- amniotomy - birth medical procedure thought to speed labor, where the amniotic sac is artificially ruptured using a tool (amniohook).
- birth - (parturition, partus, childbirth, labour, delivery). expulsion of the foetus from the uterus. (More? birth)
- birth weight - (birth-weight) the weight of the neonate measured as soon as possible after birth. (More? birth weight)
- Bishop score - (Bishop's score) A clinical test prior to birth named after the obstetrician/gynaecologist Edward H. Bishop (1913-1995) who published a 1964 paper "Pelvic Scoring For Elective Induction". (More? PMID 14199536)
- breech - fetal buttocks presented first and can also occur in different forms depending on presentation (complete breech, frank breech, footing breech, knee breech). (More? historic image)
- decidual activation - increased uterine proteolysis and extracellular matrix degradation.
- dilatation - opening of the cervix in preparation for birth (expressed in centimetres).
- effacement - shortening or thinning of the cervix, in preparation for birth.
- early cord clamping - placental cord clamping carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth.
- forceps - mechanical "plier-like" tool used on fetal head to aid birth.
- induction of labour - clinical procedure where labour starts artificially by using a membrane sweep, pessary or hormone drip.
- instrumental birth - birth process where the use of clinical instruments is required.
- labor - the maternal physiological process of birth. (More? birth)
- macrosomia - clinical description for a fetus that is too large, condition increases steadily with advancing gestational age and defined by a variety of birthweights. In pregnant women anywhere between 2 - 15% have birth weights of greater than 4000 grams (4 Kg, 8 lb 13 oz). (More? macrosomia)
- membrane rupture - breaking of the amniotic membrane and release of amniotic fluid (water breaking).
- morbidity - (Latin, morbidus = "sick" or "unhealthy") refers to a diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause.
- necrotising enterocolitis - clinical condition mainly seen in preterm infants, where portions of the bowel undergo necrosis.
- neonatal - the early postnatal period relating to the birth, it includes the period up to 4 weeks after birth.
- obstetric fistula - abnormal connection between the vagina and rectum or bladder caused by a prolonged obstructed labor.
- perinatal - the early postnatal period relating to the birth, statistically it includes the period up to 7 days after birth.
- presentation - how the fetus is situated in the uterus.
- presenting part - part of fetus body that is closest to the cervix.
- second stage of labour - passage of the baby through the birth canal into the outside world.
- tachycardia - rapid fetal heart rate (greater than 160 beats per minute) for the term fetus, usually determined by fetal monitoring.
- third stage of labour - interval from the birth of the baby to the expulsion of the placenta and membranes.
- tocolytic - a drug used to prevent or lessen uterine contractions.
- uterotonic - drug used to induce uterine contractions.
- umbilical cord acid-base analysis - clinical perinatal test used to assessing intrapartum hypoxia, measuring one or several indices: arterial umbilical cord blood pH, lactate, and base deficit. Hypoxia is indicated by a low pH, high base deficit and high lactate.
- vacuum extractor - (ventouse) rubber or metal suction cap device used on fetal head to aid birth.
- vertex presentation - (cephalic presentation) where the fetus head is the presenting part, most common and safest birth position.
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