Talk:Blechschmidt Collection

From Embryology


Miyazaki R, Makishima H, Männer J, Sydow HG, Uwabe C, Takakuwa T, Viebahn C & Yamada S. (2018). Blechschmidt Collection: Revisiting specimens from a historical collection of serially sectioned human embryos and fetuses using modern imaging techniques. Congenit Anom (Kyoto) , 58, 152-157. PMID: 29105173 DOI.

Blechschmidt Collection: Revisiting specimens from a historical collection of serially sectioned human embryos and fetuses using modern imaging techniques.

Along with the Carnegie Collection in the United States and the Kyoto Collection in Japan, the Blechschmidt Collection (Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Germany) is a major historical human embryo and fetus collection. These collections are of enormous value to human embryology; however, due to the nature of the historical histological specimens, some stains are fading in color, and some glass slides are deteriorating over time. To protect these specimens against such degradation and ensure their future usefulness, we tried to apply modern image scanning and computational reconstruction. Samples of histological specimens of the Blechschmidt Collection were digitized into images using commercial flatbed scanners with a resolution of 4800 pixels per inch. Two specimens were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) images by using modern techniques to vertically stack two-dimensional images of the slices into 3D blocks. The larger specimen of crown-rump length (CRL) 64.0 mm, a series of very large histological sections in human embryology, was reconstructed clearly, with its central nervous system segmented before stacking. The smaller specimen of CRL 17.5 mm was also reconstructed into 3D images. The outer surface of the embryo was intact, and its development was classified according to the widely used Carnegie stages (CSs). The CS of the specimen was identified as the later half of CS 20. The invaluable Blechschmidt Collection can be revisited for further research with modern techniques such as digital image scanning and computational 3D reconstruction. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society. KEYWORDS: 3D reconstruction; digitize; flatbed scanner; sliced specimen PMID: 29105173 DOI: 10.1111/cga.12261

Template:Embryo 3.4mm movie 1

Ontogenese des Menschen : kinetische Anatomie / Erich Blechschmidt



Human Embryo 35 mm

02.06.49 sections 1-383 sagittal

1-123 = 15 microns 124-171 = 10 microns 172-383 = 11 microns

Mason-Goldner, HE, Erythrosin-Orange

Related Publications

  • Biokinetics and Biodynamics of Human Differentiation by E. Blechschmidt, M.D. and R.F. Gasser, Ph.D. ISBN: 9781583944608
  • The ontogenetic basis of human anatomy : a biodynamic approach to development from conception to birth / Erich Blechschmidt. Rev., ed. and transl. by Brian Freeman.
  • The Anatomy of the Human Embryo: A Scanning Electron-microscopic Atlas By Gerd Steding
"Dedicated to the memory of the great anatomists and embryologists Wilhelm His ( 1831–1904) and Erich Blechschmidt (1904–1992)"

Pubmed Search - Blechschmidt E

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2: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Embryological studies from the functional point of view]. Acta Anat (Basel). 1955;24(3-4):339-92. German. PMID 13258087.

3: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Developmental and functional research on the movement mechanism; coordination of developmental movements, somatogenesis]. Acta Anat (Basel). 1956;27(1-2):62-88. German. PMID 13338966.

4: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Functional development of Corti's organ]. Arch Ohren Nasen Kehlkopfheilkd. 1952 Sep 2;162(1):35-52. Undetermined Language. PubMed PMID 12986790.

5: Blechschmidt E. [Differentiations in the kinetic field. (Conditions for development of the metamere)]. Acta Anat (Basel). 1969;73(3):351-71. German. PMID 4244915.

6: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [The development of the tooth germ in man dynamic formation of the human embryo]. Acta Anat (Basel). 1953;17(3):207-39. Undetermined Language. PMID 13050279.

7: Blechschmidt E, Daikoku S. [The formation of motor innervation in the human tongue musculature. Electron microscopy of embryonal end-plates]. Acta Anat (Basel). 1966;63(2):179-98. German. PMID 5915888.

8: Blechschmidt E, Daikoku S. [Regional differences in embryonal dendrites and neurites. (Electronmicroscopic study)]. Acta Anat (Basel). 1966;65(1):30-57. German. PMID 5965970.

9: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Developmental movements of somites and their significance for the segmentation of the spinal cord]. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch. 1957;120(3):150-72. German. PMID 13531202.

