Talk:Neural Exam - Newborn tone - popliteal angle

From Embryology

Agreement between visual and goniometric assessments of adductor and popliteal angles in infants

J Pediatr Neurosci. 2013 May;8(2):93-6. doi: 10.4103/1817-1745.117834.

Jayakrishnan TT1, Sharma S, Gulati S, Pandey RM, Wadhwa S, Paul VK.


CONTEXT: Amiel-Tison method is a commonly used technique for assessing tone and neurological status of infants. There is a paucity of data on the reliability of visual assessment of angles, a component of this method. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We compared the visual and the goniometric assessment of adductor and popliteal angles in infants with hypertonia and neurologically normal controls. A total of 16 infants with hypertonia and 15 normal infants underwent blinded assessment of the adductor and popliteal angles. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The mean and standard deviation for the difference between visual and goniometric measurements were calculated for popliteal and adductor angles. RESULTS: The mean differences between visual and goniometric measurements for the popliteal angle were 4.94 (SD3.40) and 8.73 (SD6.10) degrees for the cases and controls respectively. Similarly, the values for adductor angle measurements were 8.94 (SD8.23) and 14.47 (SD8.47) degrees respectively. CONCLUSION: The deviation of visual assessment from goniometric measurement was found to be less for popliteal angle measurement as compared to adductor angle measurements. It was note-worthy that the difference was less for the measurements of children with spasticity. KEYWORDS: Amiel-Tison method; goniometer; hypertonia; spasticity

PMID 24082922

Normal ranges of popliteal angle in children

J Pediatr Orthop. 1992 Mar-Apr;12(2):229-31.

Katz K1, Rosenthal A, Yosipovitch Z.


Measurement of the popliteal angle is used to assess hamstring contracture in children with cerebral palsy. The popliteal angle in 482 normal children, 1-10 years of age, was measured. Using a 360 degrees goniometer, the popliteal angle was measured with the hip held at 90 degrees flexion to indicate hamstring muscle tightness. Between the ages of 1 and 3 years, the mean angle was 6 degrees (range, 0-15). At age 4, the angle rose to 17 degrees in girls and 27 degrees in boys (range, 5-45). At greater than or equal to 5 years the mean angle was 26 degrees with little change (range, 0-50). A popliteal angle of greater than 50 degrees in the above age groups indicates abnormal hamstring tightness.

PMID 1552027