From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab Attendance

--Dona Cho 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 13:01, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 11:31, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 11:18, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 11:45, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 11:59, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 11:52, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 11:33, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Dona Cho 11:35am, 13/10/2011

--Dona Cho 12:09, 20 October 2011 (EST)

Lab 1

1.Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

The introduction of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) dates back to the late 1800's where a team from the University of Cambridge, England, attempted and succeeded in transplanting embryos in rabbits. After many years, in 1959, Chang MC experienced a breakthrough as he succeeded in fertilizing a rabbit ova in vitro. Finally, through Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards' research, the first IVF human baby,Louise Brown, was born in England, 1978.

The Robert Edwards received the 2010 Nobel Prize associated with IVF.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings

The key findings: 1. The success rate of IVF when using fresh testicular sperm is similar to using cryopreserved testicular sperm. 2. Even if fresh testicular sperm lacks motility, it can still be cryopreserved and used for later an IVF treatment as the outcome is still favourable.

Reference: Levron, J.; Madgar, I.; Shefi, S.; Meirow, D.; Wiser, A.; Bider, D.; Dor, J.; Raviv, G.(2011) IVF outcome with cryopreserved testicular sperm. Andrologia,43:1.DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2009.01014.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

1. Hypospadias 2. Trisomy 21 (Down’s syndrome)

--Dona Cho 18:34, 3 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 2

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

ZP3 is the sperm receptor. After fertilisation, a carbohydrates on the ZP3 is modified or removed. This then means that ZP3 can no longer bind to another sperm, preventing polysermy.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic.

Review article: [1]

Research article: [2]

--Dona Cho 18:05, 10 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 3

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Folate is a dietary requirement. Adequate folate intake is recommended for women, particularly those in the periconceptual period. It greatly reduces chances of neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and spina bifida.

2. Upload a picture relating to you group project. Add to both the Group discussion and your online assessment page. Image must be renamed appropriately, citation on "Summary" window with link to original paper and copyright information. As outlined in the Practical class tutorial.

Facial dysmorphic features in a child with double aneuploidy—Down syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome

I have upload two versions of the file. The most recent one has the correct summary content.

--Dona Cho 13:03, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--Dona Cho 20:33, 17 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 4

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

It is the endodermal evagination of the early embryo's hindgut.[1]

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation

1. Foramen ovale: between the right and left atrium [2]

2. Ductus venosus: between the umbilical vein and inferior vena cava[3]

3. Ductus arteriosus: between the pulmonary artery and the arch of aorta[4]

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching.

Signs and Symptoms, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis

--Dona Cho 17:17, 24 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 5

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition where there is an incomplete closure of the diaphragm. This more commonly appears on the left side as the left side fuses after the right side. [5]

--Dona Cho 22:33, 30 August 2011 (EST)

Lab 6

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

In the development of the human embryo the palatal shelves fuse in week 9. [6]

2. What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

Quail-Chick Chimeras model was used to find out the origin and migration of neural crest cells. This model is effective because of the different mechanisms quail and chick genetic materials are packaged into nucleus. This serves as a natural cell labeling technique. [7]

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

The abnormality is 'Tetralogy of Fallot'.

--Dona Cho 18:54, 14 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 7

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

(a)Satellite cells are not necessary for muscle hypertrophy (b)Satellite cells do play a part in hypertrophy as it is involved in regeneration and hyperplasia.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

When chronic low frequency stimulation takes place cell death and formation occurs. Consequently satellite cells are activated and changed from a fast fiber type to a slow fiber type. This chronic low frequency stimulation leads to the fibers shifting from fast to slow type so that it is more resistant to fatigue and damage.

--Dona Cho 00:01, 22 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 8

Group 1 peer review

Please organise the overall layout of this website. For example you could distribute the images so that the majority are not on just one side.It will also be nice if the website is spread out so that the headings are neat.

Introduction: A great overview of all the section. However, the use of more easy language in the introduction will be good. For example ‘partial X monosomy’ is a hard concept to understand. Maybe you should elaborate or repharse it using easier terminology. A nice picture related to the introduction content would be nice.

Epidemiology: Some sentences are difficult to understand, such as ‘The morphological differences from those retaining the maternal compared to retaining the paternal X is have shown to have a greater incidence of cardiovascular anomalies and neck webbing.’ The information in this table is good but because there are copyright issues what about drawing a chart yourself. Perhaps you could base it on this chart but put the percentages into a table. I believe this will allow you to go around the copyright issues (should probably check with Mark)

Etiology: The links to the glossary is great and user friendly.

Clinical Manifestation: Including some images will attract the reader's attention. A table format will also improve the layout. An explanation or a link to the glossary for difficult terms may help the reader. An example is 'alopecia areata'

Diagnositic Procedures: There is a good balance of text and images. I especially like the hand drawn image.

