From Embryology

Adrenal Gland and Neural Crest Cells

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Reference List

Walls ML & Hart RJ. (2018). In vitro maturation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol , , . PMID: 30056110 DOI.

In vitro maturation recent article [1]

Neuropore cell shape changes.png

Neuropore cell shape changes[2]

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  1. Walls ML & Hart RJ. (2018). In vitro maturation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol , , . PMID: 30056110 DOI.
  2. Shinotsuka N, Yamaguchi Y, Nakazato K, Matsumoto Y, Mochizuki A & Miura M. (2018). Caspases and matrix metalloproteases facilitate collective behavior of non-neural ectoderm after hindbrain neuropore closure. BMC Dev. Biol. , 18, 17. PMID: 30064364 DOI.

Assessment - Peer Review


History of research is short, notes a few important researchers, lacks when melanocytes were connected to neural crest derivatives. It also lacks the knowledge of the role melanocytes play in human physiology and how that has changed, connection to Vitamin D synthesis and the history of the role melanocytes play in pathology could also be added.

Tissue Organ Structure and Function - Skin is completely missing, no images or text to be seen. Ear is well explained both in writing and images, understanding of chemical mediation in the adult has been elucidated, no reference to physiological role of the ear and how it achieves it, it would not have to be long. Figure 2 refers to Wv/Wv mutant, what is a Wv/Wv mutant? There is no explanation of this mutant model, whether it is in humans or animals, or why it is important etc. Eyes section notes the combined role of neural-crest derived cells and neuroepithelium of optic cup, explains the layers of the eye nicely within the associated image of Figure 4, which has been correctly formatted and cited. The heart section simply shows an image of a cardiac melanocyte, there should be more here. The CNS topic is short, but it does note the understanding of a role of melanocytes in CNS, but nothing more about how neural crest cells help with giving melanocytes to the CNS, the image is a nice overview of the skull and layers of the scalp.

Embryonic origins, Developmental time course and Molecular Mechanisms / Factors / Genes are all blank, with no images to be seen.

Reference to a mouse model can be seen in the Animal models section, are there other models in other species of mouse mutant that can observe melanocyte embryology? Mention of the melanoma model of genetically-engineered mice is good, but how does it relate to neural crest abnormality?

Current Research explains 2 new systems to observe melanocytes, this section could show findings and how they're important - could be longer. Abnormalities listed are short, some missing entirely, more focus on which are more common could be noted due to the vast nature of melanocytes. Glossary is nice but incomplete, and there are a sufficient number of references.


Introduction - Short but does nicely explain some of the important aspects of cardiogenesis, the sentences could be ordered more cleanly and could allude to more than just animal models and their connection to neural crest and DiGeorge Syndrome in humans. History of knowledge of cardiogenesis maybe?

Development of the Cardiovascular System - Could possibly be retitled? (There is no mention of peripheral vasculature that is a part of the cardiovascular system, you have simply referred to cardiogenesis: the formation of the heart). The developmental timecourse is good at explaining the important events in cardiogenesis and what weeks they correspond to. The embedded video is also good, but is quite long at 9 minutes.

Cardiac Neural Crest Cells - This is a good introduction to the specific neural crest population that contribute to cardiogenesis. However, there are a few issues with sentence formatting, grammar and referencing that could be cleaned up. The mention of neural crest's pluropotentiality is perfect in understanding how the different tissue types of the valvular structures arise, so that is definitely a strong point of the section.

Early Development - Very good, key chemical mediators are mentioned, could more be explained about what they are and how they relate to neural crest specifically? An explanation on the circumpharyngeal ridge would also be welcomed.

Later Development - Very nice partitioning diagram, Valvulogenesis section could be longer, it is very important. The same can be said for Atrial and Ventricular Separation.

Signalling Molecules - Good overview, more links to literature would be appreciated than just Meis-2, more could be added if necessary to discussion.

Developmental Time Course appears incomplete, this needs to be more specific.

Abnormalities - Seem quite well discussed, formatting needs some work as well as general cleaning with references, diagrams of a histology section or relevant macroscopic specimen would be welcome here to understand the pathology and how it relates to the embryology.

Research - Same as above, but there seems to be less information as well: there needs to be more content, directed referencing, images if necessary, and specific examples of mutant, knock-out or other genetically-engineered models to observe these embryological findings. There is good mention of the different animal models that are used to observe cardiogenesis (mouse, fish and chicken) but otherwise, it needs some work.

Glossary and References - Very few current references at the bottom, I assume this is because the bulk of them have not been formatted correctly, most appear to be from research literature and medical science journals, no current glossary might be an issue if there are many acronyms.

Dorsal Root Ganglia

History - empty, try and look for history of spinal nerve embryological discoveries as a potential starting point!

Embryonic Origins - good information, nice to read, but try and clean up the syntax just a little bit.

Developmental Process - Very clean and finished section with a thorough understanding of chemical mediators, overarching anatomy and embryological concepts.

Axonal Targeting - Try cleaning up the second sentence on Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, very good section otherwise.

Neuron Development - Good description of chemical mediators and their involvement in embryological processes

Glial Development - Also very good, as above. Consider adding a diagram or table, to simplify the knowledge into something your classmates can easily comprehend.

Adult Function - Could be mixed in with Tissue structure as one topic, otherwise both are good and set the stage of adult role & neurophysiology well.

Molecular Mechanisms - Fantastic all-round, not very much to fault, just try and preen up sentences here and there and proof-read, consider adding a little more information in a few sections, but only what would be necessary for the specific embryology.

Abnormalities, Animal Models and Current Research - All very well done, try simplifying some of the sentences occasionally.

References - Very good as well.