Vision - Retina Development

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Adult Retina

Vertebrates have ten identifiable layers formed from neurons, their processes (nerve fibers), membranes, photoreceptors and pigmented cells. Light must pass through nearly all these layers to the photoreceptors.

  1. Inner limiting membrane - Müller cell footplates.
  2. Nerve fiber layer - retinal ganglion axons eventually the optic nerve.
  3. Ganglion cell layer - neuronal cell bodies of retinal ganglion cells, their axons form the nerve fiber layer and eventually the optic nerve.
  4. Inner plexiform layer - another layer of neuronal processes.
  5. Inner nuclear layer - neuronal cell bodies
  6. Outer plexiform layer - another layer of neuronal processes.
  7. Outer nuclear layer - neuronal cell bodies
  8. External limiting membrane - layer separating inner segment portions of photoreceptors from their cell nuclei.
  9. Photoreceptor layer - rods and cones that convert light into signals.
  10. Retinal pigment epithelium.