Treatment: There are good heading in this sections which divide the information into segments which can be read easily. However, reorganising the order of the information in a logical manner would be good. Maybe you would arrange it according to the age group that each treatments are targeted to.

Group 2 peer review

Introduction: Please explain what the images is about.

Historical background: Please be careful that you type 'DiGeorge syndrome' throughout the section. For example, the point about the 1981 event has 'diGeorge syndrome'. There are also some spelling errors. Furthermore, a legend for the image would clarify.

Epidemiology: Breaking up the segments with images will make understanding the content easier for the reader.

Diagnositic test: Information on the ultrasound test, particularly the second paragraph, is repetitive. The layout is great and the images breaks up the text nicely. A legend for the image will be good. In particular, please clarify what is abnormal with the male face.

Treatment: Are 'Hypocalcaemia' and 'Psychiatric illness' a late occuring feature or an observable condition in newborns.

Group 4 peer review

History: I love the idea of the quote. Is 'On Chorea' a book, article or report? Clarifying this would be nice.

Epidemiology: I like how you have elaborate on table one. I found the paragraph on Warby et al paper hard to understand. I think it may become easier to understand if you linked terminologies (like HTT and Halotypes) to the glossary, even if a particular terminology has been linked before in other sections because some readers might be just reading your section.

Clinical manifestations: It was an interesting read. :) But one suggestion ( this is what I got suggested for my section and I thought it was a good idea) is to enlarge the image so that the writing can be seen clearly. I understand that you may think that readers can click on it and see the enlarged picture but some readers may not be bothered and would prefer being able to read it on the main page. Plus, you have unlimited space and with a large image the webpage may look more interesting.

Treatment: In the clinical manifestation, the symptoms are divided into three classes: motor, cognitive and behaviour. It may be more consistant if you reorganise the classes of medication so that it falls into the three classes described in clinical manifestation. I know, this may sound like a huge task, if so, why don't you just ask the clinical manifestation person to change their classes to two, motor and psychiatric.

Group 5 peer review

Introduction: It is a good overview of the different aspects of this disorder. Increasing the size of the hand drawn image will be good so that the writing can been seen clearly on the main page.

Epidemiology: The image is good and easy to understand. However, perhaps you should position the image next the text which talks about '...females are less likely to show severe signs...'. I think that genetic counseling and screening should be in a seperate management section. It would be ideal if Epidemiology contains more figures, especially if those numbers are in a some table.

Etiology: It would be better is you could explain what you mean by Xq27.3 in the text. I don't quite understand what you mean by '...given the location of the gene on a particularly fragile segment of Xq27.3...'. Although you have explained the figures in the text, it would be better if you add a one sentence summary of what each figure is displaying. This is because people might instinctively look at the figure first and not fully understand it and then read the text. Whereas if they looked at the figure and had some idea what it was showing and then read the text, the etiology of fragile x will be that much easier to understand. I like the size of the image because i can read it clearly.

Diagnosis: Please expand on the mechanisms of each technique. It would also be good to insert an image of each technique so that readers can know what the result of each technique looks like.

Group 6 peer review

Introduction: Really good and brief introduction. Can a picture be inserted?

Epidemiology: The second sentence is a repetition of what was mentioned in the introduction. More statistics would be good, especially statistics about the prevalence of TOF around the world. To make this section more fuller, maybe you could also add a column chart with informaton on TOF.

Signs and symptoms: Can you provide a definition for the word cymnosis and link the word 'cymnosis' to the definition in the glossary. It would be a good to link all the words in the text which are in the glossary with the actual definition in the glossary. This way reader will know that there is a definition provided for a particular word in the glossary. The link to the cyanotic tet spell is a good idea.

Genetics/Aetiology: Please remove the '.jpeg' at the end of the image description.

--Dona Cho 09:37, 29 September 2011 (EST)

Lab 10

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)can cause hearing loss in a developing fetus.[8][9]

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

1. The tube is close to horizontal so effective drainage can not take place.

2. The neonatal tube is shorter than the adults.

3. The neonatal tube opening is supported by one muscle (tensor palati muscle) whereas the adult has two muscles

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record.

Usher syndrome is a genetic abnormality which serious hearing impairment.OMIM LINK

Dona Cho 12/10/2011 11:31pm

Lab 11

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

The interatrial spetum is made of the Septum Primum and the Septum secundum. The passage that connects the right and left atria is foramen ovale and foramen secundum.

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract.

The cardiac defects are as follows:

Hypoplastic Right Heart Disease

Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Double outlet right ventricle

Transposition of the Great Vessels

Tetralogy of Fallot

Interrupted Aortic Arch

Ventricular septal defect

--Dona Cho 23:14, 19 October 2011 (EST)