Difference between revisions of "2009 Lecture 2"

From Embryology
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This lecture will introduce two key concepts of biology, cell division and cellular sexual development.
 
This lecture will introduce two key concepts of biology, cell division and cellular sexual development.
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===Cell Cycle===
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Cell Division (m phase) is only a brief moment in the functional life (interphase) of most cells.
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[[Image:Cell_cycle1.jpg|thumb|300px|The Cell Cycle]]
  
 
==Cell Division==
 
==Cell Division==
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** progeny = daughter cells, offspring
 
** progeny = daughter cells, offspring
  
===Cell Cycle===
 
[[Image:Cell_cycle1.jpg|thumb|300px|The Cell Cycle]]
 
  
 
===Cell Changes===
 
===Cell Changes===

Revision as of 16:19, 27 July 2009

Cell Division and Fertilization

This lecture will introduce two key concepts of biology, cell division and cellular sexual development.

Cell Cycle

Cell Division (m phase) is only a brief moment in the functional life (interphase) of most cells.

The Cell Cycle

Cell Division

Features 2 mechanical processes

  • Mitosis segregation of chromosomes and formation of 2 nuclei
  • Cytokinesis splitting of the cell as a whole into 2 daughter cells
  • Mitosis occurs in all cells, producing genetically identical progeny.
  • Meiosis occurs only in germ cells (sperm=spermatozoa and egg=oocyte), producing genetically different progeny.
    • progeny = daughter cells, offspring


Cell Changes

  • Nucleus
    • Chromosome condensation
    • Nuclear envelope breakdown
  • Cytoplasm
    • Cytoskeleton reorganization
    • Spindle formation (MT) Contractile ring (MF)
    • Organelle redistribution

Mitosis

  • Based on light microscopy of living cells light and electron microscopy of fixed and stained cells
  • 5 Phases - prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
  • Cytokinesis 6th stage overlaps the end of mitosis

Note that DNA duplication has occurred earlier in the S Phase of the cell cycle.


Prophase

  • Chromosome DNA has been earlier duplicated (S Phase)
  • Chromosomes begin condensing
  • Chromosome pairs (chromatids) held together at centromere
  • Microtubules disassemble
  • Mitotic spindle begins to form
  • Prophase ends when nuclear envelope breaks down

Prometaphase

  • Microtubules now enter nuclear region
  • Nuclear envelope forms vesicles around mitotic spindle
  • Kinetochores form on centromere attach to some MTs of spindle
  • Prometaphase ends when chromosomes move to metaphase plate

Metaphase

  • Kinetochore MTs align chromosomes in one midpoint plane
  • Metaphase ends when sister kinetochores separate

Anaphase

  • Separation of sister Kinetochores
  • shortening of Kinetochore microtubules pulls chromosome to spindle pole
  • Anaphase ends as nuclear envelope (membrane) begins to reform

Telophase

  • Chromosomes arrive at spindle poles
  • Kinetochore MTs lost
  • Condensed chromosomes begin expanding
    • Continues through cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

  • Division of cytoplasmic contents
  • Contractile ring forms at midpoint under membrane
  • Microfilament ring Contracts forming cleavage furrow
  • Eventually fully divides cytoplasm

Cell Organelles

  • Mitochondria - Divide independently of cell mitosis, distributed into daughter cells
  • Peroxisomes - localise at spindle poles
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum - associated with the nuclear envelope vesicles.
  • Golgi Apparatus- Golgi stack undergoes a continuous fragmentation process, fragments are distributed into daughter cells, then reassembled into new Golgi stacks

Meiosis

Meiosis Germ cell division (haploid)

  • Reductive division
  • Generates haploid gametes (egg, sperm)
  • Each genetically distinct from parent
  • Genetic recombination (prophase 1)
    • Exchanges portions of chromosomes maternal/paternal homologous pairs
  • Independent assortment of paternal chromosomes (meiosis 1)

Cell Birth - Mitosis and Meiosis 1st cell division- Meiosis

Homologous chromosomes pairing unique to meiosis

  • Each chromosome duplicated and exists as attached sister chromatids before pairing occurs
  • Genetic Recombination shown by chromosomes part red and part black
    • chromosome pairing in meiosis involves crossing-over between homologous chromosomes

(For clarity only 1 pair of homologous chromosomes shown)

Comparison of Meiosis/Mitosis

  • After DNA replication 2 nuclear (and cell) divisions required to produce haploid gametes
  • Each diploid cell in meiosis produces 4 haploid cells (sperm) 1 haploid cell (egg)
  • Each diploid cell mitosis produces 2 diploid cells

Abnormalities

Meiotic Nondisjunction

  • Occurs when homologues fail to separate during meiotic division I or II
  • Down Syndrome
  • Caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

Chromosomal Translocations

  • Philadelphia chromosome
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia
    • Piece of Chr9 exchanged with Chr22 Generates truncated abl

Overstimulates cell production

Meiosis Sex Differences

Female (oogenesis)

  • Meiosis initiated once in a finite population of cells
  • 1 gamete produced / meiosis
  • Completion of meiosis delayed for months or years
  • Meiosis arrested at 1st meiotic prophase and reinitiated in a smaller population of cells
  • Differentiation of gamete occurs while diploid in first meiotic prophase
  • All chromosomes exhibit equivalent transcription and recombination during meiotic prophase

Male (spermatogenesis)

  • Meiosis initiated continuously in a mitotically dividing stem cell population
  • 4 gametes produced / meiosis
  • Meiosis completed in days or weeks
  • Meiosis and differentiation proceed continuously without cell cycle arrest
  • Differentiation of gamete occurs while haploid after meiosis ends

Sex chromosomes excluded from recombination and transcription during first meiotic prophase



Fertilization

UNSW Embryology Links

References

Textbooks

Essential Cell Biology

  • Essential Cell Biology Chapter 17

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter New York and London: Garland Science; c2002

Molecular Cell Biology

Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnell, James E. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.; c1999

The Cell- A Molecular Approach

Cooper, Geoffrey M. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000


Books

PubMed

  • PubMed is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals for biomedical articles back to 1948. PubMed includes links to full text articles and other related resources. PubMed
  • PubMed Central (PMC) is a free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) allowing all users free access to the material in PubMed Central. PMC
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive compendium of human genes and genetic phenotypes. The full-text, referenced overviews in OMIM contain information on all known mendelian disorders and over 12,000 genes. OMIM
  • Entrez is the integrated, text-based search and retrieval system used at NCBI for the major databases, including PubMed, Nucleotide and Protein Sequences, Protein Structures, Complete Genomes, Taxonomy, and others Entrez

Search

Reviews

  • Cell cycle studies based upon quantitative image analysis. Stacey DW, Hitomi M. Cytometry A. 2008 Apr;73(4):270-8. Review. PMID: 18163464
  • Analysis of cell cycle phases and progression in cultured mammalian cells. Schorl C, Sedivy JM. Methods. 2007 Feb;41(2):143-50. Review. PMID: 17189856

Articles

Links

Next Lecture

Lecture 3 | Course Timetable

Dr Mark Hill 2009 UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G