- annular tendon - (common tendinous ring, annulus of Zinn) fibrous tissue surrounding the optic nerve forming the origin for five of the six extra ocular muscles.
- AXIN2 - a scaffold protein that is an antagonist and universal target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway required for visual development. OMIM - AXIN2
- canthus - (palpebral commissure) the corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet.
- cranial nerve 2 - (CN II, optic nerve) the cranial nerve consisting of retinal ganglion cell axons and glia forming the connection with the brain (pathway: retina, optic disc, optic chiasma, optic tract, lateral geniculate nucleus, pretectal nuclei, and superior colliculus).
- extraocular muscles - six muscles that control movement of the eye (superior, Inferior, lateral and medial rectus; superior and inferior oblique).
- fovea - (fovea centralis; Latin, fovea = pit) retina region located in the center of the macula, required for sharp central vision.
- ganglion cell layer - (retinal ganglion layer) the layer of the retina where retinal ganglion cell bodies lie.
- macula - (Latin, macula = spot; lutea = yellow) region near the center of the retina containing two or more layers of ganglion cells.
- nasolacrimal groove - (lacrimal groove) an embryonic surface feature between the maxillary and the lateral nasal process that will later fuse to form the lacrimal duct running between the eye and the nasal inferior meatus.
- optic chiasm (optic chiasma) CN II region where some of the axons (partial) cross to the opposite side.
- optic cup - the in-folded extension of the optic stalk from the diencephalon that forms the retina.
- optic disc - (optic nerve head) region on the retina where the retinal ganglion cells exit to form CN II.
- optic placode - (lens placode) surface ectoderm that folds inward to form the developing lens.
- retina - The stratified sensory structure of the eye, formed from the neural ectoderm that extends from the forebrain (diencephalon) to form initially the folded optic cup. Vertebrates have ten identifiable layers formed from nerve fibers, neurons, membranes, photoreceptors and pigmented cells. Light must pass through nearly all these layers to the photoreceptors. (1. Inner limiting membrane - Müller cell footplates; 2. Nerve fiber layer; 3. Ganglion cell layer - layer of retinal ganglion cells their axons form the nerve fiber layer and eventually the optic nerve; 4. Inner plexiform layer - another layer of neuronal processes; 5. Inner nuclear layer; 6. Outer plexiform layer; 7. Outer nuclear layer; 8. External limiting membrane - layer separating inner segment portions of photoreceptors from their cell nuclei; 9. Photoreceptor layer - rods and cones that convert light into signals; 10. Retinal pigment epithelium).
- retinal pigment epithelium - (RPE, pigmented layer) An epethial pigmented cell layer lying outside the sensory retina, formed from the outer layer of the folded optic cup. The RPE is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells, for which it has a nutritional role.
- retinal waves - A form of coordinated spontaneous activity that occurs in the developing retina. These waves of electrical activity (action potentials) along with EphA/ephrin-A signaling are thought to have a role in establishing the initial retinotopic map by correlating/coordinating the activity of neighbouring retinal ganglion cells.
- YAP - (Yes-Associated Protein) transcriptional regulator required for retinal progenitor cell cycle progression and RPE cell fate acquisition. PMID 27616714 OMIM - YAP1