10: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Study of the functional development of the nervous system (genesis of growth coordination)]. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch. 1955;119(2):112-30. German. PMID 13300226.

11: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Vacuolization processes in the embryonic meninges and in the neural tube; a contribution to developmental kinetics]. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch. 1957;120(1):45-71. German. PMID 13456662.

12: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Growth factors of descensus testis]. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch. 1955;118(3):175-82. German. PMID 14386871.

13: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Electron microscopic studies on the medullary tube of chicken embryos]. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch. 1960;121:434-45. German. PubMed PMID 13801428.

14: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGAN SYSTEMS IN MAN]. Med Monatsschr. 1964 Mar;18:99-103. Review. German. PMID 14193295.

15: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Reconstruction method by using synthetic substances; a process for investigation and demonstration of developmental movements]. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch. 1954;118(2):170-4. German. PMID 13227045.

16: Blechschmidt E, Arndt R. [The developmental kinetic performance of the commissural tracts. (The capacity of cell aggregations for formative functions in the brain primordium]. Z Morphol Anthropol. 1967 Apr;58(3):243-52. German. PubMed PMID 5595003.

17: Blechschmidt E. The programming of afferent and efferent nervous fibers in man. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. 1977 Nov 7;224(3):259-72. PMID 597031.

18: Blechschmidt E, Neumann H. [The ultrastructure of the ciliary and desmosomal primordia in the human eye. (The submicroscopic relationship of the pigment epithel with the retina]. Z Morphol Anthropol. 1967 Apr;58(3):230-42. German. PMID 5595002.

19: Blechschmidt E, Göttlicher S. [The developmental-dynamic differentiation of the colon musculature]. Z Morphol Anthropol. 1968 Jan;59(3):322-31. German. PMID 5696837.

20: Blechschmidt E. [The developmental movements of the human eye vesicle. Their meaning for the early physiognomy]. Ophthalmologica. 1967;153(4):291-308. German. PMID 6030901.

21: Blechschmidt E, Konitz H, Kontokollias H. [The spiralization process in myelin sheath development]. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr. 1970;213(1):1-10. German. PMID 5417832.

22: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [The formation functions of the human epidermis. I. The formation of layers of the integument]. Arch Klin Exp Dermatol. 1963 Jan 31;215:567-78. German. PMID 13971601.

23: Blechschmidt E. [Developmental dynamics of the visceral arches. Functional differentiation]. HNO. 1970 Sep;18(9):261-71. German. PMID 5535179.

24: Pohl A, Blechschmidt E, Moser K. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and other erythrocyte enzyme abnormalities]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1984 Jul 6;96(14):542-8. German. PMID 6089445.

25: Blechschmidt E. The structure of the calcaneal padding. Foot Ankle. 1982 Mar;2(5):260-83. PMID 7076060.

26: Pohl A, Blechschmidt E, Pinggera W, Moser K. [Interference of reticulocyte metabolism with enzyme activity analyses in haemolytic anaemias (author's transl)]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1977 Dec 23;89(24):825-7. German. PubMed PMID 595606.

27: Blechschmidt E. [Error of the basic biogenetic law]. Fortschr Med. 1976 Mar 18;94(9):465-6, 492. German. PMID 964903.

28: Blechschmidt E. [Embryology today. New cognitions and perceptions]. Hippokrates. 1974 Mar;45(1):3-21. German. PMID 4846031.

29: Blechschmidt E. [The metabolic fields of the human ovum (current views on early human develop)]. Z Geburtshilfe Gynakol. 1968 Mar;168(2):143-55. German. PMID 5707278.

30: Blechschmidt E, Petersen D. [Early embryonic developmental movements of the human arm as a factor of possible malformations]. Ergeb Chir Orthop. 1967;49:62-111. German. PMID 6017719.

31: BLECHSCHMIDT E. [Recent contributions to dental histology]. Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1953 Jan 1;8(1):17-8. Undetermined Language. PMID 13051998.

32: BLECHSCHMIDT E, SCHUTZ W. [Marking by sublimation in a vacuum]. Anat Anz. 1951;97(Suppl.):177-8. Undetermined Language. PMID 14915090.

Virtual Human Embryo Project (VHE) is a production of the Computer Imaging Lab (CIL) in the Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy of LSU Health Sciences Center, New Orleans.