decidua where, in proofs of time, it would conflihUe the external la¬ mella of the double membrane which has been commonly named the fpungy drfalfe chorion. B Here the decidua conflitutes the uterine part of the placenta.

C The cavity of the amnion. — D The cavity or fpace between the amnion and chorion. E The cavity of the decidua, or the fpacebetween that membrane and the decidua reflexa.

F F The tubes, opening upon the infide of the decidua.

_G The cervix uteri, containing no part of the conception.

F I G. VIII, and IX.

Thje two figures differ from the preceding almofl in this refpcB alone, that the projection of the chorion into the cavity of the decidua is lefs in proportion as the conception is younger.

writer /^,/pmWr,, nem/w C/umtnp mmp omm/u/.i . anterior* eanM^dvs, e&/Um*o (%/jr^rn^m, amtenentelmy /aten rteo uuni/rm.- inter/areo, o^otemp a vertex* eul omain, elucte,, 4^ anting oiMate. Fig-.Ftt VH .3X1 J/y^,yp;^U>p , , ,//pf,Kk/j, i»A**u* faw&ati* J&tt^napfcj, rteteo, fuafa

amtemte*. Fig -H. isdem/amaifUb vo. Fig.DI. Conee/iter mteaer-, 'aua.


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2024, February 24) Embryology Book - The anatomy of the human gravid uterus exhibited in figures (1774). Retrieved from

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