Difference between revisions of "Yolk Sac Development"

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===Meckel's Diverticulum===
 
===Meckel's Diverticulum===
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[[File:Meckel's diverticulum 01.jpg|200px]][[File:Meckel's diverticulum 02.jpg|200px]][[File:Meckel's diverticulum 03.jpg|200px]]
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This GIT abnormality is a very common (incidence of 1–2% in the general population) and results from improper closure and absorption of the {{omphalomesenteric duct}} ({{vitelline duct}}) in development. This transient developmental duct connects the yolk to the primitive gastrointestinal tract.
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In addition to Meckel's diverticulum there are a range of other vitelline duct abnormalities, which depend on the degree from a completely patent duct at the umbilicus to lesser remnants (cysts, fibrous cords connecting umbilicus to distal ileum, granulation tissue at umbilicus, or umbilical hernias).
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:'''Links:''' [[Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Abnormalities#Meckel.27s_Diverticulum|GIT Abnormalities - Meckel's Diverticulum]] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=155140 OMIM - Meckel's Diverticulum] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&term=Meckel's%20Diverticulum Pubmed - Meckel's Diverticulum] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&term=omphalomesenteric%20duct Pubmed - omphalomesenteric duct] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&term=vitelline%20duct Pubmed - vitelline duct]
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== References ==
 
== References ==

Revision as of 10:59, 28 October 2018

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Introduction

The yolk sac is an early extra-embryonic membrane which is endoderm origin and covered with extra-embryonic mesoderm. Yolk sac lies outside the embryo connected by a yolk stalk (vitelline duct, omphalomesenteric duct) to the midgut with which it forms a continuous connection. The endodermal lining is continuous with the endoderm of the gastrointestinal tract. The extra-embryonic mesoderm differentiates to form both blood and blood vessels of the vitelline system.

In reptiles and birds, the yolk sac has a function associated with nutrition. In mammals the yolk sac acts as a source of primordial germ cells and blood cells.

Note that in early human development (week 2) a transient structure called the "primitive yolk sac" forms from the hypoblast layer, this is an entirely different structure.

The yolk stalk normally degenerates around the time the midgut herniation is returned to the peritoneal cavity and the anterior body wall closes. Failure of complete degeneration of this structure can lead to a common intestinal abnormality, Meckel's diverticulum.


Coelom Links: Introduction | Lecture - Week 3 Development | Lecture - Mesoderm Development | Placenta - Membranes | Category:Coelomic Cavity
Historic Embryology: 1891 peritoneal | 1897 human coelom | 1910 | 1924 serous

Some Recent Findings

  • Review - Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis[1] "Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. ... Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle."
  • Embryo-fetal erythroid megaloblasts in the human coelomic cavity[2] "The coelomic cavity is part of the extraembryonic mesoderm, surrounding amniotic cavity, embryo, and yolk sac in the early gestation. It is now believed to represent an important transfer interface and a reservoir of nutrients for the embryo. Coelocentesis by ultrasound-guided transvaginal puncture offers an easier access to the early human embryo, from 28 days post-fertilization. However, despite some studies about its biochemical composition being reported, our knowledge about the presence of cellular elements and their quality in this compartment are still limited. Here we studied human coelomic fluids sampled from 6.6 (48 days) to 10 weeks of gestation, demonstrating the presence of functional embryonic erythroid precursors, that is, megaloblasts in the coelomic cavity."
More recent papers  
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<pubmed limit=5>Yolk Sac Development</pubmed>

Older papers  
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Development Overview

Week 8

Abnormalities

Meckel's Diverticulum

Meckel's diverticulum 01.jpgMeckel's diverticulum 02.jpgMeckel's diverticulum 03.jpg

This GIT abnormality is a very common (incidence of 1–2% in the general population) and results from improper closure and absorption of the omphalomesenteric duct (vitelline duct) in development. This transient developmental duct connects the yolk to the primitive gastrointestinal tract.


In addition to Meckel's diverticulum there are a range of other vitelline duct abnormalities, which depend on the degree from a completely patent duct at the umbilicus to lesser remnants (cysts, fibrous cords connecting umbilicus to distal ileum, granulation tissue at umbilicus, or umbilical hernias).


Links: GIT Abnormalities - Meckel's Diverticulum | OMIM - Meckel's Diverticulum | Pubmed - Meckel's Diverticulum | Pubmed - omphalomesenteric duct | Pubmed - vitelline duct


References

  1. Ariza L, Carmona R, Cañete A, Cano E & Muñoz-Chápuli R. (2016). Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis. Dev. Dyn. , 245, 307-22. PMID: 26638186 DOI.
  2. Renda MC, Giambona A, Fecarotta E, Leto F, Makrydimas G, Renda D, Damiani G, Jakil MC, Picciotto F, Piazza A, Valtieri M & Maggio A. (2010). Embryo-fetal erythroid megaloblasts in the human coelomic cavity. J. Cell. Physiol. , 225, 385-9. PMID: 20533375 DOI.


Reviews

Ariza L, Carmona R, Cañete A, Cano E & Muñoz-Chápuli R. (2016). Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis. Dev. Dyn. , 245, 307-22. PMID: 26638186 DOI.

Articles

Funayama N, Sato Y, Matsumoto K, Ogura T & Takahashi Y. (1999). Coelom formation: binary decision of the lateral plate mesoderm is controlled by the ectoderm. Development , 126, 4129-38. PMID: 10457021


Search PubMed

Search Pubmed: Coelomic Cavity Development | pericardial cavity development | pleural cavity development | peritoneal cavity development

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Terms

yolk stalk, vitelline duct, omphalomesenteric duct

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 12) Embryology Yolk Sac Development. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Yolk_Sac_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G